Communication for all


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For my students who study communication and communication skills at different levels

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Communication for all

  1. 1. What is communication?
  2. 2. Communication in its simplest form is conveying of information from one person to another.
  3. 3. Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another. It is, according to George Terry, “an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”
  4. 4. • Communication is a process of transmitting and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages. • Communication is a two way process of exchanging ideas or information.
  5. 5. Communication is the sum of all things, one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of the other. It is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. Allen Louis
  6. 6. Communication is transfer of information. It takes place through a process.
  7. 7. The simplest model of communication process Sender--------Message------Receiver
  8. 8. Communication is a process that is dynamic, continuous and irreversible but at the same time, it is reciprocal in nature. It is an ongoing process
  9. 9. Business communication is a process of transfer of information and understanding between different parts and people of a business organization. It consists of various modes and media involved in communication interchanges
  10. 10. Immediate or Primary (to cover or share information) Ultimate or Secondary (to convince or to persuade people)
  11. 11. Formal 1. Intra –organizational communication 2. Inter- organizational Informal 3. Personal communication
  12. 12. 1. Purpose (why) 2. Content (what) 3. Skill (how)
  13. 13. Process of Communication transmission encoding decoding Sender Receiver decoding encoding transmission
  14. 14. Process of Communication Noise Channel/transmission Encoding Sender decoding receiver Channel/transmission
  15. 15. Components of Communication • • • • • • Context Sender – encoder Message Medium Receiver – decoder Feedback
  16. 16. Nature of Communication • • • • • It is a process It is inevitable Meaning based It could be intentional or unintentional It is systematic
  17. 17. Nature of Communication • A two-way traffic • A social process • Dynamic process • Continuous process • Needs proper understanding • Dispels misunderstanding
  18. 18. Objective or Purpose of Communication • To inform • • • • • • • To persuade To educate To train To motivate To integrate To relate To entertain
  19. 19. Barriers to Communication
  20. 20. Barriers to Communication • Barriers on the part of the sender • Barriers on the part of the receiver • Technical barriers/ barriers on the part of the organization
  21. 21. Barriers to Communication “I want you to write a manual to interpret the brochure that we created to clarify the pamphlet that we got printed to inform our customers about our new products.”
  22. 22. Semantic Barriers • Words having similar pronunciation but multiple meaning • Badly expressed message • Wrong interpretation • Technical language
  23. 23. Organizational Barriers • • • • • • Organization culture and climate Rules and regulation Status relationship Complexity in organization structure Inadequate facilities and opportunities Lack of cordiality and cooperation
  24. 24. Interpersonal Barriers Superior – subordinate relationship • No time for the subordinates • No respect for the subordinates • Lack of trust • Lack of consideration for their needs • Wish to capture authority • Fear of losing power • Information overload
  25. 25. Interpersonal Barriers • • • • • Emanating from subordinates Lack of proper channel – pressure of position, power and authority No interest in communication Lack of cooperation Poor relationship between superiorsubordinates fear
  26. 26. Individual Barriers (psycho-sociological) • • • • • • • Perception and individuality Status awareness Poor listening Poor retention Lack of attention Indifference Health factor filtering
  27. 27. Cross Cultural Barriers • • • • • • • National character Language Values and ethics Social relationship Concept of time Concept of space Non verbal communication
  28. 28. Physical barriers (channel and media barriers) Noise Technological Barriers
  29. 29. Forms of communication • Verbal communication • Non-verbal communication
  30. 30. Verbal communication This form of communication uses words spoken or written – to communicate.
  31. 31. Verbal Communication Oral Written
  32. 32. Oral Communication • • • • • • • • Face to face discussion Telephone / cellular phone Presentation Intercom Radio/T.V. Tape-recorder Speech Interview Grapevine
  33. 33. Components of Oral Communication • • • • Presentation Audience awareness Critical listening Body language
  34. 34. Presentation
  35. 35. Oral presentation
  36. 36. Written Communication • • • • • • • • Notice Telegram Memorandum Telex Fax Email Letter Newspaper/journal/magazine
  37. 37. Components of Written Communication • • • • Academic writing Revision & editing Critical reading Presentation of data
  38. 38. We are always communicating, consciously or unconsciously. It is one of the most important aspect of human life. We do need to understand the whole gamut of it, to live a meaningful and effective life at all levels.
  39. 39. •There is a direct co-relation between employee Communication Skills & Profitability. Communication skills rate second only to job knowledge in your work life & success. oYour level of communication mastery in the external world will determine your growth & well being. Quality of your life is quality of your communication
  40. 40. Learn how to respect and appreciate others, you need not agree with the contents, but you can respect/agree with someone’s feelings about something. Ask: Intelligently and precisely, specifically (What why when), Ask the right person, Create value for the person you are asking, Ask with focused congruent belief, Ask until you get what you want. Ensure with feedback that the message has been Clearly and Correctly understood.
  41. 41. According to researches, Verbal (words) element accounts for 7%, Vocal(tone) 38% and Visual (body language) accounts for 55% in any communication. However there is another auric (your internal state of being, feelings etc.) element which does affect the communication. We all have experienced what it means to be in the company of happy positive person. Researches have yet to establish to proportions for it.
  42. 42. Nonverbal communication means all communication that involves neither written nor spoken words but occurs without the use of words
  43. 43. Non-verbal communication The communication that does not use words spoken or written – is called non-verbal communication.
  44. 44. Nonverbal Communication • Body Language • Sign Language • Paralanguage
  45. 45. Components of Nonverbal Communication • Audience awareness • Personal presentation • Body language
  46. 46. Body Language • • • • • • • Facial Expressions Eye Contact Posture Gestures Body Shape Smell and Touch Silence
  47. 47. Body Language Posture Eye contact Gesture Body shape Circumstantial language
  48. 48. Body Language Posture Circumstantial language Body shape Facial expression
  49. 49. Body Language Facial expression
  50. 50. Sign ? Symbol ? Facial expression ?
  51. 51. Body Language Facial expression
  52. 52. Body Language Symbol
  53. 53. Nonverbal communication Cultural factor
  54. 54. Nonverbal communication Time
  55. 55. Sign Language • Symbols Visual symbols Audio symbols
  56. 56. Nonverbal communication Visual communication
  57. 57. circumstantial language
  58. 58. Nonverbal communication circumstantial language
  59. 59. circumstantial language
  60. 60. Paralanguage • • • • • • Pitch Variation Volume Speed and Pause Stress on words Non-fluencies Circumstantial language
  61. 61. What is effective communication? Communication is considered effective when it achieves the desired reaction or response from the receiver.
  62. 62. Barriers of Communication Noise : 1 Physical 2 Physiological 3 Psychological
  63. 63. Barriers on the part of the sender • • • • • Faulty planning Vague Presumptions Semantics Poorly expressed contents Emphasizing the wrong part of the message
  64. 64. Barriers on the part of the sender • Inconsistent verbal and nonverbal communication • Emotional factor • Status factor • Filtering
  65. 65. Barriers on the Part of the Receiver • • • • • • Distraction Poor listening and instant reaction Emotional constraints Closed minds Filtering Distrust
  66. 66. Organizational and Other Barriers • Noise • Insufficient time period • Loss during transmission and poor retention • Barriers due to organization structure • Cultural barriers
  67. 67. Remedies to overcome the barriers • Follow up and feedback • Check the functioning of the channels of communication • Timing • Attention to language • Removal of personal barriers • Cultural consciousness
  68. 68. What Does Communication Accomplish?
  69. 69. C un mm Co t io n ic a
  70. 70. Management Happens Through Communication
  71. 71. Managers Have Three Basic Jobs • To collect and convey information • To make decisions • To promote interpersonal unity
  72. 72. Mediums for communication • • • • • Oral communication Written communication Visual communication Audio-visual communication Computer based communication
  73. 73. Choice of Medium • The type of audience to be reached • The speed with which the message should be conveyed • Need for confidentiality • Need for accuracy • Need for reliability • Availability of a particular medium • Intensity and complexity of the message
  74. 74. What Makes a Message Effective? Good business and administrative writing is• Clear • Coherent • Complete • Correct • Concise • Builds Goodwill
  75. 75. How to achieve effectiveness • Command over language • Adequate knowledge of human psychology • Adequate knowledge of subject • Sincerity and accuracy of facts/data • Imagination and perception • Cheerfulness 
  76. 76. How to Analyze Business Communication Situation? P A I B O C Purpose Audience Information Benefits Objections Context and circumstances
  77. 77. Making One’s writing More Effective Business communications need both to solve the organizational problem and meet the psychological needs of the people involved.  planning  writing  revising
  78. 78. Content and Clarity  Does your document meet the needs of the organization and of the reader – and make you look good?  Have you given the readers all the information they need to understand and act on your message?  Is all the information accurate?  Is each statement clear?  Does it contain adequate supporting details?
  79. 79. Organization and Layout  Is the choice of the channel proper?  Are transitions between the ideas smooth?  Is the document properly designed?  Are the first and the last paragraphs effective?
  80. 80. Style and Tone Is the message easy to read? Is the message friendly and free from biased language? Does the message build goodwill?
  81. 81. Using Right Type of Communication • If your audience is:  Introvert type  Extrovert type • Use this strategy  Write a memo  Try out your ideas orally  Intuitive type  Present the big picture first  Thinking type  Sensitive type  Use logic not emotion  Express your concern about the people-needs of the organization
  82. 82. Communication Systems
  83. 83. Chief Executive Managing Director Company Secretary Financial Director Sales Director
  84. 84. Communication Systems • • • • • Downward Communication Upward Communication Horizontal Communication Diagonal Communication Grapevine
  85. 85. Company Secretary Managing Director Financial Director Horizontal Communication Upward Communication Downward Communication Chief Executive Sales Director
  86. 86. Downward Communication ooo Where higher levels communicate with staff below them. memos notices in-house newsletter company handbook procedure manuals
  87. 87. Downward Communication a. motivation b. job instructions related to specific tasks c. job rationales explaining the assign task in relation to other organizational tasks. d. procedures and practices of the organization e. feedback on individual performances
  88. 88. Upward Communication Communications are directed upwards to managers, supervisors or directors by using: memos reports meetings informal discussions
  89. 89. Horizontal Communication This occurs between people of the same status – sales staff, departmental heads, directors, supervisors by using: memos reports committee meetings seminars / conferences
  90. 90. Diagonal Communication Tasks that involve more than one departments and without any obvious line of authority. It largely relies on cooperation, goodwill and mutual respect between concerned individual. It may use memos and informal discussions
  91. 91. Grapevine • This is an unofficial system of communication. • When correct lines of communications are not used, the grapevines results.
  92. 92. What is Effective Communication?
  93. 93. Written Communication Skills
  94. 94. Checklist for Effective Writing Content and clarity Organization and Layout Style and Tone
  95. 95. Purposes of writing business letters • To Inform • To Persuade • To Collaborate
  96. 96. To Inform • The first purpose of written communication is to inform the receiver of the message. • For instance: • To present last month’s sales figures the Vice president of the Marketing.
  97. 97. To Persuade • The second purpose of the written communication is to convince the readers of our subject. • For instance: • To convince the Vice President of the Marketing to hire more sales representatives.
  98. 98. To Collaborate • The final purpose of written communication is to collaborate. • For instance: • To help Personnel Department in developing a training programme to new employees of the Sales Department.
  99. 99. Five Stages of Writing • • • • • Thinking and Planning The Reader Capturing Ideas Shape and Structure Editing, Revising and Proof Reading.
  100. 100. Business Letters • Business letters are basic means of communication between two individuals or companies. • A successful letter should be able to get the response that we expect from the reader.
  101. 101. Business Letters • Business letters are written to inform readers about specific information and also to persuade others to take action or to propose your ideas. • The key to write a business letter is to get to the point as quickly as possible and to present our information clearly.
  102. 102. Steps in Formulation of Letters 1. Consider the Reader: • One of the main steps in formulation of the letter is to consider the reader. The main idea of writing a message is to make the reader to understand what we want to convey.
  103. 103. Steps in Formulation of Letters 2. Be Personal: • The message should be given a personal touch. 3. Be Concise and To the Point: • The language of the letter should be concise and straight.
  104. 104. Steps in Formulation of Letters 4. Be Friendly and Build the Relationship: • Communication is all about building relationships. The message should have the touch of friendliness so that a better business relationship can be built in the future.
  105. 105. Steps in Formulation of Letters 5. Correctness: • After writing down the message, we should do an editing on the written matter. Check for spelling mistakes, the usage of grammar and facts that have been use in the letter.