Biotechnology 3


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Biotechnology 3

  1. 1. Introduction to Biotechnology
  2. 2. Biotechnology Biotechnology helps to meet our basic needs. Food, clothing, shelter, health and safety
  3. 3. Biotechnology Improvements by using science Science helps in production plants, animals and other organisms
  4. 4. Biotechnology Also used in maintaining a good environment that promotes our well being
  5. 5. Biotechnology Using scientific processes to get new organisms or new products from organisms.
  6. 6. Biotechnology Large area Includes many approaches and methods in science and technology
  7. 7. Office of Tech Assessment Definition Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals….
  8. 8. Cont. Or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
  9. 9. Agricultural View All of the applied science based operations in producing food, fiber, shelter, and related products
  10. 10. Agricultural View Milk production New horticultural and ornamental plants Wildlife, aquaculture, natural resources and environmental management
  11. 11. Multidisciplinary Involves many disciplines or branches of learning Includes all areas of Life Sciences
  12. 12. Organismic Biotech Working with complete, intact organisms or their cells Organisms are not genetically changed with artificial means
  13. 13. Organismic Biotech Help the organism live better or be more productive Goal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow
  14. 14. Organismic Biotech Study and use natural genetic variations Cloning is an example of organismic biotech
  15. 15. Cloning Process of producing a new organism from cells or tissues of existing organism. 1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly” in Edinburgh Scotland
  16. 16. Molecular Biotech Changing the genetic make-up of an organism Altering the structure and parts of cells Complex!
  17. 17. Molecular Biotech Uses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes
  18. 18. Genetic Engineering Changing the genetic information in a cell Specific trait of one organism may be isolated,cut, and moved into the cell of another organism
  19. 19. Transgenic Results of Gen. Eng. Are said to be “transgenic” Genetic material in an organism has been altered
  20. 20. Biotech examples  Medicine  Agriculture  Environment  Forestry  Food and beverage processing
  21. 21. Medicine  Some new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapy
  22. 22. Medicine  Therapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent disease  Biopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through biotechnology  Called designer drugs
  23. 23. Medicine  Biopharming – production of pharmaceuticals in cultured organisms  Combination of the agriculture and pharmaceutical industries
  24. 24. Medicine  Certain blood – derived products needed in human medicine can be produced in the milk of goats
  25. 25. Environment  Any biotechnological process that may promote a good environment  Organisms developed during the gulf war to “eat” oil  Organism used in gold mining to “eat” contaminants
  26. 26. Environmental  Problems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful
  27. 27. Ag and Forestry  Plant biotech  Animal biotech
  28. 28. Plant biotech  Improve plants and the products produced from them  Insect and disease resistance  Engineered to have desired characteristics
  29. 29. Plant biotech  Corn plant produced with high levels of the amino acid Lysine
  30. 30. Animal Biotech  Improve animals or the products they produce  Animals may be used to produce products that promote human health
  31. 31. Animal Biotech  Increase productivity  Pigs engineered to produce human hemoglobin
  32. 32. Food and Beverages  Use of technology in producing and processing  Some biotech principles have been employed for hundreds of years  Yeast in baking bread
  33. 33. Food and Bev.  Genetically altered crops  rBGH milk
  34. 34. Biotechnology  Helps meet human needs  Food, clothing and shelter  Plants and animals are used in manufacturing food, clothing and materials for shelter
  35. 35. Biotechnology  Used to make products more useful or desirable  Ex: conversion of milk into cheese or yogurt
  36. 36. Efficiency  Must keep the cost of improving products as low as possible  Biotech results in greater efficiency
  37. 37. Efficiency  Inoculating legume seeds with bacteria that allow the plant to pull nitrogen out of the air and put it into the soil  Saves the producer the cost of applying N fertilizer
  38. 38. Efficiency  Results in trees that grow faster and produce wood that is more desirable
  39. 39. Greater Production  Increases yields  bST use in cows to produce more milk  Higher crop yields from drought, disease & insect resistant crops
  40. 40. Health Promoting Foods  Food with unique traits  Some contain therapeutants  Some designed with nutrient enrichment
  41. 41. Safety  Consumers want foods to provide needed nutrients and in some cases, enhanced foods  Do not want side effects from those enhanced foods
  42. 42. Easy preparation  Flavr-Savr Tomato  Reached the market in early 1990’s  Engineered to have a longer shelf life
  43. 43. Flavr-Savr  No soft spots  No rotten spots  Tomato resists spoilage
  44. 44. Synthetic biology  Creating lifelike characteristics through the use of chemicals  Based on creating structures similar to those found in living organisms
  45. 45. Synthetic Biology  Need for synthetic cells lead to the development of the vesicle  Vesicle – tiny rounded structure with cell like traits
  46. 46. Vesicle  Tiny structures similar to soap bubbles were created to serve as the cell membrane  Visible only with powerful microscope
  47. 47. Vesicle  Once the cell membrane has been successfully developed, development of the materials with the cell is initiated.
  48. 48. Synthetic biology  Is important because it brings science closer to creating life in the lab  Cells and tissues may be developed to treat human injury and disease