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History report final [pdf] [updated]


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History report final [pdf] [updated]

  1. 1. PROJECT: ARCHITECTURE HERITAGE BUILDING ANALYSIS Architecture Culture and History 2 [ ARC 1323 ] SULTAN ABDUL AZIZ ROYAL GALLERY Surayyn Selvan | 0309818 Sharifah Diyana | 1006AH78373 Soh You Shing | 0308010 Meera Nazreen | 0309630
  2. 2. CONTENT PAGE 1.0 INTRODUCTION pg 1 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION pg 9 3.0 BUILDING INVENTORY pg 17 4.0 CONCLUSION pg 24 5.0 REFERENCE LIST pg 25 Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | i !
  3. 3. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 KLANG! 3 4 5 6 1 Some of the important buildings located near The Royal Gallery. Year of construction: 1909 Function: - Initially a British Administration office - Later used as a Japanese Military Headquarters - Was used a the Royal Malaysian Police Contingent - Now functions as Sultan Abdul Aziz’s Royal Gallery 1. The Royal Gallery, Klang Year of construction: 1890 Function: - Built to replace the Bukit Kuda train station - Functions as a stop for the Kuala Lumpur commuter lines (KTM) 2. Klang Railway Station Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 1!
  4. 4. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 KLANG! Year of construction: 1890 Function: - Protects the town from sudden fires - Underwent renovation to keep up with the modern times whilst maintaining its original look 3. Klang Fire Station Year of construction: 1910 Function: - Place of worship for the Indian Muslim population which is one of the major communities in Klang 4. Indian Muslim Mosque Year of construction: Function: - Hosts an abundant number of textile shops, Indian cuisine restaurants and goldsmiths 5. Little India Klang Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 2 !
  5. 5. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.2 BUILDING DESCRIPTION! Klang is known to be the Royal town of Selangor, filled with historical buildings and streets. Recently, a project known as Klang’s Heritage Walk was implemented to conserve the historical buildings. One of these building’s and one of Klang’s top attractions is the Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery that is located nearby Klang Railway Station and beside Little India. The Royal Gallery is located in the Sultan Suleiman Building, which was beautifully designed by a well-known architect back then, Arthur B. Hubback in the year 1909 during the British colonization (Malaysia Traveller, 2011). He worked alongside Public Works Department of the Federated Malay States on designing the Sultan Suleiman Building (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004). He is also recognized in designing some of his previous works such as the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, Masjid Jamek Mosque and Carcosa City Hall with a Neo-classical essence (Muthiah, i) A.B. Hubback 2012). The building itself had gone through multiple changes of function since it was completed. It was firstly used as a British Administration Centre, and then as a Japanese Military Headquarters during the Japanese occupation (Malaysia Traveller, 2011). After the war had subsided, the building was passed on over to the Klang District Office which dealt mostly with land matters of the area. From 1973 onwards, it was known to be the Royal Malaysian Police Contingent. The Klang Municipal Council then made it their office. Few years later, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah decided to house the Royal Gallery to commemorate his father’s legacy Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, and hence the gallery was named after him (Zureuel, 2008). The gallery provides a fascinating glimpse into the history of the Selangor sultanate and the life of the eighth Sultan ( Zureuel, 2008). Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 3 !
  6. 6. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.2 BUILDING DESCRIPTION! Roof plan of the site West elevation Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 4 !
  7. 7. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.2 BUILDING DESCRIPTION! North Elevation North Elevation South Elevation Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 5!
  8. 8. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.2 BUILDING DESCRIPTION! Ground Floor Plan First Floor Plan Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 6!
  9. 9. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.3 BUILDING CONCEPT! The Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery was also called the ‘White House’ by the local people (Muthiah, 2012). This was generally due to the exterior colonial white facade of the building which is relatively similar to the White House in United States (Zureuel, 2008). The building was designed by Arthur B. Hubback A sketch of the building before renovation with the design concept of a hybrid Neoclassical and British Colonial architecture. The exterior and interior design approach was mostly based on Roman architecture. One of the visible Roman characteristics was the use of columns throughout the building. The windows and doors are the typical British Colonial styles. ii) Sultan Alauddin’s Palace in Banting Upon further research, it can be seen that Sultan Abdul Aziz’s great grandfather, Sultan Alauddin Shah’s Palace in Banting had a similar concept resembling the western architectural style (Ismail, 2003). It has the same building elements in terms of the principles of design as well as the characteristics Neo classical architecture has.   Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 7 !
  10. 10. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.3 BUILDING CONCEPT! Before the Sultan Suleiman Building housed the gallery, it was renovated with the support of the State Government and opened to the public with the building renamed, The Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery (Zanna, 2008). The conservation and renovation works on the building began in 2005 and were completed late of 2007 (Zanna, 2008). A sketch of the building after renovation The refurbishment and conversion works were conducted by Architect Laurent Lim, whom was personally approached by the Sultan himself, to join a design competition to renovate and refurbish the building, in which he won. (Ar. Lim, personal communication, 2013). Laurent Lim and his team did an amazing job in preserving and maintaining the building iii) Architect Laurent Lim design and concept to its original that was done by Arthur B. Hubback. The entire project valued around RM3, 000, 000 (Laurent Lim Architect, 2006). Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 8 !
  11. 11. 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION 2.1 PHYSICAL CONDITION! The Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery is a neo-classical building which was inspired by the Western Classical style. Initially, the building consisted of three wings or sides, connected to compose a ‘U’ shaped building. The north side of the building is situated on the left side while the south side of the building is placed on the opposite of it. The western part of the building is actually the largest front facing façade of the whole of the gallery. Since the building was constructed beautifully, with its symmetrical Westen derived elements,, it was agreed that it was to be kept that way in order to not destroy the pure beauty of it. However, the need to maintain the building is a must. The age of the building is the main reason maintenance is crucial. Being from the early 1900’s, there tend to be problems which affect the building such as water seepage, leakage, damaged Condition of the plastered ceiling before renovation floor tiles and rain water pipes, as well as parts of the original ceiling soffit on certain area of the verandah were exposed. Apart from that, the broken and chipped parts of the roof tiles were replaced with those which are the identical to the original piece. Besides the roof tiles, the roof trusses were repaired too. This is because it had rotted over the past years. In addition to the damages mentioned earlier, parts of the roofs which leaked have also been replaced with a new and steady components. The chipped L-angled roof tiles In the process of doing so, some plants and roots that grew over the years on all parts of the building had been removed to make the building look new and clean. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 9 !
  12. 12. 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION 2.1 PHYSICAL CONDITION! The walls of this building were also reconditioned. The brick walls were refurbished in order to give out a better image for the gallery. As for the old plastered walls, they were plastered again with limebased plaster. Some of the walls were removed or added as partitions. This is to supply heat resistance along the verandah as well as the front of the building itself. The worn-out plastered walls of the building In addition to that, there were changes made to the doors and windows too. Those that were not consisting of the original designs had been removed. They were then replaced by the ones that corresponded with the original designs. Besides the components which do not have the original designs, doors and The openings in the building before renovation windows which were damaged have been restored, repainted or varnished. As for the glass windows, UV films were installed at the exhibition area. It was also installed to the entrance door in order to avoid and decrease the heat and light exposure. The floor tiles on the ground floor were all removed as they proposed new floor finishes which is more suitable for the interior of the gallery. As for the first floor, only restoration and certain replacements were made to the wooden floor boards. The cracked floor tiles in the building hallway Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 10!
  13. 13. 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION 2.1 PHYSICAL CONDITION! The last renovation component that occurred to the building itself was the changes that were made on the exterior façade, which was the restoration of the wooden louvres by replacing the woods and also repainting them. The columns were restored too. All of the cracks found on the columns were restored to match the existing The cracks at the base of the columns design which we can see currently.  Although there were no any additions or demolition to any parts of the Royal Gallery, there is one addition to the site of where the building is located. The old garage situated on the east part of the site was demolished and was replaced by a new building which functions as the Administrative Building (AR. Lim, 2007). The garage at the back of the site was renovated into the gallery’s administrative block. New west elevation of the building with the wooden louvers Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 11!
  14. 14. 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION 2.2 SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONTEXT! 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No Name of business Type of Business 1 Klinik Shape Clinic 2 FAMISTA Trading Furniture Shop 3 Kedai Emas Hongke Goldsmith 4 Kopitiam Chong Kok Coffee Shop 5 Kedai Emas Win Sen Goldsmith 6 Kedai Jam Hwa Sing Clock Shop 7 Syarikat Adik Beradik Wah Seng Clock Shop 8 Pusat Timbang dan Sukat Wing Lee Seong Weights and Scales Trading 9 Kedai Emas Kee Cheong Goldsmith 10 Syarikat Yen Woh Chinese Herbal Shop Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 12!
  15. 15. 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION 2.2 SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONTEXT! In order to identify the social and cultural context of The Royal Gallery, a survey was carried out in the area to understand which business contributes the most to the gallery. Through the information gathered we can understand the importance of the building, socially and culturally. 1. KLINIK SHAPE The nurses working in the clinic were available at the time and they had stated that they are aware of the function of the gallery but they’ve never been inside. When asked why, they responded by saying that they haven’t had the time. 2. FAMISTA TRADING The worker in the shop was unaware of the building’s presence as well as it’s function. The shop has had no relationship with the building whatsoever. 3. KEDAI EMAS HONGKE The owners of the shops were aware of the building but like many of the people, they saw no reason to visit the gallery. When asked if they had any relationship with the gallery, they said none whatsoever. 4. KOPITIAM CHONG KOK The owner of the shop was aware of the gallery’s function and the owner has only been in the building a few times back when it was the Klang Municipal Council building. The business has had no relationship with the gallery. 5. KEDAI EMAS WIN SEN The owners of the shop were aware of the building but have never been inside. Much like the previous businesses, the shop has no relationship with the gallery. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 13!
  16. 16. 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION 2.2 SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONTEXT! 6. KEDAI JAM HWA SING The owners were very well informed of the building. However when asked if they have been inside the building, they said that they haven’t had the time to visit the gallery. The business is also unrelated to the gallery. 7. SYARIKAT ADIK BERADIK WAH SENG The owner was very well informed of the building as he has been offering his services to the gallery. He helps to maintain the Sultan’s collection of watches and clocks. This was the most relevant shop in response to the gallery. 8. PUSAT TIMBANG DAN SUKAT WING LEE SEONG The owner was unaware of the building as well as its function. 9. KEDAI EMAS KEE CHEONG The owners were aware of the building but are unaware of its function. Thus, they have never been inside the gallery. 10. SYARIKAT YEN WHO The owners were unaware of the building as well as its function. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 14!
  17. 17. 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION 2.2 SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONTEXT! The construction of this gallery has had many different views and perspective by the society in Klang. In the early years, the residents of Klang have a highly positive view on it. They very much appreciate the building whether it was the physical look itself as well as the purpose of why the building was being built in the first place. However those opinions changed over the years especially in this modern world where people under appreciate the significance of such historical buildings. Some of the locals do not even know that such beautiful building exist in their hometown while only a few know about the building’s history and the purpose of its existence. This can be seen through the brief survey that was carried out. Despite all that, there are locals who do know and still do appreciate the beauty of this building. Mostly the watch and clock shop business owners. This is because the Sultan had a wide collected of clocks and watched in the gallery that all need intricate maintainence work and what better way to seek for help then from the locals themselves. It makes them proud to have a meaningful and historical structure still strongly erected in the centre of their hometown and it gives them a sense of accomplishment to contribute to such a historical building. Ocassionally, The building brings in tourists from all over the place such as sailors who dock at Port Klang. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 15!
  18. 18. 2.0 CONTEXTUAL CONDITION 2.3 POLITICAL CONTEXT! iv) Sultan Sharaffudin Idris Shah v) Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah The current building of Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery was initially used as the British administrative centre when it was first built in 1909. However, during the World War 2 when the Japanese invaded our land, this particular building acted as the Japanese army base. Soon after the war ended, the army base was used as an office. It was to attend to the land administration matters in Klang. During 1973 up until 1985, the building was being occupied by the Royal Malaysian Police Contingent of Selangor. The changes occurred right after the previous office was relocated to Jalan Kota. Two years later, Klang Municipal Council had decided to use the building as their office until the year 2002. Unfortunately, the building was abandoned for several years later due to the relocation of the council. That was until his Royal Highness, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Alhaj, turned it into a gallery to commemorate his late father. Currently, the building functions as a galerry named after the late sultan, Sultan Abdul Aziz. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 16!
  19. 19. 3.0 BUILDING INVENTORY 3.1 FAÇADE! DETAILS -  Masonry wall coated in plaster, finished in Kansai Pure White 001 -  Main lobby flooring consists of white Ipoh marble and Nero Galaxy marble to give a regal appearance -  Wings extending towards the side porticos are made of pebble wash finish with groove lines at 1200mm2 -  Lined with colonnades of the Roman Classical Order -  Openings are intersected with wooden louvers for shading and weather protection DESCRIPTION Due to it being constructed by the British, the building was based off neoclassical architecture. Much like most Neo-classical architecture, the façade of this building is symmetrical in it’s design. The central portico is the main focus of the building with it being the tallest of the porticos and functions as the Grand Entrance to the space inside. The building is painted white to resemble the white washed brick walls that are common in neoclassical architecture. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 17!
  20. 20. 3.0 BUILDING INVENTORY 3.2 PEDIMENT AND ENTABLATURE! Pediment Entablature Columns Base DETAILS -  Constructed out of bricks and coated in plaster and finished in Kansai Pure White 001 paint -  Contains triangular shaped and a rectangular shaped wooden louvers to allow ventilation into the building DESCRIPTION Based off Roman temples, the pediment is a triangular shaped gable on a horizontal cornice that is support by colonnades. The pediment is extruded from the main building to further enhance it’s focus. There are no major ornamentations on the tympanum of the pediment as neoclassical architecture buildings do not have exaggerated ornaments. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 18!
  21. 21. 3.0 BUILDING INVENTORY 3.3 COLUMNS! DETAILS -  Columns are made out of precast concrete in the High Colonial Indian Order also known as the Roman Tuscan Doric Order -  Coated in the same Kansai Pure White 001 paint -  The capitals of the columns are ornamented in repeated circular patterns -  The shafts of the columns, like the Roman Tuscan, are bare and plain -  The columns are rested on simple cuboidal shaped bases DESCRIPTION The columns used in the main building are used as structural support as well as to enhance the aesthetic view of the building. The repetition of columns give the building a sense of order and balance. Similar to Greek temples, “entasis” was used in visually correcting the appearance of the columns. The corners of the porticos were visually strengthened by groups of three columns. In contrast to the main building, the administration building used the columns as ornamentation instead of structural support much like in Michelangelo’s Laurentian Library. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 19!
  22. 22. 3.0 BUILDING INVENTORY 3.3 COLUMNS! COLUMN DETAILS The columns used in the building were of a Roman Tuscan and Roman Doric combination. The shaft of the column is based of the Roman Tuscan whilst the capital of the column is based of an Ornamental Roman Doric column (“Roman Column”, n.d.). ENTASIS According to Penrose (1888, p. 39), it is the ‘swelling given to a column in the middle parts of the shaft for the purpose of correcting a disagreeable optical illusion, which is found to give an attenuated appearance to columns formed with straight sides, and to cause their outlines to seem concave instead of straight’. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 20!
  23. 23. 3.0 BUILDING INVENTORY 3.4 COURTYARD! DETAILS -  The pathway consist of gravel laid on a concrete layer -  Carpet grass was used to add greenery to the landscape -  2 Imperial Guardian Lions made out of marble face the back of the main building -  Low leveled shrubs and minimal trees were used as part of the landscape -  The water feature lining the main building contains pots filled with water and lotus plants DESCRIPTION The courtyard was added to enhance the design of the building. Like most British architecture, the landscaping played a huge influence in the design of a building. Very minimal foliage and plants were used so that the building would not be overwhelmed by greenery and will be appreciated for it’s aesthetics. The garden contained eastern influences such as the guardian lions to add an Asian essence to the space. The combination of the gravel, grass and water feature created a tranquil space as a sense of repose from exploring the gallery. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 21!
  24. 24. 3.0 BUILDING INVENTORY 3.5 CENTRAL LOBBY! DETAILS -  Accessed through an arch made out of precast concrete and finished in the same Kansai Pure White 001 paint -  Double Quarter Landing staircase made out of Ipoh white marble and Nero Galaxy -  Balustrades are made out of precast concrete and finished in white paint -  A glass chandelier hangs over the space -  An elevator for the handicapped is fitted near the staircase DESCRIPTION The usage of marble and white paint gives a sense of grandeur to the space. Because it it the first space you enter, the intention was to impress the user. The reflection of the staircase and walls on the marble makes the space looks bigger than it is. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 22!
  25. 25. 3.0 BUILDING INVENTORY 3.6 ARCHED WINDOWS! DETAILS -  Wooden frames treated with anti-fungal -  Frames are coated in weather resistant white paint -  Glass panels are tinted to prevent UV light from entering the building and also to prevent visibility from the outside DESCRIPTION The interior spaces are very somber and regal thus coming off as very dark. These windows were located near the stair well accessing the upper floors. Whilst allowing light to enter the space, it gives a sense of enlightenment upon the users. The windows are arranged in an organized manner when viewed from the exterior of the building. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 23!
  26. 26. 4.0 CONCLUSION The Royal Klang Gallery is, without a doubt, one of the most symbolic buildings in Klang. First constructed and designed by the British, architecturally, it symbolizes our diverse and beautiful nation. The British were one of the many reasons Malaysia has one of the most colourful cultures in the world. Having undergone several function changes, this also proves that the building is able to cope with the changing of the times. Politically, the building is a royal symbol to Sultan Abdul Aziz as well as Sultan Sharaffudin Shah. This is because the building functions as a time capsule for the late Sultan Abdul Aziz’s life, preserving his past. The effort taken to refurbish the building proves initiatives were taken to ensure that historical buildings are in their top form for our future generation. During the refurbishment, the gallery helped form a close bond between the architect, Ar. Laurent Lim, and Sultan Sharaffudin Shah. The architect had to dwell into the Sultan’s late father’s life and this opened a door in his heart for the Royal family. However, despite all these efforts to preserve our culture and history the building will remain just a building if no effort is taken from a citizen’s point of view. Through the survey, it can be seen that very little awareness is known about the building. The fact that some of the residents are unaware of the gallery is unfortunate. All these initiatives and efforts taken would all be in vain if we do not change our mindset. We should embrace buidling’s like this as they hold many keys to unlocking our nations culture. Hopefully, the Royal Klang Gallery will be loved for it’s architecture and symbolism somewhere in the near future. Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 24!
  27. 27. 5.0 REFERENCE LIST INFORMATION AR. A. G. Lim, L. (2007). The making of galeri diraja sultan abdul aziz (Powerpoint slides). Ismail, A. S., & Tajuddin Mohd Rasdi, P. M. (2003). Traditional Muslim Architecture in Malaysia (Volume 2 ed.). Kuala Lumpur: Pusat Kaji Alam Bina Dunia Melayu. Laurent Lim Architect. (2006). Ar. Laurent A. G. Lim. Retrieved from http:// Malaysia Traveller. (2011). Klang Walking Tour. Retrieved from Muthiah, W. (2012). Steeped in history. The Star Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. (2004). Hubback, Arthur Benison. Retrieved from Palmer, A. L. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Neoclassical Art and Architecture. United Kingdom: Scarecrow Press, Inc. Penrose, F. C. (1888). An Investigation of the Principles of Athenian Architecture; or, The Results of a Survey Conducted Chiefly with Reference to the Optical Refinements Exhibited in the Construction of the Ancient Buildings at Athens. Macmillan, London, UK. Roman Columns. (n.d.). Roman Columns. Retrieved October 29, 2013, from http:// Zanna, E. S. (2008). A Royal Life Remembered. New Straits Times Zureuel. (2008). Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery. Retrieved from PICTURES i) ii) Traditional Muslim Architecture in Malaysia (Volume 2 ed.). iii) iv) v) Sultan Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery, Klang | ARC 1323 | 25!