The German and Austrian Version of MARC 21


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The transition to MARC 21 as the exchange format in Germany and Austria is about to be done.

After some years of preparation, with detailed analyses of the former format MAB and MARC 21, and in close cooperation with the international MARC community, libraries in German speaking countries have achieved a milestone in the process of internationalization German standards:

We now are able to "speak" MARC 21, and to "understand" MARC 21.

The German National Library, and some of the regional library networks offer their data in MARC 21, and can import MARC 21 data as well. The other national partners will follow.

During the preparation, the focus was always to be compliant to the standard MARC 21. In addition, some decisions were made in order to retain existing data models, and functionalities based on the data.

As a result, the MARC 21 data show some differences from data that are used in the Anglo-American cataloging context. These differences are:

- Cataloging rules
- Working languages
- Series records
- Models for multivolume monographs
- Linking by record control numbers
- ISILs as German MARC Organization Codes
- Locally defined format elements
- No ISBD interpunction at the end of subfields
- Non-sorting control character technique.

The presentation talks about the principles of the German transition to MARC 21. By showing MARC 21 examples in different implementation versions our approach is visualized.

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The German and Austrian Version of MARC 21

  1. 1. The German and Austrian Version of MARC 21: Standard Compliance, Flexibility, and Implementations Reinhold Heuvelmann
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and Principles of the Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Circumstances and Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Data Models </li></ul><ul><li>Record Linking </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Local&quot; elements </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Sorting Parts </li></ul><ul><li>ISBD Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>DNB Examples and Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>Outline
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Goals and Principles of the Migration <ul><li>Internationalization of the German and Austrian standards for bibliographic data exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility of German and Austrian data </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Existing models, and data, and functionalities </li></ul>
  5. 5. Circumstances and Frameworks <ul><li>MARC 21 is mostly used only as an exchange format. MARC 21 is rarely used as a cataloging format. </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloging codes, cataloging rules: RAK, RNA; RSWK, DDC RDA ... </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloging language: German </li></ul>
  6. 6. Data Models <ul><li>Multivolume / Multipart Monographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each volume has one record. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The work as a whole has an additional record. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Records are bibliographically complete. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Records are linked from part to whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader Pos. 7 = &quot;m&quot; + Pos. 19 &quot;#&quot;, or &quot;a&quot;, or &quot;b&quot;, or &quot;c&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model A: 245 $a + 490 + 800 - 830 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model B: 245 $a $n $p + 773 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No usage of 505 (except for component parts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Series Records in MARC Bibliographic </li></ul>
  7. 7. Record Linking <ul><li>by textual information, and </li></ul><ul><li>by record control numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$w for Bibliographic record control number in 76X - 78X, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$0 for Authority record control number in 1XX / 7XX, 240, 6XX, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each record control number is specified by a MARC Organization Code. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German Part: ISIL, maintained by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (cf. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. &quot;Local&quot; Elements (1) <ul><li>020 $9 ISBN with hyphens </li></ul><ul><li>029 Additional ISSNs </li></ul><ul><li>082 Indicator 2 = &quot;9&quot; for DDC assigned by DNB </li></ul><ul><li>089 Analytical DDC (=> 082/083/085) </li></ul><ul><li>090 Additional codes </li></ul><ul><li>246 Indicator 2 = &quot;9&quot; for &quot;Ansetzungssachtitel&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>249 Contained parts </li></ul><ul><li>259 Edition statement in normalized form </li></ul>
  9. 9. &quot;Local&quot; Elements (2) <ul><li>591 Internal note (cf. 883 &quot;Source of description, etc. note&quot;, as proposed to MARBI) </li></ul><ul><li>689 Subject headings as string / sequence </li></ul><ul><li>800 - 830 $9 Volume designation in normalized form </li></ul><ul><li>889 Replaced record information (cf. 882) </li></ul><ul><li>930 Subseries information (cf. 245 $n $p) </li></ul><ul><li>931 Correction information </li></ul><ul><li>932 Online contents codes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Non-Sorting Parts <ul><li>Non-Sorting Control Character Technique according to official guidelines ( </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator counting position always set to &quot;0&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>245 10 $a ¬The¬ German discovery of the world </li></ul>
  11. 11. ISBD Punctuation <ul><li>No ISBD punctuation at the end of a subfield. </li></ul><ul><li>245 10 $a ¬The¬ German discovery of the world $b Renaissance encounters with the strange and marvelous $c Christine R. Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>ISBD punctuation at the beginning of a subfield, where needed. </li></ul><ul><li>245 10 $a Internationales Handbuch der Vornamen $b = International handbook of forenames </li></ul><ul><li>ISBD punctuation inside a subfield, where needed. </li></ul><ul><li>245 10 $a Was will Kunst? $c Steen T. Kittl ; Christian Saehrendt </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Pos. 18 &quot;Descriptive cataloging form&quot; ... </li></ul>
  12. 12. DNB Examples and Documentation <ul><li>Sample records: /cgi-bin / </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation: /standardisierung /pdf /marc21_titel_dnb_0904_en.pdf </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusions <ul><li>Standard compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of MARC 21 </li></ul><ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Interface for exporting MARC data </li></ul><ul><li>Interface for importing MARC data </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thank you. Questions? <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinhold Heuvelmann </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>German National Library </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information Technology / Data Formats </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adickesallee 1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D-60322 Frankfurt am Main </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone: +49-69-1525-1709 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telefax: +49-69-1525-1799 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mailto: [email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>