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053013 pv system site assessment (1)

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053013 pv system site assessment (1)

  1. 1. PV System Site Assessment#SolarMOOCSolPowerPeople, Inc.May 30, 2013w/ Sarah RaymerAKA Ms. MOOCNABCEP Certified PV installation ProfessionalCertificate #: 042013-107
  2. 2. Solar Resource:● What is the solar energy productionpotential for the location?● How does the specific site effect theinstallation - production and installationwise?● Customer assessment: What does thecustomer expect and want?Solar Site Assessmentobjectives:
  3. 3. ● Solar Resource:○ Latitude○ solar sun path charts○ Altitude and Azimuth - sun and array positioning● Site Specific Practical:○ Shading - Solar Pathfinder or Suneye○ Mounting methods and locations○ Component locations and wire runs○ Electrical service - new construction or retrofit○ Roof or soil conditionsSolar Resource and SiteAnalysis
  4. 4. Solar resource"It depends."
  5. 5. Solar resourceDoes the sun shine?● What does data say for location?○ Latitude, solar sun path charts■ Azimuth - position relative to South■ Altitude - how high in the sky● What is the weather/air like?○ wind patterns○ rainfall○ pollution
  6. 6. Latitude has anincredible influence onthe available solarresource.
  7. 7. Location - Latitude
  8. 8. Location - LatitudeSun strike, wind/weather patterns, elevation
  9. 9. Peak Sun Hour (PSH) DataResource Tables
  10. 10. Austin, Texas:84 days rainfall average229 sunny days/year30º Latitude489 ft. AltitudeFrankfurt, Germany:111 days rainfall average1,586 hours sun/year51ºN Latitude364 Ft. AltitudeLatitudeGermany:2011: 69,6842012: 102,024USA:2011: 4,3832012: 7,665MWp Peak Power Capacity (installed, not resource)
  11. 11. Kenya:13 - 71 days rainfall3,579 Hours/year0º Latitude6000 Ft. AltitudeSydney:155 days rainfall235 sunny days/year39ºS Latitude128 Ft. AltitudeKenya:Australia:2011: 1,2982012: 2,291South Africa:2011: 412012: NAMWp Peak Power Capacity (installed, not resource)Latitude
  12. 12. Location and LatitudeSun strike, wind/weather patterns, elevation
  13. 13. Berlin, Germany:111 days rainfall average1,586 hours sun/year51ºN Latitude114 Ft. AltitudeGermany:2011: 69,6842012: 102,024
  14. 14. Austin, Texas:84 days rainfall average229 Sunny Days/year30º Latitude489 ft. AltitudeUSA:2011: 4,3832012: 7,665
  15. 15. Kenya:13 - 71 days rainfall3,579 Hours/year (325 days)0º Latitude6000 Ft. AltitudeSouth Africa: 2011: 412012: NA
  16. 16. Sydney:155 days rainfall235 sunny days/year39ºS Latitude128 Ft. AltitudeAustralia:2011: 1,2982012: 2,291
  17. 17. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment:http://maps.nrel.gov/sweraOther examples:Indonesia is practically at the equator, yet thesolar resource is fairly poor because it rainsthere SOO much.
  18. 18. Other examples:Hawaii- 10 climate zones in 4000 square miles
  19. 19. Azimuth and altitude of thesun and array dramaticallyaffect the ability to maximizea locations natural solarresource.graphic from: astronomy21st.blogspot.com** Note: mostlyusing Northernhemisphere forexamples.
  20. 20. http://www.solarfeeds.com/The solar window is defined by the solar altitude and solarazimuth.
  21. 21. A sun path chart is a graphic representation of the solarwindow that gives precise data regarding the exactlocation of the sun at all times of the year.
  22. 22. 9AM - 3PM68ºHow do you read a sun path chart?
  23. 23. 68º - Solar altitude angle on June 21summer solstice
  24. 24. 22º
  25. 25. 22º - Solar altitude angle on December 21stwinter solstice
  26. 26. Yellow Sun = Sunrise in WinterRed Sun = Sunset in SummerSouth = 0º+/- 180º90º- 90ºWENWESolarWindow
  27. 27. Solar anglesSouth = 0º+/- 180º90º- 90ºWENWE??
  28. 28. Solar anglesSouth = 0º+/- 180º90º- 90ºWENWESolar AzimuthAngleSolar altitudeangle
  29. 29. 40º E9AM, Dec 21
  30. 30. SNWE40º E solar azimuth9AM, Dec 2140º
  31. 31. -34ºW1PM, June 21
  32. 32. SNW E-34º W1PM, June 2134º
  33. 33. S0ºE90ºW-90ºN-/+ 180ºWhat is the azimuth angle of each array?Which one will produce the most in the morning?Which one will produce the most in the evening???Array azimuth
  34. 34. S0ºE90ºW-90ºN-/+ 180ºWhat is the azimuth angle of each array?(At what angle does it face in reference toSouth?)40ºWor -4050ºE
  35. 35. S0ºEWN-/+ 180ºWhich one will produce the most in the morning?Which one will produce the most in the evening?40ºWor -4050ºE
  36. 36. S0ºEWN-/+ 180ºWhich one will produce the most in the morning?Which one will produce the most in the evening?40ºWor -4050ºEWill do best in the AM, when Sun is in the Eastern skyWill do best in the PM, when Sun is in the Western skyWill most often do best of all
  37. 37. In an environment that experiences rain inthe morning fairly regularly, but that clearsup around noon with clear skies on into theevening, what would be the ideal direction(azimuth) relative to South for the array toface?
  38. 38. In an environment that experiences rain inthe morning fairly regularly, but that clearsup around noon with clear skies on into theevening, what would be the ideal direction(azimuth) relative to South for the array toface?The sun rises in the E, and sets in the W.The array should face towards an azimuththat is slightly west of south.This will allow for optimization of afternoonsun, after the skies clear.
  39. 39. S0ºE90ºW-90ºN-/+ 180ºA home has a roof that is shade free with anazimuth of 103º. Will this work for a solar array?
  40. 40. S0ºE90ºW-90ºA home has a roof that is shade free with anazimuth of 103º. Will this work for a solar array?Would this work?N-/+ 180º
  41. 41. S0ºE90ºW-90ºA home has a roof that is shade free with anazimuth of 103º. Will this work for a solar array?It wouldnt be good.N-/+ 180º
  42. 42. When does it make sense to havean array face North?For example, on the back side fo this house?
  43. 43. When does it make sense to havean array face North?In the Northern Hemisphere-NEVER.In the southern Hemisphere-ALWAYS.
  44. 44. http://131.91.162.18/nasa/module-3/why-does-temperature-vary/angle-of-the-sunDirect vs. Indirect Solar radiationwider area and more atmosphere to pass through
  45. 45. http://www.astronomy.org/programs/seasons/
  46. 46. SummerWinter
  47. 47. The angle of incidence is essentially the angle thatdefines how far you are away from a direct line fromthe sun.The larger the incidence angle, the less solarradiation/photons will strike the surface.solar altitude anglerelative to roof
  48. 48. http://naturalfrequency.com/wiki/insolationAltitude angle + incidence angle = 90º
  49. 49. Incidence angle: It is best to face thesolar rays for most direct absorptionof photons.Hence- arrays facing South, (NorthernHemisphere), TILTED at latitude.
  50. 50. blog.civitasenergy.comModule should be tilted so that the Incidence angle is at 90ºto the suns rays (set at tilt angle equal to latitude).If possible:Winter- tilt up 15º (Latitude + 15) because of lower solaraltitude angleSummer- tilt back 15º (Latitude - 15) because of greatersolar altitude angle
  51. 51. Incidence angle: It is best to face the solar raysfor most direct absorption of photons.Hence- arrays facing South, (NorthernHemisphere), TILTED at latitude.
  52. 52. Peak Sun Hour (PSH) DataResource Tables
  53. 53. Site specific detailsWill it work on my house?"It depends."
  54. 54. Site specific details○ Shading○ Mounting methods andlocations○ Roof or soil conditions○ Component locations andwire runs○ Electrical service - newconstruction or retrofit
  55. 55. http://wiki.naturalfrequency.com/wiki/Shadow_AnglesSolarAzimutheffectsonShading
  56. 56. ShadingConsider shadows cast by objects such astrees, wires, ducts, antennae, etc. as well asseasonal lighting concerns.
  57. 57. SolarPro Article:Q & A Calculating Inter-Rowspacing#SolarMOOC Lecture:http://solpowerpeople.com/inter-row-shading/
  58. 58. Solar Pathfindersolarpathfinder.com
  59. 59. Solmetric SunEye:More advancedshade analysisGPS built insoftware thatallows a shadinganalysis to becreated to shared
  60. 60. There are many smartphoneapps for shading analysis aswell:Sun Surveyor (android)SunSeeker (iPhone)(each app is about about $2 - $5)SolarPro article:iPhone Apps for Solar Geeks
  61. 61. Magnetic DeclinationEastern Declination Western declination
  62. 62. Magnetic Declination180 - (MD) = True SMAGNETIC Declination is theangle between the direction onthe compass and True South (orNorth.Compass needles is affected bymagnetic core of the Earth.*GPS devices preconfigured!*Change every few years,slightly.West Coast:+15º180º - (15º) = 165ºEast Coast:-15º180º - (-15º) = 195º
  63. 63. West Coast-western declination:+15º180º - (15º) = 165ºCompass tell you S is W of what itreally is.East Coast-eastern declination:-15º180º - (-15º) = 195ºCompass tell you S is E of what itreally is.
  64. 64. Mounting methods and locations:● Consider latitude● Consider tilt● Consider shadingBut also:Electrical service, system integration,placement of componentsOptions:roof mount, ground mount, pole mount
  65. 65. Roof Assessment
  66. 66. EquipmentLocations
  67. 67. What is their vision and ultimate desire?● What is their motivation (selling points)● Determine energy usage andexpected/desired offset (size/$)● Do they want a roof or a ground mountsystem?● What are their preferences visually?Customer Assessment:
  68. 68. Energy usage and offsetEnergy Audit:http://youtu.be/YolBP0-vkBURecommend reductions in use ( highest valuefor customer / of system)Consider adding EA to your skills set as aninstaller/team or partnering with an AEcompany (value to installer)
  69. 69. Location and Visuals:Will primarily depend on availability ofshade-free area, but specific preferencescould play into decision.● Shading● Roof condition● Safety and code● Costs (and rebates)● Architectural appearance, aesthetics andcolor
  70. 70. Indiegogo Campaign:Online Solar School Developmenthttp://www.indiegogo.com/projects/online-solar-school-development?c=homehttp://www.indiegogo.com/projects/online-solar-school-development?c=gallery
  71. 71. Sarah Raymersraymer@solpowerpeople.comDirector of Education and TrainingServicesSolPowerPeople, Inc.NABCEP Certified PVInstallation ProfessionalCertificate #042013-107

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