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The Basic Structures Of Government


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Political Science Lesson
The exam tutorials of International Relationships Department

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The Basic Structures Of Government

  1. 1. <ul><li>THE BASIC STRUCTURES OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>THE PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>discussion of political institutions </li></ul><ul><li>types of government </li></ul><ul><li>types of government by its actual examples </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>THE BASIC STRUCTURES OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Political institution: </li></ul><ul><li>it connotes flamboyant buildings representing the might of the state </li></ul><ul><li>they are also the things relevant to the established and durable relationships of power and authority (tangible and intangible) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constitution of the Republic of Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>division of pre-institutional and institutional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it relates to the method of politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it relates to multi-level accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the problem of consolidation/institutionalization </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>THE BASIC STRUCTURES OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>the problem of consolidation/institutionalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is relevant to the codification (laws) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it erodes the role and influence of personal actors (although they might play a pivotal role in the emergence of political institutions) (Ataturk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is relevant to longitude (historical context) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is relevant to the extent of internalization and accommodation (in the absentee of a clear codified rules) (co-habitation in France) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is relevant to the usage of governmental power (by whom and until when) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hence it is relevant to the interruptedly continuation of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does ‘consolidation of democracy’ mean? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>THE BASIC FORMS OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>The first division : Monarchy or Republic </li></ul><ul><li>all but few countries in the world are republics. </li></ul><ul><li>it does not necessarily mean, all republics are good and democratic. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holland and Belgium are restricted monarchies, whereas, the monarchies in the Arabian peninsula befit to the definition of traditional monarchies. </li></ul><ul><li>the role played by the monarchs are different yet. (British king is just a figurehead whereas in Spain, the king has still important location in politics –even he is one of the founding fathers of democracy in Spain.) </li></ul><ul><li>in those countries, monarchies are individually political institutions on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Edmund Burke criticized the French Revolution because the French monarcy was a reliable political institution distilled through the history. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>question: </li></ul><ul><li>how can the European countries with monarchic governments be the most democratic regimes in the world? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monarchies assume an political integration role between the traditional segments of society (particularly in Britain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monarchies may even assume the role of democratizing agent (Spanish case) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they are already established political institutions and when they act in democratic fashion, the outcome may change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>however, in democratic monarchies (constitutional monarchies) monarchs plays a very symbolic role in political life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in democratic regimes (parliamentarian regimes particularly, the President fulfill what a traditional monarch does) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monarchs and republical presidents (in parliamentarian systems) are the head of state, whereas Premiers are head of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particularly, the third world suffers from the lack of deeply institutionalized political mechanisms or institutions themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the third world lacks some efficient means to consolidate democracy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The second division : Unitary and Federal Systems </li></ul><ul><li>it is relevant to the territorial structuring of the nation </li></ul><ul><li>unitary system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly centralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>its subdivisions (departments in France, provinces in Italy, counties in Sweden, vilayets in Turkey) are largely for administrative convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>federal system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly decentralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>its subdivisions are largely the representation of territorial division of political power (German lander, Swiss cantons, Yugoslavia Republics, US states) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>confederation (highly loosed federation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is the highest decentralized system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is so loosely formed that components (states, republics) can override the center (present Montenegro-Serbia or EU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it tends to disintegrating or forming a more formidable federation) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>UNITARY SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>center exerts significant control over loval authorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for instance, the scholl curricula is determined by the central ministry in Ankara </li></ul></ul><ul><li>center has a national police force and control over local police force </li></ul><ul><li>the court system is also central, and body of laws are enforced in every part of the country </li></ul><ul><li>however, there are municipalities which assume some functions that the centre can not fulfill healthily, yet, they are still under firm scrutiny of the central government </li></ul><ul><li>on the other side, the trend is decentralization as much as possible </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Cases of decentralization in unitary systems </li></ul><ul><li>devolution in Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as a response to the growing Scottish and Welsh nationalisms British parliament passed in 1977 devolution bills endowing political power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>decentralization in France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France has distinctive regional subcultures: the Celtic Bretons, the southerners of Midi, Corsicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paris govern the departments (provinces) through a appointed prefect (governer-vali) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Mitterand era (1980s), Paris endowed transferred some competences to those departments regarding local economic and financial affairs (thereby reversing about five century long centralization) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>autonomy in Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basque and Catalans regions are proud of their distinct cultures from Castillian majority (Euzkadi ta Askatasuna-ETA) demanded full independence to the Basque region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is organized as ‘autonomies’ having rights to say in taxation matters, language and education through their own institutions (regional parliaments) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>FEDERAL SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>in federalism, composing units have a specific degree (changing from regime to regime) political authority on the territorial basis </li></ul><ul><li>although USSR was a federal state, it was considerably different from other Western federal states like Germany or even from Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>in a federal state composing units (states) have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>their own constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their own body of law (accorded with the federal laws of course) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their own parliament, government and courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their own parties (mostly offshots of federal level political parties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their own local police forces (not army) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they are represented in federal bodies (generally bicameral parliaments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their own rights regarding language and culture </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>However, in federal regimes composing units (states) </li></ul><ul><li>depended on the federal (central) authorities regarding macro level economic decisions, security matters and foreign relations issues </li></ul><ul><li>federal decisions are based on check-balance between proportionality and delegative representation (upper house and house of representatives) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>federal states are established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to unite against common enemies or rivals (Yugoslavia is surrounded by brigama (fears) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for economic reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to buttress the central government (as in the case of EU-US-India) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to weaken the central government (as in Yugoslavia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-both of them for the sake of preserving national unity- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the right of secession from federal state is a disputable matter </li></ul></ul>