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Nanotechnology in veterinary medicine

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Nanotechnology in veterinary medicine

  1. 1. Rajasokkappan.S
  2. 2. <ul><li>1959, Feynman’s talk “There is plenty of room at the bottom” </li></ul><ul><li>1965, Moore’s original paper </li></ul><ul><li>1981, Drexler began popularizing the &quot;Molecular Manufacturing,” </li></ul><ul><li>1984, invention of STM [Binning] </li></ul><ul><li>1985, discovery of fullerens [smalley] </li></ul><ul><li>1986, invention of AFM </li></ul><ul><li>1990, IBM written in Xenon </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Relatively larger surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Chemically more reactive and affect their strength or electrical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum effects of materials - that affect the optical, electrical and magnetic behaviour of materials </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><ul><li>Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Small silicon tip as probe - make images of sample material </li></ul><ul><li>Probe moves along surface </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons of atoms in sample repel those in probe </li></ul><ul><li>Creates 3-D images </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>High-energy electron beam to probe material with thickness < 100 nm </li></ul><ul><li>Some electrons are absorbed or bounced off object; some pass through the object and make magnified images </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera records images </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Nanosized probe to scan objects and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Uses tunneling to detect surface and creates a map of surface </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of electrons that tunnel from probe to surface related to distance between probe and surface </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Antimicrobial agent </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoparticles that deliver chemotherapy drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotubes used in broken bones to provide a structure for new bone material to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoshells that concentrate the heat from infrared light to destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Q.dots that identify the location of cancer cells in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoparticles that can attach to cells infected with various diseases in a blood sample, the particular disease </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>One dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 100nm </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoscale layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. thin films or surface coatings like computer chips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Nanowires and nanotubes </li></ul><ul><li>Three dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitates </li></ul><ul><li>Colloids and Quantum dots (tiny particles of semiconductor materials) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Dispersion of preformed polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Polymerization of monomers </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic gelation or coacervation of hydrophilic polymers </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Nanoparticles prepared from such as proteins, polysaccharides and synthetic polymers </li></ul><ul><li>The selection of matrix materials is dependent on (Kreuter ) </li></ul><ul><li>Size of nanoparticles required </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent properties of the drug, e.g., aqueous solubility and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Surface characteristics such as charge and permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of biodegradability, biocompatibility and toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Drug release profile desired </li></ul><ul><li>Antigenicity of the final product </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Liposomes, polymer nanoparticles (nanospheres and nanocapsules) </li></ul><ul><li>Solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals, polymer therapeutics such as dendrimers, fullerenes (most common as C 60 or buckyball, similar in size of hormones and peptide a-helices) </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic nanoparticles (e.g. gold and magnetic nanoparticles) </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Fullerenes, a carbon allotrope </li></ul><ul><li>The buckminster fullerene is the most common form of fullerene </li></ul><ul><li>7 Å in diameter with 60 carbon atoms arranged in a shape known as truncated icosahedrons </li></ul><ul><li>It resembles a soccer ball with 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Nanotubes - </li></ul><ul><li> opened on two sides with additional atom groups added in the characteristic hexagon shape to form a hollow carbon tube (cylinder) </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet of graphite (a hexagonal lattice of carbon) rolled into a cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>This nanotubes are used to tracking oestrus in animals - detect the estradiol antibody at the time of oestrus by near infrared fluorescence </li></ul><ul><li>Used in gene therapy </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Dendrimers are nanomolecules with regular branching structures </li></ul><ul><li>The branches arise from the core in shape of a spherical structure by means of polymerisation </li></ul><ul><li>This results in formation of cavities within the dendrimer molecule which can be used for drug transport </li></ul><ul><li>The ends of the dendrimer molecule can be attached with other molecules for transport </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Dendrimer - antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic nanomaterials will be the diagnoses, treatment and eradication of malignant tumors that commonly affect the small animal geriatric population </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative to direct irradiation of tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrimers can act as carriers, called vectors, in gene therapy </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>A 2-10 nm nano-scale crystalline structure made from cadmium selenide </li></ul><ul><li>Re-emits the white light in a couple of nanoseconds - specific color </li></ul><ul><li>which can be made to fluorescence when stimulated by light </li></ul><ul><li>Their structure consists of an inorganic core, the size of which determines the colour emitted, an inorganic shell and an aqueous organic coating to which biomolecules are conjugated </li></ul><ul><li>These particles enable powerful new approaches to genetic analysis, drug discovery, and disease diagnostics </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Quantum dots - emit light at any wavelength </li></ul><ul><li>Inserted almost anywhere, including liquid solution, dyes etc </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots can be attached to a variety of surface ligands, and inserted into a variety of organisms for in-vivo research </li></ul><ul><li>quantum dots respond to light it may be possible to illuminate the body with light and stimulate the quantum dot to heat up sufficient to kill the cancerous cell </li></ul>
  19. 22. Name Size Composition Details Quantum Dots 2-10 nm Colloidal fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Central core consists of elements from groups II - VI of the periodic table Dendrimers <15 nm Highly branched synthetic polymers with a layered architecture - consisting of a central core, an internal region, and several terminal groups Magnetic nanoparticles 10-20 nm Spherical nanocrystals with Fe 2+  and Fe 3+  core surrounded by dextran or PEG (polyethelene glycol) molecules Gold nanoparticles <50 nm Can be prepared into different geometries - nanospheres, nanoshells, nanorods, or nanocages Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) <100 nm Coaxial graphite sheets
  20. 23. <ul><li>Nano pharmaceuticals – Drug delivery system </li></ul><ul><li>Early diagnosis of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Nano therapy </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>The development of ‘smart’ treatment delivery systems on the nanoscale uses similar concepts applied at the molecular level. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, ‘smart’ drug delivery systems in animals would most likely contain small, sealed packages of the drug to be delivered. </li></ul><ul><li>The packages would not be opened until they reach the desired location in the animal, e.g. the site of infection. </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Time-controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Spatially Targeted </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Remotely Regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-programmed </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>The silver nanoparticles show efficient antimicrobial property compared to other salts </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective on E.Coli, S.aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas </li></ul><ul><li>The nanoparticles preferably attack the respiratory chain, cell division finally leading to cell death </li></ul><ul><li>The STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) confirms the presence of silver in the cell membrane and inside the bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Silver nanoparticles in most studies are suggested to be non-toxic. But it suggested to be hazardous to the environment (Braydich-Stolle et al., 2005) </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>The current systems are limited by their selectivity and efficiency to concentrate rare cells for molecular assays </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoscience can detect - circulating cancer cells, which present often at 1–2 cells per milliliter of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Combinatorial use of magnetic nanoparticles and semiconductor QDs - increase the ability to capture and evaluate these rare circulating cancer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Bionanobarcodes, nanocantilevers, and nanowires are promising technologies </li></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>Cancer cells detection </li></ul><ul><li>Protein and nucleic acid detection based on biobarcode-amplification </li></ul><ul><li>Gold nanoparticles are modified with both target capture strands and bar code strands that are subsequently hybridized to bar code DNA, and magnetic microparticles modified with target capture strands (BCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Gold nanoparticles and the magnetic microbeads form sandwich structures that are magnetically separated from solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Unhybridized bar code DNA are removed </li></ul><ul><li>The bar codes (hundreds to thousands per target) are detected by using a colorimetric method </li></ul>
  26. 31. <ul><li>QD staining provides spatial localization information (both inter- and intracellular), </li></ul><ul><li>QD probes are delivered to tumors by both a passive targeting mechanism and an active targeting mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>In the passive mode, macromolecules and nanometer-sized particles are accumulated preferentially at tumor sites through the Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)effect. </li></ul><ul><li>For active tumor targeting, Gao et al. used antibody conjugated QDs to target a specific membrane antigen. </li></ul>
  27. 34. Multifunctional nanoparticles for integrated cancer imaging and therapy
  28. 37. <ul><li>Vaccines require immunostimulating compounds, adjuvants, which act nonspecifically to increase the immune response to a defined antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Nanometer adjuvants are </li></ul><ul><li>Liposome </li></ul><ul><li>ISCOM based adjuvant </li></ul><ul><li>Biobullets </li></ul><ul><li>Virus like particles </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-particles - 40–50 nm - potential to induce potent cell mediated (CD 4 and CD 8 T cells) as well as humoral immune responses </li></ul>
  29. 38. <ul><li>VLP vaccine against BT & AHS – strong protection </li></ul><ul><li>ISCOM based vaccines effective on H 5 N 1 in chickens and EHV - 2 in horses </li></ul><ul><li>Liposomes added vaccines protect the cattle against BVDV </li></ul><ul><li>Liposomes have also been used to deliver allergen extracts as immunotherapy for refractory canine atopic dermatitis </li></ul><ul><li>“ Biobullets” made of photopolymerized PEG hydrogels can serve as biodegradable bullets used to wild animals for vaccination. Eg. Bruella abortus </li></ul>

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