What Is Drama?Drama is a composition in prose form thatpresents a story entirely told in dialogue.It´s a story enacted onstage for a live audience.
ORIGINS OF DRAMAThe word drama comes from theGreek verb dran, which means “to do” or “to act” • The earliest known plays... – were written around the fifth century B.C. – produced for festivals to honor Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility
Dramatic StructureLike the plot of a story, the plot of a play involvescharacters who face a problem or conflict. Climax point of highest tension; Plot: action determines how the conflict Sequence of events that will be resolved develop the drama (complications) ResolutionExposition conflict is resolved;characters and conflict are play endsintroduced
Dramatic Structure • Conflict is a struggle or clash between opposing characters or forces. A conflict may develop . . . • between characters who want different things or the same thing • between a character and his or her circumstances • within a character who is torn by competing desires
TRAGEDYA tragedy is a play that ends unhappily.Most classic Greek tragedies deal with serious, universal themessuch as• right and wrong• justice and injustice• life and death
The protagonist of mostclassical tragedies is a tragichero.This hero is noble and in manyways admirable has a tragicflaw, a personal failing thatleads to a tragic end.
MELODRAMAIt shows events that follow each other rapidly, butseems to be governed always by chance.The characters are victims in the hands of mercilessfate.
COMEDYIt is a type of drama intended to interest andamuse the audience rather than make themdeeply concerned about events that happen. Theplot usually centers on a romantic conflict.It is a play that ends happily.Comic complications always occur beforethe conflict is resolved. In most cases, the play ends with a wedding.
FARCEFarce is a sub-category ofcomedy, characterized by greatlyexaggerated characters andsituations.Farces typically involve mistakenidentities, lots of physicalcomedy and outrageous plottwists.
MusiCALIn musical theater, the story is told not only throughdialogue and acting but through music and dance.Musicals are often comedies, although many do involveserious subject matter.
TRAGiCOMEDYIt is a play that does not adhere strictly to thestructure of tragedy. There is a mix of comedy andTragedy side by side in these types of plays. It focuses on character relationships and shows societyin a state of continuous flux.
HOMEWORK• Find two or three examples of each genre of drama. Justify your answers.
All the elements of drama combine to make a good production. They are all important. Somedemonstrate more of one element than others.
Literary Elements• Script?• A script is the written words and directions of a play.
Literary Elements• Plot?• The plot is the storyline or arrangement of action.
Literary Elements• Character?• A character is a person portrayed in a drama.
Literary Elements• Story Organization?• The story organization is how a story is told – the beginning, middle and end.
Literary Elements• Setting?• The setting is where the action takes place.
Literary Elements• Dialogue?• A dialogue is a spoken conversation between two characters.
Literary Elements• Monologue?• A monologue is a long speech made by one person.• Soliloquy? A character alone on stage reveals private thoughts.• Aside? A character briefly expresses private thoughts to the audience that other characters on stage cannot hear.
Literary Elements• Conflict?• The internal or external struggle between opposing forces, ideas, or interests that create dramatic tension.
Technical Elements• Scenery?• The scenery is theatrical equipment such as curtains, backdrops, and platforms to communicate the environment. An example might be trees to show a forest environment.
Technical Elements• Props?• Props are any article other than costumes or scenery used as part of a dramatic production. An example might be a table on the stage.
Technical Elements• Sound and Music?• Sound is the effect an audience hears during a show, like the sound of rain. And music – well, you know what music is!
Technical Elements• Make-up?• Make-up is the use of costumes, wigs and body paint to transform an actor into a character.
Performance Elements• Acting?Acting is how speaking and moving help to create characters.
Performance Elements• Non-verbal ExpressionNon-expression includes gestures, facial expressions, and movement.
Performance Elements• SpeakingSpeaking is vocal expression, projection, speaking style and diction.
ConclusionA comedy ends happily after an amusingseries of problem.Tragedy stresses human greatness, butcomedy emphasizes human faults and theweaknesses of society