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Government: Legislature, Cabinet, Bureaucracy
Political Science Lesson
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  1. 1. <ul><li>Government: Legislature, Cabinet, Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Presidential and Parliamentarian Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Their Respective Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of Legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Parliaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicamerality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicamerality </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Division of Presidential and Parliamentarian Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential System </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential democracies is based on a rigid separation of power between the executive and legislative branches </li></ul><ul><li>President is not only a figurehead, yet, the real head of government </li></ul><ul><li>President is elected by the people (though sometimes not directly) </li></ul><ul><li>the President is not responsible to the legislature </li></ul><ul><li>the President determines his/her own cabinet (ministers, undersecretaries etc) from without (out of the parliament) </li></ul><ul><li>however, the top officers and jurists ought to be accepted by the legislature (in US, Senate must confirm the team of the President) </li></ul><ul><li>the parliament can not oust the President and vice versa (except the case of impeachment) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Division of Presidential and Parliamentarian Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentarian System </li></ul><ul><li>The President is the symbolic, head of the state, as well as non-responsible branch of government </li></ul><ul><li>the head of government is Premier, Prime Minister, Chancellor etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In the parliamentarian systems, voters elect parliament as a whole, not specifically President and Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, the president is elected by the parliament (except in monarchies where the king assumes the role of President) </li></ul><ul><li>The President as the head of the state, should offer post of Prime Ministry to the leader of the party which garnered the largest number of votes, and obtained the majority of the seats in the parliament </li></ul><ul><li>the Prime minister announces his/her cabinet and the President ratifies </li></ul><ul><li>the cabinet-government is responsible to the parliament, not the President or the King </li></ul><ul><li>the president can dissolve the parliament when saw necessary </li></ul><ul><li>the president have some symbolic competences as the head of state, as appointments, acceptance of diplomats etc. </li></ul><ul><li>the president approves the legislatives from the parliament, and has the right to return for its amendment, however, this privilege is also limited. </li></ul><ul><li>the president has the right to bring some legislatives to the referendum </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pros and Cons of Parliamentarian/Presidential Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Since it is based on rigid check-and-balance system, in presidential system no branch of government accumulates too much power </li></ul><ul><li>each flank has the right to veto coming from the other, hence, political impasses are general rule in presidential system </li></ul><ul><li>presidential system is older and flexible, however, in the European continent parliamentarian system holds it sway </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentarian system is based on the fusion of power that does not set brances against each other </li></ul><ul><li>the government is responsible to the parliament and while deciding on the political issues, it has to give account to the parliament (only exception is governmental decrees –yet, they have to be ratified by the parliament later) </li></ul><ul><li>Political impasse (immobilism) is depended upon the existence of some conditions; i.e., if the government is a coalition comprising of political parties having different world views, if the government lost the required support in the parliament due to defections from its ranks (vote of no confidence) </li></ul><ul><li>yet, in parliamentarian system, since the majority of seats are held by the ruling party, there is a coherence between the legislative and government </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Division of Bicameral-Unicameral </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of the parliaments in the world is bicameral (having two chambers, upper house, lower house – US Senate, British House of Lords, German Bundesrat/ US House of Representatives, British House of Commons, German Bundestag) </li></ul><ul><li>As a rule, upper houses have less or sometimes much less power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US chambers are equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British House of Commons are far superior than the House of Lords, it can easily override the desicion of the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The balance between German Bundesrat and Bundestag is in favor of the later, as in many federal structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The unicameral legislatures of China (Congress), Israel (Knesset), Sweden (Riksdag), Turkey (TGNA) </li></ul><ul><li>some countries used to have more than two chambers, Yugoslavia (5), South Africa (3) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Legislatures in Decline </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Structural disadvantages ( party discipline, inertia, disinterest to its work) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of expertise ( some economic, military, social matters requires expertise) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Disadvantages ( problem of charisma-particularly for parliamentarian systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Absentee Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Externalities ( civil society, local politics, international politics erode the role of parliaments) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>EXECUTIVES (GOVERNMENT-CABINET) </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDENT AND PRIME MINISTER </li></ul><ul><li>there is huge difference in terms of relationship between president and premier in parliamentarian and presidential systems respectively </li></ul><ul><li>in parliamentarian system, prime minister is accountable to the parliament and his position is respectively weak; whereas in the presidential system, it is too difficult to oust a president </li></ul><ul><li>in two systems, the head of government can be ousted yet, in parliamentarian system with vote of no-confidence; in presidantial system with impeachment </li></ul><ul><li>in parliamentarian system, parliament has the right to sack the premier, in presidential system, neither president nor the legislative has the ultimate right to bring their names to the book. </li></ul><ul><li>in parliamentarian system, the head of state traditionally invites the leader of the party eliciting the majority of public support, and recognize the right of the prime minister to enlist the member of cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>the prime minister has the right to appoint a person from without to a ministerial post (Kemal Derviş) </li></ul><ul><li>In presidential system, the president appoints all the cabinet cadre from without </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In Germany, the chancellor is more powerful than the British Premier </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet appointments by the chancellor is not subject to the affirmation of parliament as in Turkey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Turkey, parliament ratifies the cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>another test is the budget talks in the parliament, when the budget returned with the majoriy vote, it means a vote of no confidence, thereby requiring the resign of the cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In German system, the parliament requires to vote in a replacement cabinet as part of ousting the old one (this system is called constructive no confidence) </li></ul><ul><li>In France, co-habitation determined the division of labor between the President and Prime Minister </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Roles of Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of State </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Party Chief </li></ul><ul><li>Commander in Chief (In Turkey, the President) </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Diplomat (Turkey is represented in the European Council by the Prime Minister, whereas France by its President) </li></ul><ul><li>Dispenser of Appointments (the constitution requires nomination and appointment of some high officials by the President as well) </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Legislator </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>BUREAUCRACY </li></ul><ul><li>it is a rational system or organized structure to permit the efficient and effective execution of public policy </li></ul><ul><li>it operates in accordance with a set of fixed rules and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>it has a clearly defined chain of command (hierarchy) through which responsibility flows from the top down </li></ul><ul><li>it apply policy guidelines to particular situations </li></ul><ul><li>it is a method of organization that enables government to operate with some uniformity and predictability in a mannet that is rational and subject to internal supervision and control </li></ul><ul><li>it is some sort of permanent government, in respect with the political government which change according to electoral results (with this characteristics, it is recognized as sometimes, state’s itself) </li></ul><ul><li>it includes career bureaucrats who are mostly in friction with elected officials </li></ul><ul><li>it is highly conservative and durable </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Max Weber (1864-1920) and Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Weberian criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative offices are organized hierarchically </li></ul><ul><li>Each office has its own area of competence </li></ul><ul><li>Civil servants are appointed, not elected, on the basis of technical qualifications as determined by diplomas or examination (meritocracy) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil servants receive fixed salaries according to rank </li></ul><ul><li>The job is a career and the sole employment of the civil servant </li></ul><ul><li>The official does not have his or her office </li></ul><ul><li>The official is subject to control and discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion is based on superior’s judgment </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Role of Bureaucracy in Modern Governments </li></ul><ul><li>General Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration (implementing public policy, includes essentially rule making –decrees, procedural statements etc-, education, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services (services in public health, protection) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation (State Planning Office-DPT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licencing (Turkish Institute of Standards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Gathering (MIT-CIA-FBI etc.) </li></ul></ul>