Directmethod 101025035619-phpapp01

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Directmethod 101025035619-phpapp01

  1. 1. THE DIRECT METHOD
  2. 2. Linguists, such as Henry Sweet (1845-1912)in England, Wilhelm Viëtor (1850-1918) İn Germany, and Paul Édouard Passy (1859-1940)in France too became interested in the controversies that emerged about the best way to teach foreign languages, and ideas were fiercely discussed and defended in books( The Practical Study of Languages by H. Sweet), articles and pamphlets(Language Teaching Must Start Afresh by W. Viëtor). Reformers in the late 19th century shared many beliefs about the principles on which a new approach to teaching foreign languages should be based. The Reform Movement The Direct Method
  3. 3. The late nineteenth-century reformers shared the following beliefs:  Knowing a language is being able to speak it.  Great stress on correct pronunciation and target language from outset.  Second language learning must be an imitation of first language learning, as this is the natural way humans learn any language.  The written word / writing should be delayed until after the printed word has been introduced.  The learning of grammar ductively/ translating skills should be avoided.  All above items must be avoided because they hinder the acquisition of a good oral proficiency. The Direct Method
  4. 4. Teachers, frustrated by the limits of the Grammar Translation Method in terms of its inability to create communicative competence in students, began to experiment with new ways of teaching language like Direct Method in post-war and depression era classrooms. This method’s name comes from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language. And it’s also called Natural Method as it’s based on the way children learn their native language. The Direct Method
  5. 5. Aim: The Direct Method aims at establishing the direct bond between thought and expressions and between experience and language. It is based on the assumption that the learner should experience the new language in the same way as he experienced his mother tongue. Its main features are: 1. Only the use of target language is allowed in class, 2. Students are encouraged to think in the target language, 3. Grammar should be taught inductively, 4. This method is based on sound principles of education. It believes in introducing the particular before general, concrete before abstract and practice before theory. Direct Method
  6. 6. 5. The teacher should demonstrate not explain or translate, 6. Vocabulary should be learned in full sentences rather than memorizing word lists, 7. Pronunciation should be worked on right from outset, 8. Self-correction facilitates language learning,, 9. First speaking is taught and then reading and writing, 10. The learner should be actively involved in using the target language in realistic everyday situation, 11. The syllabus is based on situations or topics, not usually on linguistic structures, 12. Objects should be used to help student understand the meaning. Direct Method
  7. 7. A comparison between the Direct Method and the Grammar Translation Method D.M G.T.M 1. avoids close association between the second language and the mother tongue. 2. lays emphasis on speech. 3. follows the child’s natural way of learning a language. 4. teaches the language by ‘use’ 5. does not favour the teaching of formal grammar at the early stage. 1. maintains close association between the second language and the mother tongue. 2. lays emphasis on translation. 3. follows the adult’s natural way of learning a language. 4. teaches the language by ‘rule’. 5. teaches formal grammar from the very beginning.
  8. 8. There were many linguists in the 19th century who tried to apply natural principles of learning language, as a child does, to the second language classroom. Among those who best presented the method were  F. Franke: thought a language could best be taught by using it actively in the classroom. L. Sauveur: used intensive oral interaction in the target language. M. Berlitz : referred to Direct Method used in his school as the ‘’Berlitz Method’’. Direct Method
  9. 9. The main guidelines for teaching oral language in Berlitz schools:  Never translate: demonstrate  Never explain: act  Never make a speech: ask questions  Never imitate mistakes: correct  Never speak with single words: use sentences  Never speak too much: make students speak much  Never use the book: use your lesson plan  Never jump around: follow your plan  Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student  Never speak too slowly: speak normally  Never speak too quickly: speak naturally  Never speak too loudly: speak naturally  Never be impatient: take it easy Direct Method
  10. 10. Strategies Using Direct Method Q & A: The teacher asks questions of any nature and the students answer. Dictation: The teacher chooses a grade appropriate passage and reads the text aloud. Teacher reads the passage three times. Reading Aloud: Students take turn reading sections of a passage, play or dialog out loud. Getting Students to Self-Correct: The teacher should have the students self-correct by offering them a choice between what they said and the correct answer. Direct Method
  11. 11. Conversation Practise: The teacher asks students a number of questions in the target language which the students are able to answer correctly. Later, the students ask each other their own questions using the same grammatical structures. Map Drawing: Students are given a map without labeled then the students label it by using the directions the teacher gives. Paragraph Writing : The students are asked to write a passage in their own words. They can do this from memory or use a reading passage in the lesson as a model. Direct Method
  12. 12.  The Goal of teachers is to encourage students to think in the target language. The Role of the teacher is to direct the class activities and the role of the student is more active than they are in Grammar Translation Method. The interactions between ‘’student-teacher’’ can go both ways:  Teacher to students  Students to teacher The teacher and the students are like partners in the teaching/learning process.  Students can also converse each other in the target language. Direct Method
  13. 13. Advantages: One of its positive points is that it promises to teach the language and Not about the language. It is a natural method which teaches language in the same way the mother tongue is acquired. Only the target language is used and the learning is contextulaized. Its emphasis on speech made it more attractive for those who have needs of real communication in the target language. It is one of the first methods to introduce the teaching of vocabulary through realias. Direct Method
  14. 14. Criticism In spite of its achievements, the direct method fell short from fulfilling the needs of educational systems. One of its major shortcomings is that it was hard for public schools to integrate it. As R.Brown (1994:56) points out, the Direct Method ” did not take well in public schools where the constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background (native speakers or nativelike fluency) made such a method difficult to use.” After a short popularity in the beginning of the 20th century, it soon began to lose its appeal because of these constraints. It then paved the way to the Audiolingual Method. Direct Method
  15. 15.  Larsen-Freeman, D. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching; Oxford University Press.  Richards, J. C.& Rodgers T. S. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching; Cambridge University Press.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_method_education  http://purwarno-linguistics.blogspot.com/2006/01/direct- method.html  http://www.englishraven.com/method_direct.html Bibliography and Further Reading
  16. 16. Nur HASBAY Maviş CİNAL

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