Biotechnology
What Is Biotechnology?
 Using scientific methods with organisms to
produce new products or new forms of
organisms
 Any t...
What Is Biotechnology?
 GMO- genetically modified organisms.
 GEO- genetically enhanced organisms.
 With both, the natu...
What Is Biotechnology?
 Manipulation of genes is called genetic
engineering or recombinant DNA technology
 Genetic engin...
What is the career outlook in
biotechnology?
 Biotech in 1998
 1,300 companies in the US
 2/3 have less than 135 employ...
What Subjects Are Involved
With Biotechnology?
 Multidisciplinary- involving a number of
disciplines that are coordinated...
What Subjects Are Involved
With Biotechnology?
 Mathematics
 Applied sciences
 Computer applications
 Engineering
 Ag...
What Are the Stages of
Biotechnology Development
 Ancient biotechnology- early history as
related to food and shelter; In...
What Are the Areas of
Biotechnology?
 Organismic biotechnology- uses intact
organisms; Does not alter genetic material
 ...
What Are the Benefits of
Biotechnology?
 Medicine
 Human
 Veterinary
 Biopharming
 Environment
 Agriculture
 Food p...
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Anton van
Leeuwenhoek
 Discovered cells
 Bacteria
 Protists
...
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Gregor Johan Mendel
 Discovered genetics
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Walter Sutton
 Discovered
Chromosomes
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Thomas Hunt Morgan
 Discovered how
genes are transmitted
throug...
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Ernst Ruska
 Invented the electron
microscope
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Sir Alexander
Fleming
 Discovered penicillin
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Rosalind Elsie
Franklin
 Research led to the
discovery of the
d...
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 James Watson and
Francis Crick
 Discovered DNA
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Mary-Claire King
 Mapped human genes
for research of cancer
tre...
What Did These Individuals
Contribute to Biotechnology?
 Ian Wilmut
 Created the first true
clone, the Dorset ewe
Dolly
What Is Molecular Biology?
 Molecular biology- study of molecules in
cells
 Metabolism- processes by which organisms
use...
What Is a Cell?
 Cell- a discrete unit
of life
 Unicellular organism-
organism of one cell
 Multicellular
organism- org...
What Is a Cell?
 Cells are building blocks:
 Tissue- collection of cells with specific
functions
 Organs- collections o...
What Are the Structures in
Molecular Genetics?
 Molecular genetics- study of genes and
how they are expressed
 Chromosom...
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
What Is Ribonucleic Acid
(RNA)?
 Transcription- process of RNA production
by DNA
 DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes...
What Is Ribonucleic Acid
(RNA)?
 Kinds of RNA:
 mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information
that specifies amino acid seq...
What Are Genetic Engineering
Organisms?
 Genetic engineering- artificially changing
the genetic information in the cells ...
How Can Genetically Engineered
Plants Be Used?
 Agriculture
 Horticulture
 Forestry
 Environment
 Food Quality
How Do We Create Transgenic
Organisms?
 Donor cell- cell that provides DNA
 Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA
 Pro...
How Does Agrobacterium Gene
Transfer Work?
1. Extract DNA from donor
2. Cut DNA into fragments
3. Sort DNA fragments
4. Re...
What Are Methods of Classical
Biotechnology?
 Plant breeding- improvement of plants by
breeding selected individuals to a...
What Are Methods of Classical
Biotechnology?
 Plant breeding methods;
 Line breeding- breeding successive
generations of...
Why Are Plants Genetically
Engineered?
 Resist pests
 Resist herbicides
 Improved product quality
 Pharmaceuticals
 I...
What Is AI?
 Artificial insemination- the
transfer of collected semen to a
recipient female
 Semen is collected from mal...
What Is AI?
 Female must be in estrus for
conception
 Hormone injections may be used
to synchronize estrus
 Semen is pl...
What Is a Test Tube Baby?
 In vitro fertilization- fertilization of
collected ova outside the reproductive
tract; Usually...
What Is Gender Reversal?
 Gender reversal- changing the sex
of an animal
 Very young animals receive
hormone treatments
...
What Is Gender Preselection?
 Gender preselection- choosing the sex
of offspring
 Sperm sorted before conception
 Sperm...
What Is Embryo Transfer?
 Embryo transfer- removing
fertilized ova (embryos) from
donor and implanting in a
recipient
 S...
What Is Multiple Ovulation?
 Multiple ovulation- promoting
increased release of ova during estrus
 Hormone injections ad...
What Is Cloning?
 Clone- new organism that has been
produced asexually from a single
parent
 Genotype is identical to pa...
How Are Hormones Used in
Animal Production?
 Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a
response in another part of ...
What Is Bioremediation?
 Bioremediation- using biological
processes to solve environmental
problems
 Biodegradation- nat...
How Can Bioremediation Be
Used?
 Oil spills
 Wastewater treatment
 Heavy metal removal
 Chemical degradation
What Is Phytoremediation?
 Phytoremediation- process of
plants being used to solve
pollution problems
 Plants absorb and...
What Is Composting?
 Composting- a process that promotes
biological decomposition of organic
matter
 Compost bin- a faci...
What Are Bioethics?
 Ethics- knowing right from wrong,
and then doing the right idea
 Bio- living organisms
 Bioethics-...
Creating Bioethics Arguments
 Read this article from the school
website
http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Hom
 After yo...
Ethical Arguments
 Create an ethical argument for or
against the following topics
 Human Cloning
 Gender Reversal on Li...
Creating a Premise
 “Human cloning is immoral.”
 Now you must find Scientific and
Factual Claims to support your
Premise...
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Biotechnology 6

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Biotechnology 6

  1. 1. Biotechnology
  2. 2. What Is Biotechnology?  Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms  Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
  3. 3. What Is Biotechnology?  GMO- genetically modified organisms.  GEO- genetically enhanced organisms.  With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered.  Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding
  4. 4. What Is Biotechnology?  Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology  Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either  Transferring them to another organism  Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations
  5. 5. What is the career outlook in biotechnology?  Biotech in 1998  1,300 companies in the US  2/3 have less than 135 employees  140,000 jobs  Jobs will continue to increase exponentially  Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhD’s
  6. 6. What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?  Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome  Science  Life sciences  Physical sciences  Social sciences
  7. 7. What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?  Mathematics  Applied sciences  Computer applications  Engineering  Agriculture
  8. 8. What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development  Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication  Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine  Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering
  9. 9. What Are the Areas of Biotechnology?  Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material  Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals  Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material
  10. 10. What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology?  Medicine  Human  Veterinary  Biopharming  Environment  Agriculture  Food products  Industry and manufacturing
  11. 11. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Anton van Leeuwenhoek  Discovered cells  Bacteria  Protists  Red blood
  12. 12. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Gregor Johan Mendel  Discovered genetics
  13. 13. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Walter Sutton  Discovered Chromosomes
  14. 14. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Thomas Hunt Morgan  Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes
  15. 15. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Ernst Ruska  Invented the electron microscope
  16. 16. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Sir Alexander Fleming  Discovered penicillin
  17. 17. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Rosalind Elsie Franklin  Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA
  18. 18. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  James Watson and Francis Crick  Discovered DNA
  19. 19. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Mary-Claire King  Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments
  20. 20. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Ian Wilmut  Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly
  21. 21. What Is Molecular Biology?  Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells  Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients  Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials  Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components
  22. 22. What Is a Cell?  Cell- a discrete unit of life  Unicellular organism- organism of one cell  Multicellular organism- organism of many cells  Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus  Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus
  23. 23. What Is a Cell?  Cells are building blocks:  Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions  Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions  Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions
  24. 24. What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics?  Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed  Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis  Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome  DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information
  25. 25. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  26. 26. What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?  Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA  DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information
  27. 27. What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?  Kinds of RNA:  mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation  rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins  tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA  snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA
  28. 28. What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms?  Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms  Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified  GMO- a genetically modified organism  GEO- a genetically enhanced organism
  29. 29. How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used?  Agriculture  Horticulture  Forestry  Environment  Food Quality
  30. 30. How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms?  Donor cell- cell that provides DNA  Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA  Protocol- procedure for a scientific process  Three methods used in gene transfer  Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid  Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun  Direct gene transfer- enzymes
  31. 31. How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work? 1. Extract DNA from donor 2. Cut DNA into fragments 3. Sort DNA fragments 4. Recombine DNA fragments 5. Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA 6. Grow transformed (recipient) cells
  32. 32. What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?  Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals  Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety
  33. 33. What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?  Plant breeding methods;  Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves  Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species  Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties  Selection
  34. 34. Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered?  Resist pests  Resist herbicides  Improved product quality  Pharmaceuticals  Industrial products
  35. 35. What Is AI?  Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female  Semen is collected from males of desired quality  Semen is graded and stored
  36. 36. What Is AI?  Female must be in estrus for conception  Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus  Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus
  37. 37. What Is a Test Tube Baby?  In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube  Semen is collected from males of desired quality  Ova are removed from females  Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube
  38. 38. What Is Gender Reversal?  Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal  Very young animals receive hormone treatments  Most common among selected fish species
  39. 39. What Is Gender Preselection?  Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring  Sperm sorted before conception  Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences  X chromosomes produce female offspring  Y chromosomes produce male offspring
  40. 40. What Is Embryo Transfer?  Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient  Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant  A quality donor female can produce more offspring
  41. 41. What Is Multiple Ovulation?  Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus  Hormone injections administered prior to estrus  Used with embryo transfer  AI may be used to fertilize ova  After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients
  42. 42. What Is Cloning?  Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent  Genotype is identical to parent  Cells or tissues are cultured
  43. 43. How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production?  Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body  Released by endocrine glands into blood system  Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated  Used to increase growth and production rates  bST- promotes milk production in cows  pST- promotes lean meat production in swine
  44. 44. What Is Bioremediation?  Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems  Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials  Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes
  45. 45. How Can Bioremediation Be Used?  Oil spills  Wastewater treatment  Heavy metal removal  Chemical degradation
  46. 46. What Is Phytoremediation?  Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems  Plants absorb and break down pollutants  Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate
  47. 47. What Is Composting?  Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter  Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting  In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting
  48. 48. What Are Bioethics?  Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea  Bio- living organisms  Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea  http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Hom
  49. 49. Creating Bioethics Arguments  Read this article from the school website http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Hom  After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to support your Premise and Conclusion
  50. 50. Ethical Arguments  Create an ethical argument for or against the following topics  Human Cloning  Gender Reversal on Livestock  Gender Reversal on Humans  Genetic Engineering of Plants  Genetic Engineering of Humans
  51. 51. Creating a Premise  “Human cloning is immoral.”  Now you must find Scientific and Factual Claims to support your Premise  After you have at least 5 Claims, you may conclude, “Therefore, human cloning is immoral.”  You do not have to be for or against any of the topics, it’s your choice!

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