Ouc introduction to renewables 1 hr

1,181 views

Published on

Introduction to renewables for Orlando Utilities Commission

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,181
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
55
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
101
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ouc introduction to renewables 1 hr

  1. 1. An Introduction to Renewables
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Renewable Energy Drivers • Resource/Policy Map Overview • Renewable Energy Technologies – Solar (PV, Domestic Hot Water, Concentrating) – Biomass – Wind • OUC’s Approach 2
  3. 3. Drivers for Renewable Energy Investment The Three E’s – Economic Stability • Reduced price volatility • Opportunities for export in global market • Green job creation – Environmental Sustainability • Carbon reduction needs • Impacts of fossil combustion on human health • NIMBY issues of nuclear – Energy Security • Large % of fossil fuel supply located outside of Florida • Fossil fuel supply disruptions • Political risks • Fuel diversity provides a hedge against risk 3
  4. 4. Renewable Energy Resource and Policy Maps
  5. 5. U.S. Biomass Resource 5
  6. 6. U.S. Wind Resource (50m) 6
  7. 7. U.S. Concentrating Solar Resource 7
  8. 8. U.S. Photovoltaic Solar Resource 8
  9. 9. All Resources 9
  10. 10. Renewable Portfolio Standards WA: 15% by 2020* VT: (1) RE meets any increase ME: 30% by 2000 New RE: 10% by 2017 MN: 25% by 2025 in retail sales by 2012; MT: 15% by 2015 (2) 20% RE & CHP by 2017 ☼ NH: 23.8% by 2025 (Xcel: 30% by 2020) OR: 25% by 2025 (large utilities) ND: 10% by 2015 MI: 10% + 1,100 MW ☼ MA: 15% by 2020 5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities) by 2015* + 1% annual increase (Class I Renewables) SD: 10% by 2015 WI: Varies by utility; ☼ NY: 24% by 2013 10% by 2015 goal RI: 16% by 2020 ☼ NV: 20% by 2015* CT: 23% by 2020 IA: 105 MW UT: 20% by 2025* ☼ OH: 25% by 2025† ☼ PA: 18% by 2020† IL: 25% by 2025 VA: 15% by 2025* ☼ CO: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) ☼ NJ: 22.5% by 2021 CA: 20% by 2010 10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)* ☼ MO: 15% by 2021 ☼ MD: 20% by 2022 ☼ AZ: 15% by 2025 ☼ DE: 20% by 2019* ☼ NC: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs) 10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis) ☼ DC: 20% by 2020 ☼ NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs) 10% by 2020 (co-ops) TX: 5,880 MW by 2015 HI: 20% by 2020 28 states & DC have an RPS 5 states have goals State renewable portfolio standard ☼ Minimum solar or customer-sited requirement State renewable portfolio goal Solar water heating eligible * † Extra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables Includes separate tier of non-renewable alternative resources 10 www.dsireusa.org / May 2009
  11. 11. Public Benefits Funds for Renewables www.dsireusa.org / May 2009 (estimated funding) ME: 2009 funding TBD MT: $750,000 in 2009 MN: $19.5M in 2009 $580,300 from 2002-2009 $14M from 1999-2017* $327M from 1999-2017* VT: $5.2M in FY2009 MI: $6.7M in FY2009 $33M from 2004-2011 OR: $13.8M in 2009 $27M from 2001-2017* MA: $25M in FY2009 $191M from 2001-2017** $524M from 1998-2017* WI: $7.9M in 2009 $90M from 2001-2017* RI: $2.2M in 2009 $38M from 1997-2017* CT: $28M in FY2009 $444M from 2000-2017* OH: $3.2M in 2009 CA: $363.7M in 2009 IL: $3.3M in FY2009 $63M from 2001-2010 $97M from 1998-2015 NJ: $78.3M in FY2009 $4,566M from 1998-2016 $647M from 2001-2012 DC NY: $15.7M in FY2009 DC: $2M in FY2009 $114M from 1999-2011 $8.8M from 2004-2012 PA: $950,000 in 2009 $63M from 1999-2010 DE: $3.4M in 2009 $48M from 1999-2017* 16 states + State PBF DC have public benefits have public benefits funds ($7.3 billion by funds ($7.3 billion by State PBF supported by voluntary contributions 2017) 2017) * Fund does not have a specified expiration date ME has a voluntary PBF ME has a voluntary PBF ** The Oregon Energy Trust is scheduled to expire in 2025 11
  12. 12. Property Tax Incentives for Renewables www.dsireusa.org / February 2010 DC Puerto Rico 32 States + PR State exemption or special assessment only offer property Local governments authorized to offer exemption (no state exemption or assessment) tax incentives State exemption or special assessment + local government option for renewables 12
  13. 13. Renewable Energy Technology Options Technology Availability Cost Current per Viability in KWH Florida Landfill Gas Recovery Baseload $0.04 High Solar Hot Water Peak/Shoulder $0.10 High Waste to Energy Baseload $0.11 High Direct Fired Biomass Baseload $0.14 High to Medium Co-Fired Biomass Baseload $0.09 High to Medium Solar Photovoltaics (Rooftop) Peak/Shoulder $0.25 Medium Biomass Gasification Baseload $0.12 Medium Solar Photovoltaics (Commercial Peak/Shoulder $0.20 Medium Scale) Solar Thermal Electric Peak/Shoulder $0.18 Medium to Low Wind (Offshore) Varies $0.22 Low Wind (Inland) Varies $0.28 Low 13
  14. 14. Current Renewable Energy Resources in Florida • Solar hot water • Solar photovoltaics • Solar thermal electric • Landfill gas • MSW • Dry Biomass • Wet Biomass 14
  15. 15. Renewable Energy Technologies
  16. 16. Solar
  17. 17. Photovoltaics (PV) • Benefits: – No fuel costs – Carbon free – Can be distributed near the user – High cost reduction potential – Creates local jobs • Challenges: – Not dispatchable – Intermittent resource – PV is still expensive compared with conventional fuels – Minimal impact to winter peak 17
  18. 18. Photovoltaics Versus Solar Hot Water Two Different Solar Technologies • PV uses photochemical • Solar Thermal relies on reactions to create an electric thermodynamic heat transfer to current warm fluids • Primary component is silicon or • Primary components are glass other semiconductor and copper tubing • Cost per KWH is around $0.21 • Cost per KWH is around $0.10 • Average system cost is around • Average system cost is around $8,000/KW $4,000 • Can power electric loads • Can’t directly power electric • Can work in any climate loads • Must use batteries to store • Works best in warmer climates electricity for evening use • Stores hot water in thermally insulated tank for evening use 18
  19. 19. How Does PV Generate Electricity? The built-in electric field pushes the electron across and it is collected by the grid on the surface Photons pass through surface and are absorbed within the cell The absorbed photon gives its energy to an electron, which Individual PV Cell breaks free 19
  20. 20. PV Daily Energy Production: Rule of Thumb • 1-kW PV array produces 5 kWh/day DC • 1-kW grid-tied system produces 4 kWh/day AC • 1-kW system produces approximately 1400 kWh annually 20
  21. 21. Module Types Polycrystalline Single Crystal Thin-Film 21
  22. 22. Using PV in Our Community 22
  23. 23. Solar Domestic Hot Water • Benefits: – No fuel costs – Carbon free – Can be distributed near the user – Low cost – Creates local jobs – Can be used to pre-heat for industrial applications – Can easily heat water over 160° F • Challenges: – Intermittent resource – Storage tank required – Must have a hot water load 23
  24. 24. Passive Solar Hot Water • No moving parts • Uses gravity and pressure to move water • Collector is storage tank • Usually least cost option 24
  25. 25. Active Solar Hot Water • Active pump circulates water • Can be PV powered • Slimmer profile than passive system • Can be open or closed loop • Can use water or glycol for heat transfer • Tend to be more expensive than passive system 25
  26. 26. Commercial Hot Water 26
  27. 27. Residential Hot Water 27
  28. 28. Solar Concentrating Systems • Concentrate solar energy through use of mirrors or lenses. • Concentration factor (“number of suns”) may be greater than 10,000. • Systems may be small – (e.g. solar cooker) • Or really large – Utility scale electricity generation – Furnace temperatures up to 3800oC (6800oF) 28
  29. 29. Primary Types of Solar Thermal Electric • Parabolic Trough • Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector • Solar Furnace • Parabolic Dish & Engine • Solar Central Receiver (Solar Power Tower) • Lens Concentrators • Concentrating PV 29
  30. 30. FRESNEL REFLECTOR LENS CONCENTRATORS PARABOLIC TROUGH PARABOLIC DISH CENTRAL RECEIVER 30 SOLAR FURNACE
  31. 31. Parabolic Troughs - Operation • Most proven solar thermal technology • Parabolic mirror reflects solar energy onto a receiver • Heat transfer fluid such as oil or water is circulated through pipe loop. (250°F to 550°F) • Collectors track sun from east to west during day. • Thermal energy transferred from pipe loop to process. • Basis for FPL and Harmony Projects 31
  32. 32. Thermal Storage • Uses high heat capacity fluids as heat transfer storage mediums (ex. Molten salts) • 12 to 17 hours of storage will allow plants to have up to 60% to 70% capacity factors. 32
  33. 33. Biomass Energy Resources
  34. 34. Range of Biomass Energy Options Products Biomass Conversion • Fuels Feedstock Processes • Ethanol • Biodiesel • Power  • Electricity • Heat • Chemicals • Plastics • Solvents •Trees •Enzymatic Fermentation • Chemical Intermediates •Grasses •Gas/liquid Fermentation • Adhesives •Agricultural Crops •Acid Hydrolysis Fermentation • Fatty Acids •Residues •Gasification •Animal Wastes •Combustion • Acetic Acid •Municipal Solid Waste •Co‐firing • Paints •Algae •Transesterification • Dyes, Pigments, and Ink •Food Oils • Detergents • Food and Feed 34
  35. 35. Biomass Energy “Value Chain” • Production • Harvesting, collection • Handling • Transport • Storage • Pre-treatment (e.g., milling) • Feeding • Conversion 35
  36. 36. Benefits of Biomass Combustion • Can be a least cost option • Can be co-fired to allow for fuel switching • Can be used 24 hours/day • Carbon neutral or negative fuel (depending on feedstock) • Feedstock can be burned as solid or gas using conventional technologies 36
  37. 37. Challenges of Biomass Combustion • Lower BTU content than coal • Lower density/higher moisture content • Competing uses • Short-term vendor contracts • Handling challenges • Supply costs can vary greatly depending on feedstock source Specialized handling and firing equipment • Modifications to air quality control systems • Multiple suppliers to deal with • Fugitive dust and odor issues • Fuel flexibility and fluctuating supplies 37
  38. 38. Waste to Energy • Solves two problems at once by reducing waste stream and creating electricity • Common Methods of Conversion – Direct Combustion – Gasification – Anaerobic Digestion • Requires pre-processing • Feedstock handling can be challenging • Heterogeneous feedstock mean inconsistent fuel quality 38
  39. 39. Landfill Gas Capture • Benefits: – Can be co-fired – Can be used 24 hours/day – Extremely low cost – Carbon reduction benefits • Challenges: – Slightly lower BTU value than natural gas – May need to be cleaned – Location specific 39
  40. 40. Wind Power
  41. 41. Wind Power • Benefits: – No fuel costs – Carbon free – Can be low cost where resources are available – Can allow for multiple uses of land • Challenges: – Not dispatchable – Intermittent resource – Very location specific – Minimum wind speeds required for operation 41
  42. 42. Classes of Wind Power Density at Heights of 10 m and 50 m 10 m (33 ft) 50 m (164 ft) Wind Power Wind Power Wind Power Class* Density Density (W/m2) Speed m/s (mph) (W/m2) Speed m/s (mph) 1 100 4.4 (9.8) 200 5.6 (12.5) 2 150 5.1 (11.5) 300 6.4 (14.3) 3 200 5.6 (12.5) 400 7.0 (15.7) 4 250 6.0 (13.4) 500 7.5 (16.8) 5 300 6.4 (14.3) 600 8.0 (17.9) 6 400 7.0 (15.7) 800 8.8 (19.7) 7 1,000 9.4 (21.1) 2,000 11.9 (26.6) 42
  43. 43. Wind Turbine Components 43
  44. 44. OUC’s Approach 44
  45. 45. OUC’s Renewable Energy Business Objectives • Balance sustainability with affordability and reliability • Provide a hedging strategy against potential regulatory requirements through the acquisition of renewable energy credits (RECs) and Carbon Offsets • Leverage state and federal incentives offered to encourage the development of customer-sited assets • Offer an option to customer requests for environmentally-friendly energy investments • Pursue least-cost planning for future energy investments • 7% Internal Renewable Goal 45
  46. 46. Key Integration Challenges • High Utility Reserve Margin – OUC currently maintains 130% required energy capacity – No need for power until 2020 due to slower growth rates and customer conservation – Heavy base load generation (coal) – Low avoided energy rates (fuel only) • Lack of Government Regulation – No state or federal RPS – No carbon legislation • Higher Cost of Renewable Generation – Biomass and solar currently cost more than primary generation sources making it more challenging to integrate without regulation 46
  47. 47. Biomass Energy Projects • Landfill Methane Recovery Projects – Orange County Landfill displaces 3% of fuel required for either of Stanton’s coal units ~ expanding to 22 MW – St. Cloud Landfill 1 MW project being planned – Holopaw Landfill Project recently approved (~ 15 MW) • Harmony Hybrid Solar/Biomass Power Plant – 5 MW Plant will be located in Harmony’s Florida Sustainable Energy Research Park – Uses biomass gasifiers and concentrating solar to generate electricity – Includes educational partnership with FSU • MSW Gasification with City of Orlando – Net Metered System – Turns trash to Syngas in a closed loop system – No dioxins produced – Will provide co-generation to City water treatment facility 47 – 1 to 2 MW in scale
  48. 48. OUC’s Existing Solar Projects • Solar Production Incentive – Provides incentives for producing energy from solar hot water and PV – $.03 to $.05/KWH Currently re-evaluating incentive levels • Solar Billed Solution – Provides no/low interest loans through the Orlando Federal Credit Union (OFCU) – OUC buys down interest – Preparing to re-bid • Solar Electric Vehicle Charging Station at OUC – 2.8 KW – Provides 80% solar fraction for charging • Solar on Utility Poles – Partnership with PetraSolar – Uses micro-inverters – 10 systems installed • Jetport/Stanton Solar PPA – 9.31 MW DC – 22% Capacity Factor – In negotiations with vendor 48
  49. 49. New Solar Business Models • Community Solar Farm • Commercial Solar Aggregation – 500 KW to 1 MW depending on Pilot customer participation – OUC holds PPA with vendor – OUC holds PPA with vendor and acts as billing agent and acts as billing agent – No upfront cost to participate – No upfront cost to participate – Fixed monthly rate for 20+ – Fixed monthly rate for 20+ years years – Customer retains demand – Virtual net metering savings and any net metering – Allows for multi-family – Sited on the customer’s rooftop participants – Price reductions from project – Removes siting barriers aggregation – OUC owns Environmental – OUC owns Environmental Attributes Attributes 49
  50. 50. New Biomass Opportunities • Biomass Co-Firing – Possibly up to 10% of boiler capacity (90 MW) – Ship biomass feedstock via rail cars from longer distances – Consider torrefaction to improve BTU content and moisture content 50
  51. 51. New Biomass Opportunities • Algae Biomass Project – Opportunities to use algae to treat wastewater – Fed CO2 from post- scrubbed flue gas – Algae is “cracked” to obtain biofuels and biomass feedstock for co-firing. 51
  52. 52. Summer Peak Day 1600 STN A 06/22/2009 STN #2 06/22/2009 1400 STN #1 06/22/2009 MP #3 06/22/2009 1200 IR CTD 06/22/2009 IR CTC 06/22/2009 IR CTA 06/22/2009 Natural Gas 1000 800 600 Coal and Landfill Gas 400 200 0 H 9 7 8 5 6 3 4 1 2 10 11 12 13 14 24 15 16 17 22 23 18 19 20 21 R R R R R R R R R 52 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
  53. 53. Summer Peak Day with Renewables 1600 Photovoltaics STN A 06/22/2009 PV Contribution 1400 STN #2 06/22/2009 STN #1 06/22/2009 MP #3 06/22/2009 1200 IR CTD 06/22/2009 IR CTC 06/22/2009 IR CTA 06/22/2009 Biogas 1000 Opportunities 800 600 Biomass Co-Firing Opportunities 400 200 0 22 20 21 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17 18 19 15 16 14 12 13 10 11 R R R R R R R R R 53 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
  54. 54. Winter Peak Day 1600 STN A 01/11/2010 STN #2 01/11/2010 STN #1 01/11/2010 1400 MP #3 01/11/2010 IR CTB 01/11/2010 IR CTA 01/11/2010 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 11 12 13 14 19 20 21 22 7 8 1 2 3 4 9 10 15 16 17 18 23 24 5 6 54 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H
  55. 55. Winter Peak Day with Renewables 1600 Photovoltaics STN A 01/11/2010 PV Contribution STN #2 01/11/2010 1400 STN #1 01/11/2010 MP #3 01/11/2010 IR CTB 01/11/2010 1200 IR CTA 01/11/2010 1000 Biogas Opportunities 800 600 Biomass Co-Firing Opportunities 400 200 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 55 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H

×