Schooling in the Early National Period<br />1750’s to 1800’s<br />
Early National Period<br />10th Amendment <br />Education was a right reserved to the administration of States.<br />2 Pro...
Schooling<br />Either basic or elaborately classical (Latin Grammar)<br />1662 Oxford and Cambridge Universities<br />Forb...
Benjamin Franklin<br />Proposal Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania 1749<br />Schools were quasi-vocational...
Franklin’s Academy<br />1749 Academy in Pennsylvania<br />Boys only<br />Secular Institution<br />Apprenticeships <br />En...
Thomas Jefferson<br />Virginia<br />A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge. 1779<br />Establish reading and wr...
Jefferson<br />3 tiered system of public education<br />Prepare a natural aristocracy<br />Political leadership<br />Basic...
Differences<br />Jefferson<br />Democratic ruler<br />Education of middle class would cause mobs.<br />Cultivate learning<...
Poverty<br />Poor -moral dilemma<br />Needed to educated them<br />1790’s New York had slums<br />Poor adults were viewed ...
Joseph Lancaster-England<br />Need to educate many children with limited funds.<br />Rigidly hierarchical system of educat...
Charity Schools<br />Harsh discipline like the puritan schools<br />Eliminate crime and poverty<br />Not theologically mai...
Problems with Charity Schools<br />High cost<br />Limited funds<br />Number of children <br />How to properly train them i...
Catholic Schools<br />Priests were afraid that catholic religion would be assimilated into the protestant faith.<br />Crea...
Charity Schools<br />Parents had to take a “pauper’s oath”<br />Unfit to instruct their children<br />Cure all for social ...
Teacher’s in the New Republic<br />Today we are viewed as less competent and dedicated than our predecessors.<br />Myth<br...
Dame Schools<br />Child tending<br />Pay “good wives” to teach poor children<br />Glorified babysitter<br />Margarethe Sch...
Women<br />Educate women <br />Better mothers<br />More marriageable<br />Moral superiority for very young<br />Easier to ...
Trivia<br />Can you answer the following question?<br />Who is Ichabod Crane?<br />
Teaching Continued…<br />1700’s Jobs were open to both men and women<br />Cost less to hire women<br />Still largely male ...
Segregated Schools<br />North schools for black began<br />Blacks paid their share of taxes<br />Less educational resource...
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Schooling in the new republic

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Schooling in the new republic

  1. 1. Schooling in the Early National Period<br />1750’s to 1800’s<br />
  2. 2. Early National Period<br />10th Amendment <br />Education was a right reserved to the administration of States.<br />2 Proposals Relating to Education<br />Benjamin Franklin<br />Thomas Jefferson<br />So, began the Enlightenment Period<br />Social Regulation was the key to education<br />
  3. 3. Schooling<br />Either basic or elaborately classical (Latin Grammar)<br />1662 Oxford and Cambridge Universities<br />Forbad non-Anglican students from attending.<br />People’s colleges – Academies p.10<br />
  4. 4. Benjamin Franklin<br />Proposal Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania 1749<br />Schools were quasi-vocational<br />Facilitated social mobility<br />Learning that counted most was that which would make a boy both employable and socially proper.<br />Puritan view of hard work<br />Led to University of Pennyslvania<br />
  5. 5. Franklin’s Academy<br />1749 Academy in Pennsylvania<br />Boys only<br />Secular Institution<br />Apprenticeships <br />English taught instead of Latin<br />Focus on economic mobility of students rather than religion for lessons<br />Study: morality, oratory, geography, politics, philosophy, human affairs, agriculture, technology, science, and invention.<br />
  6. 6. Thomas Jefferson<br />Virginia<br />A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge. 1779<br />Establish reading and writing schools<br />Funding of William and Mary College<br />Produce Leaders for Commonwealth of Virginia<br />Education served 2 purposes<br />To cultivate a “natural aristocracy” of leadership without religion<br />Perpetuate an enlightened citizenry to keep the nation free from political tyranny.<br />
  7. 7. Jefferson<br />3 tiered system of public education<br />Prepare a natural aristocracy<br />Political leadership<br />Basic education<br />Common man<br />All children sent to reading/writing schools for 3 years.<br />Top male students – go on to Latin Grammar Schools.<br />The best then would go to college WandMary<br />Education provided at public expense<br />
  8. 8. Differences<br />Jefferson<br />Democratic ruler<br />Education of middle class would cause mobs.<br />Cultivate learning<br />Local children – basics<br />Free education for 3 years<br />No study of the Bible<br />Could be harmful p.12<br />Public education for general populace<br />General Diffusion of Knowledge<br />Reading and Writing Schools<br />Quasi-vocational institutions<br />Classical <br />Education for middle class as a means to getting ahead.<br />History was focus not religion<br />Facilitate reason<br />Education for social regulation<br />Both Jefferson and Franklin<br />Public education was a means for achieving social mobility.<br />
  9. 9. Poverty<br />Poor -moral dilemma<br />Needed to educated them<br />1790’s New York had slums<br />Poor adults were viewed an irredeemable<br />Offspring could be saved.<br />School for the poor was thought to get rid of poverty and crime.<br />Freed black were also educated<br />Charity Schools were created<br />
  10. 10. Joseph Lancaster-England<br />Need to educate many children with limited funds.<br />Rigidly hierarchical system of education.<br />Educate 1000 students in a single classroom.<br />Education was a machine<br />Each boy had a number which was hung on the wall. The boy would stand under it if present. <br />Students marched to and from their various lessons and activities.<br />Rote memorization<br />Ranked daily – move up in line p.15<br />
  11. 11. Charity Schools<br />Harsh discipline like the puritan schools<br />Eliminate crime and poverty<br />Not theologically maintained.<br />Economic and political <br />Quakers Thomas Eddy and John Murray, Jr.<br />New York Free School Society.<br />System of tickets for infractions<br />Moral education rooted in Protestantism<br />Blacks/N.Americans educated<br />South Outlawed<br />West – Boarding schools for Indians – assimilation/cultural annihilation<br />Enforced rigid and brutal discpline<br />
  12. 12. Problems with Charity Schools<br />High cost<br />Limited funds<br />Number of children <br />How to properly train them in ways of<br />Industriousness<br />Obedience<br />thrift<br />
  13. 13. Catholic Schools<br />Priests were afraid that catholic religion would be assimilated into the protestant faith.<br />Created their one schools<br />Fear and hatred of Catholics during this time because so many were coming to America<br />Largest non-public school system in America<br />
  14. 14. Charity Schools<br />Parents had to take a “pauper’s oath”<br />Unfit to instruct their children<br />Cure all for social ills<br />Discussions fueled that “ALL children” should be educated at public expense.<br />
  15. 15. Teacher’s in the New Republic<br />Today we are viewed as less competent and dedicated than our predecessors.<br />Myth<br />White and Male<br />Middle Class and young<br />New England – schools were only open 4-6 weeks a year because of funds.<br />Supplement income, not a profession<br />
  16. 16. Dame Schools<br />Child tending<br />Pay “good wives” to teach poor children<br />Glorified babysitter<br />Margarethe Schurz (1832-1876)<br />1st Kindergarten <br />Garden where children grow<br />In her home<br />Watertown Wisconsin<br />
  17. 17. Women<br />Educate women <br />Better mothers<br />More marriageable<br />Moral superiority for very young<br />Easier to regulate<br />Seen as social regulation<br />Emma Willard’s Female Seminary New York 1821<br />Helped with teachers and lower salaries<br />
  18. 18. Trivia<br />Can you answer the following question?<br />Who is Ichabod Crane?<br />
  19. 19. Teaching Continued…<br />1700’s Jobs were open to both men and women<br />Cost less to hire women<br />Still largely male dominated<br />Bound by morality clauses p.18<br />Job anyone roughly educated could do.<br />Drunkenness and financial issues by teachers.<br />Unfit teachers lasted the longest<br />Subject to local opinion – few made careers<br />Ichabod Crane – The Legend of Sleepy Hollow<br />Bumbling schoolmaster<br />
  20. 20. Segregated Schools<br />North schools for black began<br />Blacks paid their share of taxes<br />Less educational resources were given<br />1855 Boston signed a law <br />Barring discrimination in schooling based on religion or race.<br />

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