Cambridge english grammar_in_u


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Cambridge english grammar_in_u

  1. 1. A-PDF Split DEMO : Purchase from to remove the watermark
  2. 2. English Grammar in Use A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students of English with answers THIRD EDITION Raymond Murphy ~ CAM B R ID G E ~ Ul"IVERS ITY P R ESS
  3. 3. C A M RRI I>G F. UNIVE RS ITY r RE S S Camb ridge, New York, Melbo urne, Madrid, Cape Tow n. Singapore, SilO Paulo Cambridge University Press T he Ed inburgh Building. Cambridge C Bl l RU, UK www.carob Information o n this tide : ww w.cambridge.o rg/978052 153289 1 o Ca mbridge University Press 2004 This publication is in copyright. Subiecr to statutor y exception and to the provi sion s of releva nt collective licensing agreements. no reprod uct ion of an y part rna)' take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2004 7th printing 2005 Printed in Singapore by KHL Print ing Co Pte l td A c<Jt<Jloglli! reco rd (or tbis publicJliotl is ovaitable from the Bntish UbrJ1)' ISBN- 13 978 -0-52 1-53289-1 Edition with answers ISBN- IO 0-52 1-53289-2 Edition with an swers ISBN· 13 978-0-52 1-53290-7 Edition without answers ISBN -I O 0-52 1-53290-6 Editio n without answe rs ISBN- 13 978-0-52 1-$3762 -9 Edirion wit h C D-RO. 1 ISBN- to 0-52 1-53 762-2 Editio n with C D- RO~ I ISBN- 13 978 -0-52 1-843 11-9 Hardback edit ion with C D· RO .1 ISBN-I O 0-52 1-843 11- 1 Hardback edit ion with CD-RO .t ISBN· 13 97 8-3- 12-53 4086-2 Klett edition wit h CD-RO . I ISBN· to 3- 12-53 4086- 1 Klett ed ition with C D- R O ~ t ISBN- 13 978 -3- 12-53408 4 ·8 Kieft edition ISBN- IO 3- 12-5 3408 4-5 Klett edition
  4. 4. • Contents T h. mks -ji To the student viii To rhe reac her x Present .m d p,,1 $[ I Present con tin uous 1 am doing ' .l Present simple (I do : 3 Present continuou s and present simple 1 il am doin g an d I do l 4 Present conn nuo us and presen t simple J (I am doin g and J do l 5 P J, S[ simple II did) 6 Past co n rin uo u-, (I was doing I Present perfe,-f ,,111,1 p.1St - Pre-sen t perfect I II hav e do ne ) S 9 10 11 11 Present pe t ie..:t .2 II have do ne} Present perfect con tinu ou s II han: been doingl Present perfect co ntinu ous an d simple II have been doin g and I have do ne) How lon g ha ve ~ ou . been t ... : For and since When ... ? and How long ... ? . 13 Present perfect JnJ r .hl I d hone done and I did , 14 Present pe rfect and r .ht .! II have d on e an d I d id t 15 Past pe rfect U had done! 16 P.lSI perfect con tinuous il had been doing t 17 H ave gO I a nd have t S Use d to (d o) Futu re 19 Present tenses tl am doing I I do l fur the fut ure 20 rl'mt goi ng to (dol 11 " i ll/sha ll 1 " WilllshJ.1I 1 1 3 I will a nd I' m goi ng 0 1 ~ 'ill be doing ,U1J wi ll ha ve do ne 2. 5 W hen I d o I When I' ve d o ne When an d if .lo.l.lls 2. 6 Can, co uld and rbet abl e 10 Could (d ol an d co uld ha ve tdo net 2. 8 ." ust and ca n't 2 9 . 1.1 ~' a nd might I 30 ." .l ~' a nd rnig ht 1 3 1 Ha ve w a nd mu vt 31 . l ust mu stn't n...edn't 33 Should I 34 Sho uld 2. 3 5 Had bener It's time ,. , 36 Would J- Can'Could'Wo uld ~ou .. . ? esc. (Req uests. offers. permissio n and invirarionst -r- IF 'IOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS 'IOU NEED TO STUDY. USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326. iii
  5. 5. If ami wish .l8 If I do •..•md If I did ... 39 If I knew,., I w ish I knew ... 40 If I had known ..• I wish I had kn own ... 4 1 Vi"h Passire 42 Passin ' I (is done I was done ] 43 Passin ' 2. (be done I be don e ! being don e ) en 44 Pas sive 3 45 It is sa id that •.• H e is said to • .• 46 H ave som ething don e H e is suppo sed to ... Reported speech 47 Reported speech 1 j He said th at .••) 48 Reported speech 2. Q ltestioflS • .md .1lIxiliJry ('n bs 4 9 Quest ions 1 50 Questions 2. (Do ) 'O U kn ow w here ... ? I He asked me wh ere •.• ) 5 1 Auxili'lr}· verbs Iha ve/dozca n erc. j I think so I I hope so etc. 52 Q uest ion ta gs (do you ? isn't it ? ere.I -bIg 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 .md the i,,{illiti('e Verb + -ing (en jo y doing ! stop doing ere.I Verb + to ••. (decide to . .. ! forget to .•• ere. I Verb (+ o bject) + to ... (I want ) 'O U to ••• etc. I Verb + -in g or to 1 (remember/regret etc. ] Verb + -ing o r to 2. (try/needlh e1p l Verb + -ing or to 3 (like I wou ld like erc. l Prefer a nd wou ld ra ther Preposition (in/for/about ere. I + -ing Be/get used to someth ing (I'm used to ... ) Verh + preposi tion + -ing (succeed in -ing I accuse som ebod y o f -ing ctc.] Exp ressio ns + -in g To ••• • for .. . a nd so t hat •.. (pur pose ) Adjective + to .. . To ••• (a fraid to do l a nd preposition + -ing (afraid of -ing t See so mebody do a nd sec so mebody doin g -ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed e;Hly. f A rticles JIII/ nouns 69 Cou nta ble and uncountable 1 70 Co unta ble and uncountable 2 7 1 Counta ble nouns with ala n an d som e 72 Alan and the 73 The 1 74 The 2. (schoo l! t he school ere. I 75 The 3 (children I the children ! 76 The 4 Ithe giraffe I the teleph on e ! th e piano etc.• the 77 Na mes with a nd wit ho ut the 1 78 Na mes with an d with out th e 2 iv + ad iecnve t IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.
  6. 6. 79 S in ~u lJr and plur.ll 80 X oun ... no un (a tenni s ball f .l headache: 8 1 - rvour sisler nam e! and o f ... (rhe na me o f the book t Pronouns .l lId det erminers 82. :l y sdf/~' ours elfJth em seh' es ere. 83 .- friend of mine .l y own home On my own f by myself 84 Ther e ... • Od it .. . 1 S5 Some a nd .lny 86 X o/non c/a nv X othing/nobodv etc. 87 :I uch. man v.H n le. few. a lot. plentv SS All / .1.11 o f m O1 / movr o f no / non e of etc 89 Both f both o f neither f neither o f either f either of 90 : 11. every J.nJ whole 9 1 Each and c u'~ Relati re clauses 92. Relanve cla uses I: clauses with who/t hat/w hich 93 ReI.HiH' cla uses 2.: cla uses with an d without who/ tha t/which 94 Rela nve clauses 3: whose/wh om/wh er e 95 Relative clauses 4: exrra mformanon daus~ ( I I 96 Rela tive cla uses 5: e xtra info rmation clau ses l2.1 9 - -mg an d -ed cla uses rrhe woman talking 10 Tom. [he ~()y injured in the accident ' A J ;ecfU '('S JI1,I .I,/I" ('rI'5 98 99 100 10 1 Adle..nves endin,!: in -ing and -ed (bo ring/bo red ere -.1 Adj ective s: a nice new house. you loo k tired Adiecnves and adve rbs I {quick/quickly} Adiec rives .1OJ adve rbs 2. (H·llJf,H tIl. Cc. ha rd/hardly} 1 102. So an d such 10.3 Eno ugh and too 104 Q Uill". prcnv. ra ther .1nJ 105 106 10; 10 8 fa i rl ~" Co m p.mson I (cheaper. more expensive etc. t Com pa rison 2. tmc ch bcncr / a n j better / berrcr a nd better / Ihe sooner th e better) Com pa rison 3 ' 0< •• • 0< I than ! Superlatives uh c longest. the mo st enjoy able erc.! 109 '('ord o rder I: ver b + ubject: place and time 110 X'ord order 2. : ad verbs with the verb I I I Still. ~'e l an d alr eady 112. h en .-ny more f any lo nger I no longer COll lllll~· t i()ll$ 11.3 IH 115 116 11118 .lIt.l prepositions Althou gh I tho ugh I even though In spite of f despite In C,1 ~e Unless As lon g as Provided/p rovidi ng As (: s I wall ed along the st reet .•. / As I wa s hungr y ... J Like a nd a ~ .- ~ if / .1 th ough / likc IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHIOl UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326. v
  7. 7. I 19 Fo r. during a nd whil e 120 By a nd unt il By th e time ... Prepositione 12 1 Allon /in (ti me) 122 On time a nd in time 123 In/a t/on (position) I 124 Inla llon [pos ition! 2 125 In/a llon (pos itio n! 3 126 127 128 129 130 13 1 132 133 134 135 136 ToI:nlinlinto In/a llo n (o ther uses) By N oun + preposit io n (reaso n for . ca use of ere. I Adjecnv e + pr eposit ion 1 Adjecrive + p repos itio n 2 Verh + prepo sition I to a nd a t V + preposit io n 2 aboullfor/oflafter erb Ver h + prepo sit io n 3 about a nd o f Verb + preposition 4 ofI fo r/from/an Verb + preposition 5 inli ntol withltolon Pb rasal rerbs 137 Phra sal ve rb s 1 138 Phr a sal ve rb s 2 139 Phr a sal verbs 3 140 Phrasa l ver bs 4 14 1 Phr asal verbs 5 142 Phrasal verbs 6 143 Phrasa l ver bs 7 144 Ph ra sa l ver bs 8 145 Phra sa l ve rbs 9 Appendix 1 Append ix 2 Appe ndix 3 Appe nd ix 4 Append ix 5 Append ix 6 Append ix 7 Study guide Int roduct ion in/o ut o ut on/off ( Il on/off (2l Up/do wn up ( I) up (2) aw ay/back Regu lar a nd irregular verbs 292 Present a nd past tenses 294 T ht' futu re 29 5 Modal ve rbs (ca nJco uldJwillJwo uld erc.) 296 Sho rr form s (I'm I yo u've J didn't etc. I 297 Spelling 29 8 Amer ican English 300 Addit io na l exerc ises 302 326 Key to Exercises 33 6 Key to Ad ditional e xercises Key to Stud y gu ide 372 Inde x At the end an d in th e end 368 373 IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY. USE THE STUOY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.
  8. 8. Thanks I wrote the o riginal ed itio n o f English Grammar in Use when J was 3 reacher at the Swan Schoo l o f English. O xford. I would like to repeat my tha nks to my co lleag ues an d students at the school for their help. encou ragement and interest at tha t time. • .vt ore recentl y I woul d like to than k all the teachers and students I met and who o ffered their thoughts on the previous edition. It was tun to meet you all and extremely helpful for me. Rega rding t he prod uctio n of t his th ird edition . I am grate ful [ 0 Alison Sha rpe, Liz Driscoll. jane t.J irs and Kamae Design. I would also like to thank Cambridge University Press for permission to access the Cambridge Intern ation al Co rpus. Thank you also to the follow ing illustra tors: Paul Fellow s. Gillian b n io. Roger Penwill. Lisa Smith and Simon '('iIIiams. vii
  9. 9. To the student T his book is fo r students who want help with English gra mmar, It i~ wri tt en tor you to woe without ,1 reacher, T he hoo k will be useful for yo u if you are not sure of the answers to q uest ions like t hese: o What is the difference between J did and I JJJI·c JOlle? o When do we use u 'ill for the futu re: o "'hat is the str ucture after 1 w isb? o "" hen do we S3 }' used to do a nd when do we say me.' to doing: o When do we use the? o What is the difference between like and .IS: Th ese and many other poi nts o f English grammar are explained in the boo k and the re are exercises on each po int . l evel Th e hook is intended mainly for intermediate students tsrudenrs wh o hav e alr ead y stu d ied t he basic gram ma r of English), It concentrates on those str uctures wh ich inte rmedia te srudeo rs want to use. bur whic h often cause difficuhv, Some advanced stude nts who have prob lems wit h grammar will also find the boo k useful. Th e hook is 110 1 suitable fur elementary learn ers. How th e book is organ ised There are 145 units in the hook . Each unit concent rates on a particula r mint of gra mmar. Some probl ems (for example, the present perfect or the usc of tbl'l arc covered in mo rt' than o ne unit. For a list of units. sec the Co ntents at the beginning of rhe book . Each unit con sists of two feeing pages. O n rhe left there ar e explanat ion s and examples; on the right there are exercises. At the back of the rook there is a l':ey for you to check yo ur answers to t he exercises (page 33 6l . There are also seven Appendices at the back of the hook tpagcs 191- 30 1I. These includ e irregula r verbs. summaries of verb forms, spelling and America n English. Finall y. there is a deta iled Index at rhe back o f rhe honk tpage 3731. How to use the book T he units arc not in ord er of d ifficulrv, so it is /l 0 1 intended th at you wo rk th rou gh the book from beginnin g to end. Every learner h .1S different problems an d you shou ld usc th is hook TO help rou with the gramm ar that )'011 find difficult. It is suggested rha r you work in t his way: Use the Ccm /('lIts and/or index to find whic h unit deals with the point vonare interested in. If you arc not sure whic h units you need to study. usc the Sf/,.i)' gll ;.I.· on page 316. o Study rhe ex plan anons an d exa mples on the.' p.lge (If rhe unit ~'nu h.r ve chosen. a Do the exerci ses on the right -hand page. D C heck you r an swers with the Key, D If your an swers are not correct, study the left-ha nd page again to see what went wrong. a a You can of co urse usc the book simply as a reference hook without doin g the exercises. VIII
  10. 10. • To the teacher English Grammar in Use wa s writt en as a self-stu dy gra mmar book , hut teachers may also lind it useful as additional course mat erial in cases w here further work on grammar is nece ss<uy. T he hook will probably be most useful at midd le- and uppe r- inter mediate levels (where all o r nearly a ll of the material will be relevan n. and can serve borh as a ba sis for revisio n and as a mean s fo r practising new sn ucrures. Ir w ill also he useful fo r some more ad vanced stu dents w ho ha ve pro blems wit h gra mma r an d need a book for referen ce and pr.rcric-e. The book is nor intended to he used by elementary lea rners. Th e units arc orga nised in grammatical catego ries lPresm r .m d past, Articles .111.1 nOlllts. Prepositions ere.I. They a re nor ordered according to level of difficu lty, so (he hoo k should nor be wor ked throu gh fro m beginning to end. Irs bo uld be used selecnvelv a nd tle xiblv in acc ordance with the gra mmar sylla bus bei ng used and the d itticulries srude nrs are ha ving. The book ca n be used for immediate con solidat ion o r for later revisio n or remed ia l work . It migh t be used by the whole class or by individ ual stu dents needing extr a help. The lett- han d pagt"i (explanatio ns and exa mples) are w ritten for the stu de nt to use indi vid uall y, nut they may of cou rse be used by the teacher as a sou rce of ideas and informa tion on w hich to base a lesson. The st udent then has rhe left-hand page as a record of whar has bee n ta ught an d can refer to it in the futu re, The exe rcises ca n be done ind ividuall y, in clJ SS or as homework. Ah e m anvelv land additionally], individua l st udents can be directed to st udy cert ain units of the book b~" themselves if t he)' have particular difficulti es nor shared ll)' o ther stude nts in their class. Don 't forget the Additio"..,1exercises at t he hack o f the nook {see To the srcd en n. The ht){)k is sold wit h or witho ut a C D Rom. Thi s co ntai ns furt her exercises on all t he units in the noo k. as well as a bank o f 1.700 test qu estion s from which users ca n select to co mpi le their own resrs. T he C D Ro m is also availabl e sepa ratel y. An editi on o f r."glish Gramma r ill Use wit hout the prefer this for use wit h their students, 10:'-')' is also available. Some reach ers may English Grammar in Use Third Edition T his is a new ed itio n o f b tglish Grammar ill USI'. The differences between this ed ition and rhe seco nd edition are: o Th ere Me eight new units on ph rasal verbs (Units 138- 145 1. There i.. a lso .1 new unit on w ish (Unit 41 ), Units 42-81 and 83- 137 all have different numbers from the second edition. o So me of the ma ter ial has been revised o r reor gani sed. and in mo..( u n irv there are minor chang es in the exam ples, evplana nons an d exerci..e... o T he Add itional exercises ha ve been extended . Th e new exerci-esa re 14- 16, 25. 30-3 1. and .17- 4 1. o T he book has been redesigned wit h new co lour illuvrranons. o T here is a new CD Ro m with further exe rcises to accom pany the book. x