Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Nanotechnology in veterinary medicine


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Nanotechnology in veterinary medicine

  1. 1. Rajasokkappan.S
  2. 2. <ul><li>1959, Feynman’s talk “There is plenty of room at the bottom” </li></ul><ul><li>1965, Moore’s original paper </li></ul><ul><li>1981, Drexler began popularizing the &quot;Molecular Manufacturing,” </li></ul><ul><li>1984, invention of STM [Binning] </li></ul><ul><li>1985, discovery of fullerens [smalley] </li></ul><ul><li>1986, invention of AFM </li></ul><ul><li>1990, IBM written in Xenon </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Relatively larger surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Chemically more reactive and affect their strength or electrical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum effects of materials - that affect the optical, electrical and magnetic behaviour of materials </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><ul><li>Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Small silicon tip as probe - make images of sample material </li></ul><ul><li>Probe moves along surface </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons of atoms in sample repel those in probe </li></ul><ul><li>Creates 3-D images </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>High-energy electron beam to probe material with thickness < 100 nm </li></ul><ul><li>Some electrons are absorbed or bounced off object; some pass through the object and make magnified images </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera records images </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Nanosized probe to scan objects and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Uses tunneling to detect surface and creates a map of surface </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of electrons that tunnel from probe to surface related to distance between probe and surface </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Antimicrobial agent </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoparticles that deliver chemotherapy drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotubes used in broken bones to provide a structure for new bone material to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoshells that concentrate the heat from infrared light to destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Q.dots that identify the location of cancer cells in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoparticles that can attach to cells infected with various diseases in a blood sample, the particular disease </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>One dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 100nm </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoscale layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. thin films or surface coatings like computer chips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Nanowires and nanotubes </li></ul><ul><li>Three dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitates </li></ul><ul><li>Colloids and Quantum dots (tiny particles of semiconductor materials) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Dispersion of preformed polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Polymerization of monomers </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic gelation or coacervation of hydrophilic polymers </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Nanoparticles prepared from such as proteins, polysaccharides and synthetic polymers </li></ul><ul><li>The selection of matrix materials is dependent on (Kreuter ) </li></ul><ul><li>Size of nanoparticles required </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent properties of the drug, e.g., aqueous solubility and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Surface characteristics such as charge and permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of biodegradability, biocompatibility and toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Drug release profile desired </li></ul><ul><li>Antigenicity of the final product </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Liposomes, polymer nanoparticles (nanospheres and nanocapsules) </li></ul><ul><li>Solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals, polymer therapeutics such as dendrimers, fullerenes (most common as C 60 or buckyball, similar in size of hormones and peptide a-helices) </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic nanoparticles (e.g. gold and magnetic nanoparticles) </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Fullerenes, a carbon allotrope </li></ul><ul><li>The buckminster fullerene is the most common form of fullerene </li></ul><ul><li>7 Å in diameter with 60 carbon atoms arranged in a shape known as truncated icosahedrons </li></ul><ul><li>It resembles a soccer ball with 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Nanotubes - </li></ul><ul><li> opened on two sides with additional atom groups added in the characteristic hexagon shape to form a hollow carbon tube (cylinder) </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet of graphite (a hexagonal lattice of carbon) rolled into a cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>This nanotubes are used to tracking oestrus in animals - detect the estradiol antibody at the time of oestrus by near infrared fluorescence </li></ul><ul><li>Used in gene therapy </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Dendrimers are nanomolecules with regular branching structures </li></ul><ul><li>The branches arise from the core in shape of a spherical structure by means of polymerisation </li></ul><ul><li>This results in formation of cavities within the dendrimer molecule which can be used for drug transport </li></ul><ul><li>The ends of the dendrimer molecule can be attached with other molecules for transport </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Dendrimer - antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic nanomaterials will be the diagnoses, treatment and eradication of malignant tumors that commonly affect the small animal geriatric population </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative to direct irradiation of tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrimers can act as carriers, called vectors, in gene therapy </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>A 2-10 nm nano-scale crystalline structure made from cadmium selenide </li></ul><ul><li>Re-emits the white light in a couple of nanoseconds - specific color </li></ul><ul><li>which can be made to fluorescence when stimulated by light </li></ul><ul><li>Their structure consists of an inorganic core, the size of which determines the colour emitted, an inorganic shell and an aqueous organic coating to which biomolecules are conjugated </li></ul><ul><li>These particles enable powerful new approaches to genetic analysis, drug discovery, and disease diagnostics </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Quantum dots - emit light at any wavelength </li></ul><ul><li>Inserted almost anywhere, including liquid solution, dyes etc </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots can be attached to a variety of surface ligands, and inserted into a variety of organisms for in-vivo research </li></ul><ul><li>quantum dots respond to light it may be possible to illuminate the body with light and stimulate the quantum dot to heat up sufficient to kill the cancerous cell </li></ul>
  19. 22. Name Size Composition Details Quantum Dots 2-10 nm Colloidal fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Central core consists of elements from groups II - VI of the periodic table Dendrimers <15 nm Highly branched synthetic polymers with a layered architecture - consisting of a central core, an internal region, and several terminal groups Magnetic nanoparticles 10-20 nm Spherical nanocrystals with Fe 2+  and Fe 3+  core surrounded by dextran or PEG (polyethelene glycol) molecules Gold nanoparticles <50 nm Can be prepared into different geometries - nanospheres, nanoshells, nanorods, or nanocages Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) <100 nm Coaxial graphite sheets
  20. 23. <ul><li>Nano pharmaceuticals – Drug delivery system </li></ul><ul><li>Early diagnosis of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Nano therapy </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>The development of ‘smart’ treatment delivery systems on the nanoscale uses similar concepts applied at the molecular level. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, ‘smart’ drug delivery systems in animals would most likely contain small, sealed packages of the drug to be delivered. </li></ul><ul><li>The packages would not be opened until they reach the desired location in the animal, e.g. the site of infection. </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Time-controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Spatially Targeted </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Remotely Regulated </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-programmed </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>The silver nanoparticles show efficient antimicrobial property compared to other salts </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective on E.Coli, S.aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas </li></ul><ul><li>The nanoparticles preferably attack the respiratory chain, cell division finally leading to cell death </li></ul><ul><li>The STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) confirms the presence of silver in the cell membrane and inside the bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Silver nanoparticles in most studies are suggested to be non-toxic. But it suggested to be hazardous to the environment (Braydich-Stolle et al., 2005) </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>The current systems are limited by their selectivity and efficiency to concentrate rare cells for molecular assays </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoscience can detect - circulating cancer cells, which present often at 1–2 cells per milliliter of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Combinatorial use of magnetic nanoparticles and semiconductor QDs - increase the ability to capture and evaluate these rare circulating cancer cells </li></ul><ul><li>Bionanobarcodes, nanocantilevers, and nanowires are promising technologies </li></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>Cancer cells detection </li></ul><ul><li>Protein and nucleic acid detection based on biobarcode-amplification </li></ul><ul><li>Gold nanoparticles are modified with both target capture strands and bar code strands that are subsequently hybridized to bar code DNA, and magnetic microparticles modified with target capture strands (BCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Gold nanoparticles and the magnetic microbeads form sandwich structures that are magnetically separated from solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Unhybridized bar code DNA are removed </li></ul><ul><li>The bar codes (hundreds to thousands per target) are detected by using a colorimetric method </li></ul>
  26. 31. <ul><li>QD staining provides spatial localization information (both inter- and intracellular), </li></ul><ul><li>QD probes are delivered to tumors by both a passive targeting mechanism and an active targeting mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>In the passive mode, macromolecules and nanometer-sized particles are accumulated preferentially at tumor sites through the Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)effect. </li></ul><ul><li>For active tumor targeting, Gao et al. used antibody conjugated QDs to target a specific membrane antigen. </li></ul>
  27. 34. Multifunctional nanoparticles for integrated cancer imaging and therapy
  28. 37. <ul><li>Vaccines require immunostimulating compounds, adjuvants, which act nonspecifically to increase the immune response to a defined antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Nanometer adjuvants are </li></ul><ul><li>Liposome </li></ul><ul><li>ISCOM based adjuvant </li></ul><ul><li>Biobullets </li></ul><ul><li>Virus like particles </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-particles - 40–50 nm - potential to induce potent cell mediated (CD 4 and CD 8 T cells) as well as humoral immune responses </li></ul>
  29. 38. <ul><li>VLP vaccine against BT & AHS – strong protection </li></ul><ul><li>ISCOM based vaccines effective on H 5 N 1 in chickens and EHV - 2 in horses </li></ul><ul><li>Liposomes added vaccines protect the cattle against BVDV </li></ul><ul><li>Liposomes have also been used to deliver allergen extracts as immunotherapy for refractory canine atopic dermatitis </li></ul><ul><li>“ Biobullets” made of photopolymerized PEG hydrogels can serve as biodegradable bullets used to wild animals for vaccination. Eg. Bruella abortus </li></ul>