W hat you need to know about aids


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W hat you need to know about aids

  1. 1. HIV-AIDS overview know it now
  2. 2. Is HIV and AIDS the same thing?
  3. 3. HIV <ul><li>“ Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome” </li></ul><ul><li>A specific type of virus (a retrovirus) </li></ul><ul><li>HIV invades the helper T cells to replicate itself. </li></ul><ul><li>No Cure </li></ul>
  4. 4. AIDS <ul><li>Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>HIV is the virus that causes AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection </li></ul><ul><li>A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system </li></ul><ul><li>No Cure </li></ul>
  5. 5. New HIV Infections in 2002 by Age Group
  6. 6. Four Stages of HIV
  7. 7. Stage 1 - Primary <ul><li>Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection </li></ul><ul><li>no symptoms at all </li></ul><ul><li>Infected person can infect other people </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stage 2 - Asymptomatic <ul><li>Lasts for an average of ten years </li></ul><ul><li>This stage is free from symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>There may be swollen glands </li></ul><ul><li>The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels </li></ul><ul><li>HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stage 3 - Symptomatic <ul><li>The symptoms are mild </li></ul><ul><li>The immune system deteriorates </li></ul><ul><li>emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stage 4 - HIV  AIDS <ul><li>The immune system weakens </li></ul><ul><li>The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS <ul><li>Bacterial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis (TB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strep pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kaposi Sarcoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herpes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza (flu) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS <ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumocystis carinii </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Candida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptococcus </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission
  14. 14. Through Bodily Fluids <ul><li>Blood products </li></ul><ul><li>Semen </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Breast Milk </li></ul>
  15. 15. Through IV Drug Use <ul><li>Sharing Needles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without sterilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increases the chances of contracting HIV </li></ul>
  16. 16. Through Sex <ul><li>Intercourse (penile penetration into the vagina) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul><ul><li>Anal </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Sex </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mother-to-Baby <ul><li>Before Birth </li></ul><ul><li>During Birth </li></ul><ul><li>Postpartum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the birth </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Testing Options for HIV
  19. 19. Anonymous Testing <ul><li>No name is used </li></ul><ul><li>Unique identifying number </li></ul><ul><li>Results issued only to test recipient </li></ul>23659874515 Anonymous
  20. 20. Confidential Testing <ul><li>Person’s name is recorded along with HIV results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name and positive results are reported to the State Department and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results issued only to test recipient </li></ul>
  21. 21. Administration <ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Urine </li></ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul>
  22. 22. Blood Detection Tests <ul><li>Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA/EIA) </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) </li></ul><ul><li>Western Blot Confirmatory test </li></ul>
  23. 23. Urine Testing <ul><li>Urine Western Blot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As sensitive as testing blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe way to screen for HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause false positives in certain people at high risk for HIV </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Oral Testing <ul><li>Orasure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The only FDA approved HIV antibody. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As accurate as blood testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draws blood-derived fluids from the gum tissue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT A SALIVA TEST! </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Counseling
  26. 26. Pre-test Counseling <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary & Confidential </li></ul><ul><li>Reportability of Positive Test Results </li></ul>
  27. 27. Post-test Counseling <ul><li>Clarifies test results </li></ul><ul><li>Need for additional testing </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of safe behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Release of results </li></ul>
  28. 28. Treatment Options
  29. 29. Antiretroviral Drugs <ul><li>Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AZT (Zidovudine) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viramune (Nevirapine) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protease inhibitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norvir (Ritonavir) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Opportunistic Infection Treatment <ul><li>Issued in an event where antiretroviral drugs are not available </li></ul>
  31. 31. Four ways to protect yourself? <ul><li>Abstinence </li></ul><ul><li>Monogamous Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Protected Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile needles </li></ul>
  32. 33. Abstinence <ul><li>It is the only 100 % effective method of not acquiring HIV/AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Refraining from sexual contact: oral, anal, or vaginal. </li></ul><ul><li>Refraining from intravenous drug use </li></ul>
  33. 34. Monogamous relationship <ul><li>A mutually monogamous (only one sex partner) relationship with a person who is not infected with HIV </li></ul><ul><li>HIV testing before intercourse is necessary to prove your partner is not infected </li></ul>
  34. 35. Protected Sex <ul><li>Use condoms (female or male) every time you have sex (vaginal or anal) </li></ul><ul><li>Always use latex or polyurethane condom (not a natural skin condom) </li></ul><ul><li>Always use a latex barrier during oral sex </li></ul>
  35. 36. When Using A Condom Remember To: <ul><li>Make sure the package is not expired </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure to check the package for damages </li></ul><ul><li>Do not open the package with your teeth for risk of tearing </li></ul><ul><li>Never use the condom more than once </li></ul><ul><li>Use water-based rather than oil-based condoms </li></ul>
  36. 37. Sterile Needles <ul><li>If a needle/syringe or cooker is shared, it must be disinfected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill the syringe with undiluted bleach and wait at least 30 seconds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thoroughly rinse with water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do this between each person’s use </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Needle Exchange Program <ul><li>Non-profit Organization, which provides sterile needles in exchange for contaminated ones </li></ul>
  38. 39. ANY QUestions?