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8 fighter aircraft avionics-part i


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8 fighter aircraft avionics-part i

  1. 1. Fighter Aircraft Avionics Part I SOLO HERMELIN Updated: 04.04.13 1
  2. 2. Table of Content SOLO Fighter Aircraft Avionics 2 Introduction Jet Fighter Generations First generation (1945-1955) Second Generation (1950-1965) Third Generation (1965-1975) Fourth Generation (1970-2010) 4.5Generation Fifth Generation (1995 - 2025) Aircraft Avionics Cockpit Displays Communication (internal and external) Data Entry and Control Flight Control Third Generation Avionics Fourth Generation Avionics 4.5Generation Avionics Fifth Generation Avionics
  3. 3. Table of Content (continue – 1) SOLO Fighter Aircraft Avionics Aircraft Propulsion System Earth Atmosphere Flight Instruments Power Generation System Environmental Control System Aircraft Aerodynamics Fuel System Jet Engine Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing (VSTOL) Engine Control System Flight Management System Aircraft Flight Control Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces Aircraft Flight Control Examples Fighter Aircraft Avionics II
  4. 4. Table of Content (continue – 2) SOLO 4 Fighter Aircraft Avionics Equations of Motion of an Air Vehicle in Ellipsoidal Earth Atmosphere Fighter Aircraft Weapon System Safety Procedures Tracking Systems Aircraft Sensors Airborne Radars Infrared/Optical Systems Electronic Warfare Air-to-Ground Missions Bombs Air-to-Surface Missiles (ASM) or Air-to-Ground Missiles (AGM) Fighter Aircraft Weapon Examples Air-to-Air Missiles (AAM) Fighter Gun Aircraft Flight Performance Navigation Part II References Avionics IV Avionics III
  5. 5. Introduction SOLO 5 Aircraft Avionics helps the Pilot to perform all Aircraft Tasks, from the Power-On through Taxiing to Take off, Taking off, Flying and performing the Required Missions , and finally Landing and Taxing from Landing. A Fighter Aircraft has additional tasks, to deliver its Weapons, to Defend itself from Incoming Threats, and to perform Surveillance Tasks. All those tasks are performed by a Single Pilot or in some cases Two Pilots. Therefore the Fighter Avionics is adapted to enable to performs the Pilot/s Multitasks. The Fighter Aircraft Avionics can be in one of the three Modes: Navigation (NAV), Air-to-Air (A/A), Air-to-Ground (A/G). Fighter Aircraft Avionics Return to TOC
  6. 6. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Various features in jet fighters are described in terms of "generations", whereby a typical jet fighter of a given generation tends to have a certain class of engines, avionics, etc., and a typical jet fighter of the succeeding generation tends to have a different (and superior) set of engines, avionics, etc. First generation (1945-1955) This generation encompasses all early jet fighters up to and including those used in the Korean War. The early models are similar in construction to their propellor driven predecessors with 1st and 2nd generation turbojets for power. The first operational fighters were the German Messerschmitt Me 262 and British Gloster Meteor during World War II.During the Korean War, the first air combat between jet fighters took place when MiG 15 and F-86 Sabre met. Messerschmitt Me 262 Gloster Meteor MiG 15 North American F-86 Sabre 6
  7. 7. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations generation (1953-1960) generation (1960-1970) generation (1970-2000) 7 Return to TOC
  8. 8. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Second Generation (1950-1965) These jet fighters started to regularly use onboard radar and passive-homing infrared-guided (IR) missiles. Early IR missile sensors had poor sensitivity and a very narrow field of view (typically no more than 30°) Mirage III MIG 17 Hawker Hunters MIG 21 MIG 19 Sukhoi Su - 7 Armament •Guns •Rockets: •Missiles: •Bombs: Dumb Bombs. Sensors •Radar (A/A Boresight Range) •Gyro Lead Computing Optical Sight (LCOS) •INS, TACAN, LORAN C •Radio Communication North American F-100 Super Sabre Convair F-102 Delta Dagger Lockheed F-104 Starfighter 8 Return to TOC
  9. 9. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Third Generation (1965-1975) The archetype of this generation is the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, the US jet fighter model with the highest production number to date. • improved air-to-air missiles • improved (analog) radar systems (A/A and A/G Modes) • other avionics (analog) • guns remained standard equipment • air-to-air missiles became the primary weapons for air superiority fighters, which employed more sophisticated radars and medium-range RF AAMs (AIM 7 Sparrow) to achieve greater "stand-off" ranges, • guided ground-attack missiles (Anti Radar Missiles ARM: AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-88 HARM) • first truly effective avionics (analog) for enhanced ground attack • terrain-avoidance systems. • Air-to-surface missiles (ASM) equipped with electro-optical (E-O) contrast seekers – such as the initial model of the widely used AGM-65 Maverick – became standard weapons • laser-guided bombs (LGBs) became widespread 9 Return to TOC
  10. 10. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fourth Generation (1970-2010) Fourth-generation designs are heavily influenced by lessons learned from the previous generation of combat aircraft. They include the Teen Series (F-14, F-15, F-16 and F-18) group of Jet Fghters. • much higher maneuverability due to low static stability, made possible by fly-by-wire flight control system (F-16) • advances in digital computers and system integration techniques • system upgrades, digital avionics buses and IRST Mikoyan MiG-29 Mikoyan MiG-31 Foxhound Sukhoi Su-27 Grumman F-14 Tomcat McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet Saab 37 Viggen Panavia Tornado British Aerospace Harrier II 10
  11. 11. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fourth Generation (1970-2010) 11 The Fourth Generation has been characterized by significant evolutionary growth in several areas of basic technologies: • Microwave Semiconductors • Phased Array • Radar Imaging Algorithms • Passive Microwave Targeting • High Density Semiconductors • Computation Capabilities • Flat Panel Displays • Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD) • Infra red and Optical Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) • GPS and Navigation • Supercruising Turbofan Propulsion • Radar Signature Control (Stealth) • Sensor Fusion
  12. 12. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fourth Generation (1970-2010) F-16 Armament • Guns: 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan 6-barreled gatling cannon, 511 rounds • Hardpoints: 2× wing-tip Air-to-air missile launch rails, 6× under- wing & 3× under-fuselage pylon stations holding up to 17,000 lb (7,700 kg) of payload • Rockets: 4× LAU-61/LAU-68 rocket pods (each with 19× /7× Hydra 70 mm rockets, respectively) or 4× LAU-5003 rocket pods (each with 19× CRV7 70 mm rockets) or 4× LAU-10 rocket pods (each with 4× Zuni 127 mm rockets) • Missiles: Air-to-air missiles: 2× AIM-7 Sparrow or 6× AIM-9 Sidewinder or 6× IRIS-T or 6× AIM-120 AMRAAM or 6× Python-4/5 Air-to-ground missiles: 6× AGM-45 Shrike or 6× AGM-65 Maverick or 4× AGM-88 HARM Anti-ship missiles: 2× AGM-84 Harpoon or 4× AGM-119 Penguin F-15Armament • Guns: 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan 6-barreled gatling cannon, 940 rounds • Hardpoints: Total 11 (not including CFTs): two under- wing (each with additional two missile launch rails), four under-fuselage (for semi-recessed carriage of AIM-7 Sparrows) and a single centerline pylon station, optional fuselage pylons (which may include conformal fuel tanks, known initially as Fuel And Sensor Tactical (FAST) pack for use on the C model) with a capacity of 16,000 lb (7,300 kg) and provisions to carry combinations of: • Missiles: AIM-7 Sparrow AIM-120 AMRAAM AIM-9 Sidewinder Python • Other: up to 3× 600 US gallons (2,300 L) external drop tanks for ferry flight or extended range/loitering time. MXU-648 Cargo/Travel Pod – to carry personal belongings, and small pieces of maintenance equipment 12
  13. 13. 13 SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fourth Generation (1970-2010) 1. AIM-9 2. AIM-7 3. AIM-120 4. ALQ-131 5. IR sensors, radar for low flying 6. up 25 Mk 82 7. Mk 84 8. Paveway II or GBU-15 9. Paveway II or GBU-15 10. up 17 Mk 82 11. AGM-65 12. fuel tank 370 gal 13. fuel tank 300 gal 14. fuel tank 600 gal F-16 Armament
  14. 14. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fourth Generation (1970-2010) Su-30 Armament The Su-27PU had 8 hardpoints for its weapon load, whereas the Su- 30MK's combat load is mounted on 12 hardpoints: 2 wingtip AAM launch rails, 3 pylons under each wing, 1 pylon under each engine nacelle, and 2 pylons in tandem in the "arch" between the engines. All versions can carry up to 8 tonnes of external stores. • Guns: 1 × GSh-30-1 gun (30 mm calibre, 150 rounds) • AAMs: 6 × R-27ER1 (AA-10C), 2 × R-27ET1 (AA-10D), 6 × R-73E (AA-11), 6 × R-77 RVV-AE (AA-12) • ASMs: 6 × Kh-31P/Kh-31A anti-radar missiles, 6 × Kh-29T/L laser guided missiles, 2 × Kh-59ME • Aerial bombs: 6 × KAB 500KR, 3 × KAB-1500KR, 8 × FAB-500T, 28 × OFAB-250-270, nuclear bombs Su-35 Armament • 1 × 30 mm GSh-30 internal cannon with 150 rounds • 2 × wingtip rails for R-73 air-to-air missiles or ECM pods • 12 × wing and fuselage stations for up to 8,000 kg (17,630 lb) of ordnance, including a variety of air-to-air missiles, air-to-surface missiles, rockets, and bombs such as: • Vympel R-27: R-27R, R-27ER, R-27T, R-27ET, R-27EP, R-27AE • Vympel R-77: R-77, and the proposed R-77M1, R-77T • Vympel R-73: R-73E, R-73M, R-74M • Kh-31: Kh-31A, Kh-31P Anti-Radiation Missile • Kh-59 • Kh-29: Kh-29T, Kh-29L • KAB-500L laser-guided bomb • KAB-1500 laser-guided bomb • LGB-250 laser-guided bomb • FAB-250 250 kilograms (550 lb) unguided bombs • FAB-500 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) unguided bombs • S-25LD laser-guided rocket, S-250 unguided rocket • B-8 unguided S-8 rocket pods • B-13 unguided S-13 rocket pods 14 Return to TOC
  15. 15. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations 4.5Generation The United States Government defines 4.5 generation fighter aircraft as fourth generation jet fighters that have been upgraded with AESA radar, high capacity data-link, enhanced avionics, and "the ability to deploy current and reasonably foreseeable advanced armaments Mikoyan MiG-35 Sukhoi Su-30 Sukhoi Su-33 Sukhoi Su-34 Sukhoi Su-35 Sukhoi Su-37 Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet McDonnell Douglas F15E Eagle Strike Saab JAS 39 Gripen Dassault Rafale Eurofighter Typhoon 15 Return to TOC
  16. 16. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fifth Generation (1995 - 2025) • General design concern about radar cross-section (RCS), in particular: • chines instead of standard leading edge extensions or canards • internal weapon bays instead of outboard weapon pylons • a high percentage of composite materials (also to reduce weight) • commercial off-the-shelf main processors to directly control all sensors to form a consolidated view of the battlespace that is then shared via low observable data links. • newest generation of high performance jet engines 16
  17. 17. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fifth Generation (1995 - 2025) Synergy of stealth, super-cruise and information fusion for complete situational awareness are the attributes of fifth generation fighter aircraft. If one were to classify modern advanced fighters in the order of performance, fifth generation fighter aircraft (FGFAs) would clearly lead the pack. They represent a class of their own. However, technologies involved are so advanced and resources required so substantial that so far only the United States has been able to field a state-ofthe-art operational fifth generation fighter in its F-22, the Raptor. The US is also in the lead to develop a smaller size joint strike fighter (JSF) F-35 Lightening II the other claimant to that pedigree and which is slated to form the backbone of not only the US Air Force (USAF) but also the US Navy in its carrier-borne avatar and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) version for the US marines. Technical complexity and high costs have encouraged like-minded nations to form consortia to share risks and costs. For the F-35, while the United States is the primary customer and financial backer, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Canada, Turkey, Australia, Norway and Denmark, have all contributed towards the development costs of the programme with individual acquisition plans 17
  18. 18. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fifth Generation (1995 - 2025) Russia, which came on the scene more than a decade later, is testing its own FGFA —the PAK-FA—on its own. The program has now evolved into a Russia-India joint venture with Sukhoi and the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) sharing risks and costs. Not to be outdone, China surprised the entire global military aviation community by launching the maiden flight early last year of its own version of fifth generation aircraft, code-named the J-20. India too, in addition to the Indo-Russian joint PAK-FA program, has its own FGFA program in the form of medium combat aircraft (MCA), but it is still on the drawing board. Therefore, the number of countries which are engaged in developing their own fifth generation fighters remains limited. J-20 PAK-FA 18
  19. 19. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Fifth Generation (1995 - 2025) Attributes of FGFA: A comparison What are the characteristics and attributes that separate the FGFA from the other fighters and how do the current FGFAs compare with each other? Broadly the idea can be summed up as synergy of stealth, super- cruise and information fusion for complete situational awareness. 1. Stealth Of all attributes, “stealth” or low observability is perhaps the most important defining characteristic of a FGFA. It is low visibility against the entire spectrum of sensors including radar, infrared, acoustic and even visual which yields a stealth fighter the edge that nullifies many other performance advantages that the adversary might enjoy. By outwitting all defences during the opening phases of the first Gulf War in 1991, F-117A Nighthawk (the first fighter with stealth as its predominant strength) brought home dramatically the exponential value addition of this attribute. However, in achieving low visibility, it had to sacrifice important performance parameters of speed and manoeuvrability, thus leaving a window of vulnerability, should it get detected. F-22 Raptor and other aircraft in the fifth generation stable have overcome this limitation to varying degrees. For example, in manoeuvre performance, a F-22 Raptor in dry power matches or exceeds F-15C in afterburner regime. Low observability in FGFAs is achieved by a combination aerodynamic tailoring, usage of composite materials which help both in reducing weight as well as in radar reflectivity, shaping intake ducts to prevent radar echoes from the highly reflective compressor and turbine faces and a host of other techniques which helps to reduce its footprint. Earlier stealth designs (like the B-2 spirit bomber radar and Night Hawk F-117A) used absorbent materials and coatings extensively to absorb the incident radar energy. However, they were maintenance-intensive and required climate-controlled hangars to protect their stealth coatings. Aerodynamic refinements now have reduced reliance on this method of signature control. Weapons carriage on external pylons, a major contributor to the radar cross-section (RCS) of all fighters, has been replaced by provisioning of internal weapon bays, thus maintaining the sleek stealthy airframe lines except for brief moments of weapon release. Close attention to detail has resulted in a virtually noiseless aircraft with very little thermal, acoustic or radar signature.. 19
  20. 20. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Attributes of FGFA: A comparison (continue – 1) Stealth (continue) For instance while the exact radar cross section of the F-22 in various aspects remains classified, in early 2009, Lockheed Martin revealed that from certain critical angles, Raptor’s signature was comparable to that of a “steel marble”. It is obvious that some trade-off are necessary between what is required to enhance low observability mission requirements and even cost. F-22A design keeps it stealthy from all aspects as required in an air dominance fighter. F-35 Lightening II on the other hand has a very low radar profile from the front, is less stealthy viewed sideways and is least stealthy in the rear quarters. The Indo-Russian PAKFA, on the other hand, has been designed to be more manoeuvrable than the US fighters at the cost of making it less stealthy. One of the design elements that have such an effect is the leading edge vortex controller (LEVCON). Similarly, Canard surfaces and leading edge extensions increase radar cross-section (RCS). But the Chinese chose to retain canards on J-20 to enhance agility while scarifying some bit of its radar signature. A lot also depends on the main role envisaged for the aircraft. For example, while in the case of US F-22, the emphasis is on air dominance, in the case of the J-20, its main role appears to be long-range, stand-off attack capability against surface targets. Similarly, in the case of PAK-FA, emphasis appears to be on multi-role capability. 2. Super-Cruise: A desirable attribute of a FGFA is the capability for it to super-cruise i.e. transit in and out of combat zone at supersonic speeds but without the use of afterburner(s). This coupled with the other major attributes of stealth and data fusion and armed with air-to-air and air-to-surface weapons of appropriate stand-off ranges, it would have the unmatched capabilities of not only ‘first look’, ‘first shoot’ and ‘first kill’, but also ‘first scoot’ capability. The US F-35 JSF was purposely not designed to super-cruise but all other FGFAs including the Chinese J-20 have the capability to super-cruise. Fifth Generation (1995 - 2025) 20
  21. 21. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations Attributes of FGFA: A comparison (continue – 2) 3. Sensor Fusion/Situational Awareness With ever more challenging mission requirements, fighter aircraft have gradually come to resemble sensor beds. A host of sensors operating at different wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum connect the pilot to his operating environment. In a first, Raptor’s design for example embeds passive sensors for various wavelengths all around the aircraft’s structure. This greatly improves the aircraft’s first detection ability, even with its radar switched off. In the emerging battlefield environment, fighter aircraft on a mission no longer hunt individually. They operate in a networked environment—receiving and sharing data with a variety of dispersed sources. The APG-77 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar system of the F-22 functions as a Wi-Fi access point which can transmit data at 548 megabit/sec and receive in the gigabit/sec range. To put it in perspective, Link 16 still in use by the US and allied aircraft transfers data at just over one Mb/sec. The intention behind high speed of connectivity is to generate seamlessly a comprehensive all-round picture to enhance the pilot’s situational awareness. The flood of information spewed by multitude of sensors (all crucial to mission accomplishment) would overwhelm the pilot unless filtered, prioritised and presented appropriately in an easily digestible format. Powerful integration processors perform that crucial function. In the F-22, the AN/APG-77 phased array radar is the key to the Raptor’s integrated avionics and sensor capabilities. However, while the sensor fusion capabilities in the F-22 are indeed impressive, it is the US F-35 JSF which is the epitome of a masterpiece to provide unmatched sensor-fusion/situational awareness capability. The F-35 has been purposefully designed with synergy between sensors as a specific requirement, with the “senses” of the aircraft expected to provide a more cohesive picture of the reality around it, and be available in principle for use in any possible way and any possible combination with one another. All of the sensors feed directly into the main processors to support the entire mission of the aircraft. For example, the AN/APG-81 functions not just as multi- mode radar, but also as part of the aircraft’s electronic warfare system. As far as the Russian and Chinese designs are concerned, not much has been revealed about this segment, but it can be safely assumed that this aspect would definitely engage the designers’ attention, albeit to varying degrees (see Table for a comparison of the various important attributes of the already operational/under development FGFAs in the world). Fifth Generation (1995 - 2025) 21 Return to TOC
  22. 22. SOLO Jet Fighter Generations 22 Return to TOC
  23. 23. Aircraft Avionics provides the following functions to the pilot: • Pilot Displays • Communication (internal and external) • Data Entry and Control • Flight Control SOLO Aircraft Avionics 23 Aircraft Avionics includes also the following functions • Aircraft State Sensor Systems - Air Data Systems - Inertial Sensors • Navigation Systems - Dead Reckoning Navigation Systems - Radio Navigation Systems •External World Sensors - Radar Systems - Infrared/Optical Systems • Attack Systems (Military Aircraft) - Weapon Management & Release System Aircraft Avionics can provide also Task Automation • House Keeping Management • Navigation System Management • Autopilot and Flight Management Systems • Engine Control and Fuel Management
  24. 24. SOLO Aircraft Avionics Displays Communication Air Data System Radio Navigation System Infrared/Optic Systems Self-Defence System Weapon System Inertial Sensors Navigation Systems Radar Navigation System Management Autopilot & Flight Management System Engine Control & Fuel Management Data Entry & Control Flight Control Aircraft State Sensors External World Sensors Attack System (Military) Task Automation Data Bus Navigation Pilot House Keeping Management 24 AVIONICS Functional Components
  26. 26. SOLO Aircraft Avionics 26 The boxes represent the following equipment: • Display Processor (DP), which controls the following: - Head Up Display (HUD) - Multi-Purpose Display (MPD) - Keyset (Aircrew’s MCC control switches/inputs) Inertial Navigation System (INS) • Air Data Computer (ADC) • Stores Management System (SMS) • Radar • Radar Altimeter (RALT) • Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) • Electro-Optical/Infra-Red Systems • Hands-On Throttle And Stick (HOTAS) Avionics Physical Components
  27. 27. Aircraft Avionics 27 Avionics Physical Components Product Breakdown Structure of a Military Aircraft System
  28. 28. Aircraft Avionics 28 Typical Avionics Architecture SOLO
  29. 29. Aircraft Avionics 29Evolution of Avionics Architecture SOLO
  30. 30. Aircraft Avionics 30 Distributed Analog/Digital Architecture SOLO Federated Avionics Architecture Integrated Modular Architecture
  31. 31. Aircraft Avionics 31 SOLO MIL-STD 1553 Data Bus is a Dual-Redundant Balanced line physical layer, a (differential) network interface, time division multiplexing, half-duplex command/response protocol, and up to 31 remote terminals (devices). A version, at a 1 Mbit/sec Data Ratewith a Data Bus controllerand Remote Terminals for Receiving and Transmitting Data. MIL-STD 1553 Data Bus MIL-STD 1553 Word Formats MIL-STD 1553 Data Bus A version of MIL-STD-1553 using optical cabling in place of electrical is known as MIL-STD-1773.
  32. 32. Aircraft Avionics 32 SOLO STANAG 3910 uses MIL-STD 1553 but increases the Data Rate to 20 Mbit/sec. The high speed is obtained using Fiber Optic Pass Data at 20 Mbit/sec and are connected using a Star Coupler. Control is exercised by MIL-STD 1553B using Electrical Connections. Data Transmission is controlled by a Bus Controller as for 1553. STANAG 3910 STANAG 3910 Architecture
  33. 33. Aircraft Avionics 33 SOLO Comparative Data Bus Transmission Rates
  34. 34. SOLO Aircraft Avionics 34 Return to TOC
  35. 35. • Cockpit Displays provide all the necessary information using - Helmet Sight - Head-Up Display - Multifunction Displays SOLO Aircraft Avionics 35 -Primary Flight Displays * Height * Airspeed * Mach Number * Vertical Speed * Artificial Horizon * Velocity Vector * Pitch, Bank, Heading Angles -Navigation Displays * Aircraft Position (Latitude, Longitude, Height) * Aircraft Direction , Distance and Time-to-go to Way Points - Radar Displays - Aircraft System Displays * Engine Data * Electrical Power Supply * Hydraulic Power Supply * Cabin pressuarisation * Fuel Management System The Information displayed is: - Weapon Management Displays F-18 Head Up Display (HUD) F-18 Cockpit (New Design) Avionics Magazine – Air Dominance with F-22 Raptor
  36. 36. SOLO Head-up Display (HUD) A Head-Up Display or heads-up display—also known as a HUD—is any transparent display that presents data without requiring users to look away from their usual viewpoints. The origin of the name stems from a pilot being able to view information with the head positioned "up" and looking forward, instead of angled down looking at lower instruments A typical HUD contains three primary components: a Projector Unit, a Combiner, and a Video Generation Computer • The Projection Unit in a typical HUD is an optical collimator setup: a convex lens or concave mirror with a Cathode Ray Tube, light emitting diode, or liquid crystal display at its focus. This setup (a design that has been around since the invention of the reflector sight in 1900) produces an image where the light is parallel i.e. perceived to be at infinity • The Combiner is typically an angled flat piece of glass (a beam splitter) located directly in front of the viewer, that redirects the projected image from projector in such a way as to see the field of view and the projected infinity image at the same time. Combiners may have special coatings that reflect the monochromatic light projected onto it from the projector unit while allowing all other wavelengths of light to pass through. In some optical layouts combiners may also have a curved surface to refocus the image from the projector • The Computer provides the interface between the HUD (i.e. the projection unit) and the systems/data to be displayed and generates the imagery and symbology to be displayed by the projection unit See “Computing Gunsight HUD and HMS” PDF for a detailed presentation.
  37. 37. SOLO Head-up Display (HUD) Collimating Optics Pupil – Forming Relayed Optics HUD Optical Arrangements
  38. 38. SOLO Head-up Display (HUD) F-16 Optical Configuration (BAE SYSTEMS) HUD Optical Arrangements
  39. 39. SOLO Head-up Display (HUD) Collimating Optics
  40. 40. SOLO Head-up Display (HUD) HUDs are split into four generations reflecting the technology used to generate the images. • First Generation—Use a CRT to generate an image on a phosphor screen, having the disadvantage of the phosphor screen coating degrading over time. The majority of HUDs in operation today are of this type. • Second Generation—Use a solid state light source, for example LED, which is modulated by an LCD screen to display an image. These systems do not fade or require the high voltages of first generation systems. These systems are on commercial aircraft. • Third Generation—Use optical waveguides to produce images directly in the combiner rather than use a projection system. • Fourth Generation—Use a scanning laser to display images and even video imagery on a clear transparent medium. Newer micro-display imaging technologies are being introduced, including liquid crystal display (LCD), liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), digital micro- mirrors (DMD), and organic light-emitting diode (OLED).
  41. 41. SOLO Head-up Display (HUD)
  42. 42. SOLO Airborne Radars Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003 F/A-18 Head Up Display (HUD) F-18 HUD Gun Symbology
  43. 43. SOLO Head-up Display (HUD) 1 Available Gs 10 Gun Cross 2 Current Gs 11 Waterline Symbol 3 Mach Ratio 12 Velocity Vector 4 True Airspeed 13 Barometric Altitude 5 Angle of Attack (AOA) 14 Radar Altitude 6 Indicated Airspeed 15 Horizon Line 7 Pitch Ladder 16 Ghost Velocity Vector 8 Command Heading Marker 17 Maximum Projected Area 9 Heading Scale F-15E - Head-Up Display F-15C_ M61A1 Vulcan Cannon and AIM-9M Sidewinder
  44. 44. SOLO Head-up Display (HUD) In addition to the generic information described above, military applications include weapons system and sensor data such as: • Target Designation (TD) indicator—places a cue over an air or ground target (which is typically derived from radar or inertial navigation system data). • Vc—closing velocity with target. • Range—to target, waypoint, etc. • Launch Acceptability Region (LAR)—displays when an air-to-air or air- to-ground weapon can be successfully launched to reach a specified target. • Weapon Seeker or sensor line of sight—shows where a seeker or sensor is pointing. • Weapon status—includes type and number of weapons selected, available, arming, etc. Military aircraft specific applications
  45. 45. SOLO Airborne Radars F-15 Head Up Display (HUD) Data at Different Mission Modes
  46. 46. SOLO Head-Mounted Display (HMD) Other than fixed mounted HUDs, there are also HMDs head-mounted displays. Including Helmet Mounted Displays (both abbreviated HMD), forms of HUD that features a display element that moves with the orientation of the users' heads. Many modern fighters (such as the F/A-18, F-16 and Eurofighter) use both a HUD and HMD concurrently. The F-35 Lightning II was designed without a HUD, relying solely on the HMD, making it the first modern military fighter not to have a fixed HUD Types
  47. 47. SOLO Head-Mounted Display (HMD) Normal Helmet Functions Typical Optical Configurations
  48. 48. SOLO Head-Mounted Display (HMD) Typical HMD System Configurations
  49. 49. SOLO Head-Mounted Display (HMD) Possible Uses of a HMD to Cue, Designate and Aim “Off Boresight”
  50. 50. 50 SOLO Helmet Sights Return to TOC
  51. 51. Aircraft Avionics provides the following functions to the pilot: • Communication (internal and external) SOLO Aircraft Avionics 51 The radio communication of the aircraft enables voice transfer to and from the aircraft at various bands UHF and VHF (240 – 400 MHz). It is usually at duplex level of redundancy. The military part of the communication is coded. At Modern Aircraft data is also transferred to and from the avionics trough specialized Communication Networks. • Data Entry and Control Data Entry and Control provides the interaction with the system avionics On the Military Aircraft the flight is performed using the - Stick (controls the aircraft in pitch, roll, heading) - Throttle (controls the aircraft engines) Different control are placed on Stick and Throttle. In additions data and control is provided by mechanically interacting with the avionics or by direct voice input in Modern Aircraft (see F-22, F-35). Return to TOC
  52. 52. Aircraft Avionics provides the following functions to the pilot: • Flight Control SOLO Aircraft Avionics 52 In order to enable to perform the flying tasks of the Aircraft a Flight Control System translates the Pilot commands to activate the Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Thrust (magnitude and for some Aircraft, direction). The Flight Control also Stabilizes the Aircraft. Some Modern Fighters are Aerodynamically unstable (F-16) and the Flight Control enables to fly through the entire Flight Envelope.
  53. 53. SOLO Aircraft Avionics 53 • House Keeping Management - Fuel System Management - Electrical Power Supply System Management - Hydraulic Power Supply System Management - Environmental Control System - Warning Systems - Maintenance & Monitoring Systems Task Automation • Autopilot and Flight Management System (FMS) - Flight Planning - Navigation Management - Engine Control to maintain the planned Speed or Mach number. - Control of the Aircraft Flight Path to follow the optimized planned route. - Control of the Vertical Flight Profile. - Flight Envelope Monitoring. - Minimal Fuel Consumption, - Automatic Take-off and Landing Return to TOC
  54. 54. 54 McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II General characteristics •Crew: 2 •Length: 63 ft 0 in (19.2 m) •Wingspan: 38 ft 4.5 in (11.7 m) •Height: 16 ft 6 in (5.0 m) •Wing area: 530.0 ft² (49.2 m²) •Airfoil: NACA 0006.4–64 root, NACA 0003-64 tip •Empty weight: 30,328 lb (13,757 kg) •Loaded weight: 41,500 lb (18,825 kg) •Max. takeoff weight: 61,795 lb (28,030 kg) •Powerplant: 2 × General Electric J79-GE-17A axial compressor turbojets, 11,905 lbf dry thrust (52.9 kN), 17,845 lbf in afterburner (79.4 kN) each •Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0224 •Drag area: 11.87 ft² (1.10 m²) •Aspect ratio: 2.77 •Fuel capacity: 1,994 U.S. gal (7,549 L) internal, 3,335 U.S. gal (12,627 L) with three external tanks (370 U.S. gal (1,420 L) tanks on the outer wing hardpoints and either a 600 or 610 U.S. gal (2,310 or 2,345 L) tank for the centerline station). •Maximum landing weight: 36,831 lb (16,706 kg) Performance •Maximum speed: Mach 2.23 (1,472 mph, 2,370 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m) •Cruise speed: 506 kn (585 mph, 940 km/h) •Combat radius: 367 nmi (422 mi, 680 km) •Ferry range: 1,403 nmi (1,615 mi, 2,600 km) with 3 external fuel tanks •Service ceiling: 60,000 ft (18,300 m) •Rate of climb: 41,300 ft/min (210 m/s) •Wing loading: 78 lb/ft² (383 kg/m²) •lift-to-drag: 8.58 •Thrust/weight: 0.86 at loaded weight, 0.58 at MTOW •Takeoff roll: 4,490 ft (1,370 m) at 53,814 lb (24,410 kg) •Landing roll: 3,680 ft (1,120 m) at 36,831 lb (16,706 kg) Armament •Up to 18,650 lb (8,480 kg) of weapons on nine external hardpoints, including general purpose bombs, cluster bombs, TV- and laser-guided bombs, rocket pods (UK Phantoms 6 × Matra rocket pods with 18 × SNEB 68 mm rockets each), air-to-ground missiles, anti-runway weapons, anti-ship missiles, targeting pods, reconnaissance pods, and nuclear weapons. Baggage pods and external fuel tanks may also be carried. •4× AIM-7 Sparrow in fuselage recesses plus 4 × AIM-9 Sidewinders on wing pylons; upgraded Hellenic F-4E and German F-4F ICE carry AIM-120 AMRAAM, Japanese F-4EJ Kai carry AAM-3, Hellenic F-4E will carry IRIS-T in future. Iranian F-4s could potentially carry Russian and Chinese missiles. UK Phantoms carried Skyflash missiles[117] •1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan 6-barreled gatling cannon, 640 rounds •4× AIM-9 Sidewinder, Python-3 (F-4 Kurnass 2000), IRIS-T (F-4E AUP Hellenic Air Force) •4× AIM-7 Sparrow, AAM-3(F-4EJ Kai) •4× AIM-120 AMRAAM for F-4F ICE, F-4E AUP (Hellenic Air Force) •6× AGM-65 Maverick •4× AGM-62 Walleye •4× AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-78 Standard ARM •4× GBU-15 •18× Mk.82, GBU-12 •5× Mk.84, GBU-10, GBU-14 •18× CBU-87, CBU-89, CBU-58 •Nuclear weapons, including the B28EX, B61, B43 and B57 Dogfights, F4 Phantom II, Movie Third Generation Avionics
  55. 55. McDonnell Douglass F-4 Phantom All Weather Fighter - Bomber 55 Third Generation Avionics
  56. 56. McDonnell Douglass F-4B Phantom Instrument Panel 56 Third Generation Avionics
  57. 57. McDonnell Douglass F-4 Phantom Cockpit 57 Third Generation Avionics
  58. 58. McDonnell Douglass F-4 Phantom Avionics 58 • Instrument Panel based on Analog Instruments and Mechanical Controls • Westinghouse APQ-120 Radar (Analog) with A/A and A/G Modes • CRT Radar Display, TV Weapon Display replaced by MFT Display • AN/APG 22, AN/APG 26 Lead Computing Optical Sight for Gun Mode • Target Identification System, Electro-Optical (TISEO) F-4 (V) Phantom • INS (Platform Leveled) with Analog Computer • Analog Weapon Delivery System (Dumb Bomb Release Computations) • Analog Missile Computer (AIM4, AIM7 Sparrow) (Radar LRU) Armament •Up to 18,650 lb (8,480 kg) of weapons on nine external hardpoints, including general purpose bombs, cluster bombs, TV- and laser- guided bombs, rocket pods (UK Phantoms 6 × Matra rocket pods with 18 × SNEB 68 mm rockets each), air-to-ground missiles, anti- runway weapons, anti-ship missiles, targeting pods, reconnaissance pods, and nuclear weapons. Baggage pods and external fuel tanks may also be carried. •4× AIM-7 Sparrow in fuselage recesses plus 4 × AIM-9 Sidewinders on wing pylons; upgraded Hellenic F-4E and German F-4F ICE carry AIM-120 AMRAAM, Japanese F-4EJ Kai carry AAM-3, Hellenic F-4E will carry IRIS-T in future. Iranian F-4s could potentially carry Russian and Chinese missiles. UK Phantoms carried Skyflash missiles[117] •1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan 6-barreled gatling cannon, 640 rounds •4× AIM-9 Sidewinder, Python-3 (F-4 Kurnass 2000), IRIS-T (F-4E AUP Hellenic Air Force) •4× AIM-7 Sparrow, AAM-3(F-4EJ Kai) •4× AIM-120 AMRAAM for F-4F ICE, F-4E AUP (Hellenic Air Force) •6× AGM-65 Maverick •4× AGM-62 Walleye •4× AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-78 Standard ARM •4× GBU-15 •18× Mk.82, GBU-12 •5× Mk.84, GBU-10, GBU-14 •18× CBU-87, CBU-89, CBU-58 •Nuclear weapons, including the B28EX, B61, B43 and B57
  59. 59. McDonnell Douglass F-4 Phantom Instrument Panel 59 Westinghouse APQ-120 Radar in the Nose of McDonnell Douglass F-4 Phantom Third Generation Avionics
  60. 60. 60 Westinghouse APQ-120 Radar in the Nose of McDonnell Douglass F-4 Phantom Westinghouse APQ-120 Radar • X Band Non-Coherent Pulse Radar A/A and A/G Modes •LRUs: - Parabolic Antenna - RF Transmitter (TWT) - CW Transmitter (forAIM7) - RF Receiver - Synchronizer (Analog) - Analog Missile Computer (AIM4, AIM7 Sparrow) Westinghouse APQ-120 Radar • A/A Mode provides - Track (angles,range) to Aerial Target for Launch data of AIM7 - Ranging in BST Mode for Gun Lead Angle Computer - Target Illumination for the SA AIM7 Missile • A/G Mode provides Ranges in BST to Ground Targets Pointed by the Pilot for Weapon Delivery Computer. Third Generation Avionics Return to TOC
  61. 61. General Dynamics F-16 61 Return to Table of Content Fourth Generation Avionics
  62. 62. SOLO F-16 C/D F-16 Cockpit, avionics and radar, Movie F-16 Integrated Sensor Suite - Northrop Grumman, Movie Airborne Radars Fourth Generation Avionics 62
  63. 63. SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Air-to-Air Modes Fourth Generation Avionics 63
  64. 64. SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Air-to-Air Modes Fourth Generation Avionics 64
  65. 65. SOLO Airborne Flight Controllers F-16 Throttle Grip & Side-Stick Controller Fourth Generation Avionics 65
  66. 66. SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Display Fourth Generation Avionics 66
  67. 67.    SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Display Fourth Generation Avionics 67
  68. 68.    SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Display Fourth Generation Avionics 68
  69. 69.    SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Air-to-Air Modes Fourth Generation Avionics 69
  70. 70.    SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Air-to-Air Modes Fourth Generation Avionics 70
  71. 71. 71 Return to Table of Content Fourth Generation Avionics
  72. 72.    SOLO Airborne Radars Comparison of the F-15A standard AN/APG- 63  (top) and the PSP –modified for F-15C Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003 F-15 Eagle The F-15 cockpit is a vast improvement on the  highly complex F-4 but not as advanced as  the F-18 which almost totally replaces  analogue instruments with multi-function  Fourth Generation Avionics 72
  73. 73. The F-15 cockpit is a vast improvement on  the highly complex F-4 but not as  advanced as the F-18 which almost totally  replaces analogue instruments with multi- function CRTs.  SOLO Airborne Cockpit International Defence Review,  Combat Aircraft, Special series,  2/1975 Fourth Generation Avionics 73
  74. 74. SOLO Airborne Radars International Defence Review, Combat Aircraft, Special series, 2/1975 Fourth Generation Avionics 74
  75. 75. SOLO Airborne Radars Fourth Generation Avionics 75
  76. 76. SOLO F-15C AN/APG-63 Pulse-Doppler Tutorial 1, Movie F-15C AN/APG-63 Pulse-Doppler Tutorial 2, Movie Fourth Generation Avionics 76
  77. 77. Fourth Generation Avionics 77
  78. 78.    SOLO Airborne Cockpit Cockpit F18, Movie F18 Carrier Landing Cockpit View, Movie Fourth Generation Avionics 78
  79. 79. SOLO The identical Master Monitor Display and Multi-Function Display are completely  Interchangeable as regards the information they show. At the left is a typical Radar Display. At the right is a typical Weapon-delivery Management Display. F-18 Displays Airborne Radars Fourth Generation Avionics 79
  80. 80. SOLO Airborne Cockpit F-18 Cockpit – New Design 80 Fourth Generation Avionics
  81. 81. TYPHOON: The Eurofighter Typhoon features a glass cockpit without any conventional  instruments. It includes: three full colour multi-function head-down displays  (MHDDs) (the formats on which are manipulated by means of softkeys, XY cursor,  and voice (DVI) command), a wide angle head-up display (HUD) with forward- looking infrared (FLIR), voice and hands-on throttle and stick (Voice+HOTAS),  Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMSS), Multifunctional Information  Distribution System (MIDS), a manual data-entry facility (MDEF) located on the left  glareshield and a fully integrated aircraft warning system with a dedicated warnings  panel (DWP). Reversionary flying instruments, lit by LEDs, are located  under a hinged right glareshield SOLO Airborne Cockpit CAESAR AESA (EF-2000 Tranch3, post-2015 with 1,500  T/Rs) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 18~21 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 32~38 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 104~122 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 185~216 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 278~324 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 330~385 km+ Source: Fourth Generation Avionics 81
  82. 82. SOLO Airborne Cockpit Fourth Generation Avionics 82Eurofighter Typhoon Avionics Architecture
  83. 83.    SOLO Airborne Cockpits KnAAPO/Sukhoi Su-30MKK Crew Stations Pilot Co-Pilot Fourth Generation Avionics 83 Return to TOC
  84. 84.    SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 4.5 Generation Avionics 84
  85. 85. SOLO 4.5 Generation Avionics 85
  86. 86. SOLO 4.5 Generation Avionics 86 F-15SE
  87. 87. SOLO 4.5 Generation Avionics 87 F-15SE
  88. 88.  RAFALE Cockpit The cockpit includes a wide-angle holographic head-up display (HUD), two head- down flat-panel colour multi-function displays (MFDs) and a center collimated  display. Display interaction is by means of touch input for which the pilot wears  silk-lined leather gloves. In addition, in full development, the pilot will have a  head-mounted display (HMD).The pilot flies the aircraft with a side-stick controller  mounted on his right and a throttle on his left. These incorporate multiple hands- on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls. SOLO 4.5 Generation Avionics 88 Airborne Cockpits
  89. 89. JAS-39 Gripen Cockpit 4.5 Generation Avionics 89 Airborne Cockpits
  90. 90.    SOLO Airborne Cockpits Flanker (Sukhoi Su –35) Cockpit The New SU-35S, Movie 4.5 Generation Avionics 90 Return to TOC
  91. 91. 91 Fifth Generation Avionics Lockeed Martin F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightning II, Movie
  92. 92. F-22 Raptor SOLO Fifth Generation Avionics 92
  93. 93. SOLO Radars AN/APG 77 Active Electronically Scanned Array The AN/APG-77 is a multifunction radar installed on the F-22 Raptor fighter aircraft. The radar is built by  Northrop Grumman. It is a solid-state, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. Composed of 1500 transmitreceive modules,  each about the size of a gum stick, it can perform a near-instantaneous beam steering (in the order of tens of  nanoseconds). The APG-77 provides 120° field of view in azimuth and elevation. The highest value, which can be achieved for the  Field of View (FOV) of a phased array antenna is 120° (60° left and 60° right. 60° up and 60° down).  F-22 RaptorFifth Generation Avionics 93
  94. 94. SOLO Airborne Radars F-22 Raptor The most advanced AESA radar program is  Northrop-Grumman ANAPG-77 for  prospective stealthy fighter which have started  at 1985. It has been installed on F-22A  'Raptor'. The framework of the radar was  changed number  times during the design  period. Initially this radar was intended for  air-to-air missions only. Air-to-ground  capability was added much latter. The last  variant, AN/APG-77(V)1 benefits from  technological and maintenance improvements  of further developed AN/APG-80 and  AN/APG-81 radars. New software allows high  resolution mapping mode. The radar is as 1 m. in its diameter   and contains 2000 MMICs (emitting modules) each  as 70 mm long. According to the manufacturer information the maximal detection range  is 270-300 km for fighter-class aircrafts, 490 km – for bombers, 150 km – for cruise  missiles. The maximal angle is 60 grad in vertical and horizontal projection, but only 30  grad in close combat. The radar can treck up to 28 targets. Radar has also the passive  mode and the low probability intercepting (LPI) mode. Fifth Generation Avionics 94
  95. 95. SOLO F-22 Avionics F-22 Raptor Fifth Generation Avionics 95
  96. 96. SOLO F-22 Avionics F-22 Raptor Fifth Generation Avionics 96
  97. 97. SOLO F-22 Avionics F-22 Raptor Fifth Generation Avionics 97 FA 22 Raptor cockpit, Movie 
  98. 98. SOLO F-22 Raptor US Air Force F-22 Avionics Architecture IEEE Aerospace & Electronic System Magazine, Jubilee Issue, October 2000 Return to Table of Content Fifth Generation Avionics Airborne Radars 98
  99. 99. SOLO F-22 Avionics F-22 Raptor Fifth Generation Avionics 99
  100. 100. SOLO F-22 Avionics F-22 Raptor Fifth Generation Avionics 100 F22 Top Level Avionics Architecture
  101. 101. SOLO F-22 Avionics F-22 Raptor Fifth Generation Avionics 101 F22 Communication Navigation and Identification (CNI) Aperture (Upper Aspect)
  102. 102. SOLO F-22 Avionics F-22 Raptor Fifth Generation Avionics 102 F22 EW Aperture
  103. 103. SOLO Airborne Cockpits F-22 Raptor Flight International 9-15 April 1997 Fifth Generation Avionics 103 F22 Displays Schematic
  104. 104. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 104
  105. 105. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 105
  106. 106. 106 Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II General Characteristics • Crew: 1 • Length: 51.4 ft (15.67 m) • Wingspan: 35 ft[N 5] (10.7 m) • Height: 14.2 ft[N 6] (4.33 m) • Wing area: 460 ft²[170] (42.7 m²) • Empty weight: 29,300 lb (13,300 kg) • Loaded weight: 49,540 lb (22,470 kg) • Max. takeoff weight: 70,000 lb[N 8] (31,800 kg) • Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney F135 afterburning turbofan Dry thrust: 28,000 lbf (125 kN) Thrust with afterburner: 43,000 lbf (191 kN) • Internal fuel capacity: 18,480 lb (8,382 kg) Performance • Maximum speed: Mach 1.6+ (1,200 mph, 1,930 km/h) (Tested to Mach 1.61) • Range: 1,200 nmi (2,220 km) on internal fuel • Combat radius: 584 nmi (1,080 km) on internal fuel • Service ceiling: 60,000 ft[350] (18,288 m) (Tested to 43,000 ft) • Rate of climb: classified (not publicly available) • Wing loading: 91.4 lb/ft² (446 kg/m²) • Thrust/weight: With full fuel: 0.87 With 50% fuel: 1.07 • g-Limits: 9 g Armament • Guns: 1 × General Dynamics GAU-22/A Equalizer 25 m (0.984 in) 4-barreled gatling cannon, internally mounted with 180 rounds • Hardpoints: 6 × external pylons on wings with a capacity of 15,000 lb (6,800 kg) and 2 internal bays with 2 pylons each for a total weapons payload of 18,000 lb (8,100 kg) and provisions to carry combinations of: Missiles: Air-to-air missiles: AIM-120 AMRAAM AIM-9X Sidewinder IRIS-T MBDA Meteor (Pending further funding) JDRADM (after 2020) Air-to-surface missiles: AGM-154 JSOW AGM-158 JASSM Brimstone missile Joint Air-to-Ground Missile Storm Shadow missile SOM Anti-ship missiles: Fifth Generation Avionics
  107. 107. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 107
  108. 108. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 108 F35 Pave Pace Integrated RF Architecture
  109. 109. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 109 F35 Pave Pace Shared Architecture, RF Architecture
  110. 110. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 110
  111. 111. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II F-35 Data Fused Sensors, MovieFifth Generation Avionics 111
  112. 112. Fifth Generation Avionics 112
  113. 113. 113 Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics
  114. 114. Northrop Grumman AN/APG-81 AESA Radar F-35_Lightning_II Cockpit F-35_Lightning_II Avionics Fifth Generation Avionics 114
  115. 115. Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II F-35 JSF-Radar Movie, Movie Fifth Generation Avionics 115
  116. 116. Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 116
  117. 117. F-35 EO DAS MovieLockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 117 SOLO
  118. 118. F-35 Glass Cockpit, Movie Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 118 SOLO
  119. 119. Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 119 SOLO
  120. 120. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 120
  121. 121. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 121
  122. 122. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 122
  123. 123. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 123
  124. 124. SOLO Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 124
  125. 125. Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II Fifth Generation Avionics 125 SOLO
  126. 126. Fifth Generation Avionics 126 SOLO
  127. 127. Jet Fighter Generations 127 Generations Comparison SOLO
  128. 128. 128 Go to Fighter Aircraft Avionics Part II SOLO Fighter Aircraft Avionics
  129. 129. References SOLO 129 PHAK Chapter 1 - 17 George M. Siouris, “Aerospace Avionics Systems, A Modern Synthesis”, Academic Press, Inc., 1993 R.P.G. Collinson, “Introduction to Avionics”, Chapman & Hall, Inc., 1996, 1997, 1998 Ian Moir, Allan Seabridge, “Aircraft Systems, Mechanical, Electrical and Avionics Subsystem Integration”, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 3th Ed., 2008 Fighter Aircraft Avionics Ian Moir, Allan Seabridge, “Military Avionics Systems”, John Wiley & Sons, LTD., 2006
  130. 130. References (continue – 1) SOLO 130 Fighter Aircraft Avionics S. Hermelin, “Air Vehicle in Spherical Earth Atmosphere” S. Hermelin, “Airborne Radar”, Part1, Part2, Example1, Example2 S. Hermelin, “Tracking Systems” S. Hermelin, “Navigation Systems” S. Hermelin, “Earth Atmosphere” S. Hermelin, “Earth Gravitation” S. Hermelin, “Aircraft Flight Instruments” S. Hermelin, “Computing Gunsight, HUD and HMS” S. Hermelin, “Aircraft Flight Performance” S. Hermelin, “Sensors Systems: Surveillance, Ground Mapping, Target Tracking” S. Hermelin, “Air-to-Air Combat”
  131. 131. References (continue – 2) SOLO 131 Fighter Aircraft Avionics S. Hermelin, “Spherical Trigonometry” S. Hermelin, “Modern Aircraft Cutaway”
  132. 132. 132 SOLO Technion Israeli Institute of Technology 1964 – 1968 BSc EE 1968 – 1971 MSc EE Israeli Air Force 1970 – 1974 RAFAEL Israeli Armament Development Authority 1974 – 2013 Stanford University 1983 – 1986 PhD AA