Salazar Demo Presentation (Ride Through The Human Brain)


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Salazar Demo Presentation (Ride Through The Human Brain)

  1. 1. A Ride Through the Human     Brain    
  2. 7. <ul><li>is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate , and most invertebrate , animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision , hearing , balance , taste , and smell . </li></ul><ul><li>Brains can be extremely complex. The cerebral cortex of the human brain contains roughly 15-33 billion neurons depending on gender and age [1] , linked with up to 10,000 synaptic connections each. Each cubic millimeter of cerebral cortex contains roughly one billion synapses. [2] These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons , which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body and target them to specific recipient cells. </li></ul>brain
  3. 8. <ul><li>The brain is a very complicated part of the human body. There are many parts of the brain that contribute to its functions.   The glial cells, or nerve cell circuits, help control the chemical balance of the brain. They also provide structural support for the neurons, which  help the nervous system after injury, and supply chemicals that are needed for a healthy brain. The brain is composed of two principle types of cells, the neurons, and the glial cells. The neurons are the information that carry of the brain. Communication between the neurons are both electrical and chemical. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons transmit and analyze communication within the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Dendrites are structures that extend from the cell body. They receive impulses from other neurons, then they transmit them to the neuron in which they are in. An axon is a fiber extending from the cell body that carries impulses from the cell body to other dendrites of other neurons. All of these parts help information throughout the whole body. </li></ul>The Process of the Brain
  4. 9. <ul><li>The process of the brain is very complicated. First, an electrical impulse travels down a cell body and through the axon. When it reaches the end of the axon it crosses a gap called a synapse. The end of the axon contains tiny sacs that hold chemical messengers, or neurotransmitters. When the electrical impulse stimulates sacs, they are then released into the synapse. After it moves away from the synapse, the neurotransmitters attach a   receptor on the dendrites of the cell body. This sparks an electrical impulse in the receiving cell body. After all this has taken place, a message within the brain is converted. </li></ul>
  5. 10. Memory <ul><li>Memories have been defined in many different ways. Your memory is the part of your brain that enables you  to remember things that we see as well as other sensory information, such as smells, tastes, and what we touch. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 11. Kinds of memory <ul><li>Procedural Memory </li></ul><ul><li>There are two kinds of long term memory. The first kind is procedural memory. This kind of memory stores information on how to do things such as driving a car, hitting a baseball bat, or playing an instrument. This type of memory long-lasting. The memories are actions, habits, or skills that are learned over time. These memories can be changed by training. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Declarative Memory </li></ul><ul><li>The other kind of long term memory is declarative memory. This memory contains memories that you have gathered from your childhood until you die. No one knows where this database is located, but it seems that each memory has a location of its own. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 12. <ul><li>Memories and Their Components </li></ul><ul><li>Say you remember a person saying something, or you remember the shape of his face. The components of this memory (color of hair, complexion, or shape of their face) are stored in different locations. They are associated with each other so that if you remember just one thing, such as the color of the hair, then you may be able to recall that person’s name from remembering that one detail. </li></ul><ul><li>The Working Memory </li></ul><ul><li>This memory allows the brain to evaluate the incoming information, and dispose of the information that is to be rejected, and store the information that is to be memorized. </li></ul><ul><li>The External Memory </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to all of the other memory, we have the external memory. This memory stores all of the stories we were told as a baby. This is where things are stored that you haven’t quite forgotten, but there not something you think about that often. </li></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>The Parts of the Brain </li></ul>
  9. 14. THE CEREBRUM <ul><li>In the cerebrum, there are fifty hundred to one hundred thousand neurons, the telegram of information is sent from place to place like a telegram. The cerebrum is divided in to two hemispheres, the right and left hemispheres. The dividing point is a deep grove called the longitudal cerebral fissure. The different sides of the cerebrum do different things for the opposite sides of the body. The right side of the cerebrum controls things such as imagination and 3-D forms. The other side of the brain, the left side, controls numbering skills, posture, and reasoning. The hemispheres also consist of many other parts such as the lobes. Each hemisphere is divided into four sections, the frontal, parietal, temporal, and the occupial lobes. The hemispheres also consist of a inner core called the white matter and the cortex, the wrinkly outer layer. </li></ul>
  10. 16. <ul><li>The Cerebellum </li></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>The cerebellum is the part of the brain where the high  level functions take place.  The cerebellum conrtols posture, balance, and coordination.  It is divided into two differene lobes which are connected by white fibers.  Also in the cerebellum, there is folia, bundled  nerve cells. The brain stem is located directly below the cerebellum. </li></ul>
  12. 19. <ul><li>The Brain Stem </li></ul>
  13. 20. <ul><li>The brain stem connects the spinal cord with the spinal cord. It is also the part of the brain where the vital functions occur. The lowest part of the brain is located in the brain stem, the meddula oblangata. Directly above the meddula oblangata are the pons. The pons is the band of nerves that connect the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the meddula oblangata. The meddula oblangata is in the middle of the brain and controls breathing. Above the pons is the mid brain. </li></ul>
  14. 21. <ul><li>Limbic System: </li></ul>
  15. 22. <ul><li>The limbic system, often referred to as the &quot;emotional brain&quot;, is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old. </li></ul><ul><li>This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a visual representation of this system, from a midsagittal view of the human brain: </li></ul>
  16. 24. <ul><li>PROTECTION OF THE BRAIN </li></ul>
  17. 25. <ul><li>The protection of the brain is just like the house that we live in.  One of the sources of protection that the brain has are the cells in the brain.  The brain has more than enough brain cells.  another source of protection is the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the brain.  One pint of this made every day.  This fluid also brings the brain nutrients and removes waste.  The cerebrospinal fluid protects the brain form pressure that may come in contact with the brain.  Some of the most important things that protect the brain are the three layers around the brain called the Dura Mater, Arachnoid, and the Pia Mater.  The word Dura Mater means hard mother, Arachnoid means spider web, and the world Pia Mater means soft mother.  These layers are like sheets on your bed, except they cover the brain all of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 26. Fun and Facts <ul><li>The Weight of Your Brain </li></ul><ul><li>      The weight of the brain varies when you grow. Through out your life, your brain weighs differently. When you are first born, your brain usually weighs about one pound. When you are a child, it is about two pounds. When you are fully grown, your brain weighs more. For an adult female, your brain weighs about two and seven tenths pounds, and adult male's brain weighs about three pounds. </li></ul>
  19. 27. Use you’re brain… <ul><li>The Brain Scramble </li></ul><ul><li>1) nbria </li></ul><ul><li>2) gila lelcs </li></ul><ul><li>3) ronuens </li></ul><ul><li>4) usnrevo ytsmse </li></ul><ul><li>5) ddertnesi </li></ul><ul><li>6) naxo </li></ul><ul><li>7) lcel ybod </li></ul><ul><li>8) ysespan </li></ul><ul><li>9) tntsmiouersetnrar </li></ul><ul><li>10) ortceper </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>ThAnk you!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared by: </li></ul><ul><li>mS. mAdoNna A. SalAzar !! </li></ul>