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B u i l d i n g S e r v i c e s [ ARC 2423 ] 
Case Study and Documentation of 
Building Services Systems 
WISMA LEMBAGA JU...
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
1.0 INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Abstract 
1.2 Acknowledgements 
1.3 Name of Building 
1.4 Location of Building 
1...
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 
6.1 Literature Review 
6.2 Introduction 
6.3 Findings and Analysi...
1.0 INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Abstract 
This research report will look into the details of the services present in Wisma Lembaga J...
1.0 INTRODUCTION 
1.3 Name Of Building 
Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 
Picture 1.1 : Wisma Lembaga Jurukur Tanah 
1.4 Loc...
1.0 INTRODUCTION 
1.5 Description Of Building 
The Lembaga Jurukur Tanah ( The Land Surveyors Board ) are the main tenants...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.1 Literature Review 
According to Oxford Dictionary, fi...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.1 Literature Review 
Fire Safe Europe (2011) states tha...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.2 Introduction 
Active fire protection system is widely...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.2 Fire Control Room 
Fig...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom Syste...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom Syste...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom Syste...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom Syste...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom Syste...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.4 Emergency Light 
Figur...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.4 Emergency Light 
Accor...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
W...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
a...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
a...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
a...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
a...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
a...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
a...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
b...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
c...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
b...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
c...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
d...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems 
e...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based System...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based System...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based System...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based System...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.1 Active Fire Protection System 
2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 
2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based System...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 
2.2.1 Introduction 
The definition of the fire protection ...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 
2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 
2.2.2.1 Fire Resistant Escape...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 
2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 
2.2.2.1 Fire Resistant Escape...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 
2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 
2.2.2.1 Fire Resistant Escape...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 
2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 
2.2.2.1 Fire Resistant Escape...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 
2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 
2.2.2.2 Fire Resistant Doors ...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 
2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 
2.2.2.2 Fire Resistant Doors ...
2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 
2.3 Conclusion 
In a nutshell, neither active or passive fire protection system plays an impor...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.1 Literature Review 
Air conditioning is defined as the simultaneous mechanical control ove...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.2 Introduction 
This research paper covers the air conditioning system adopted by the chose...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.3 Findings and Analysis 
3.3.1 Central Air Conditioning Split System 
Wisma LJT, is a multi...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.3 Findings and Analysis 
3.3.1 Central Air Conditioning Split System 
Figure 3.2: The cool ...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.3 Findings and Analysis 
3.3.2 Basic Refrigeration Cycle 
!The refrigerant comes into the c...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.3 Findings and Analysis 
3.3.3 Components 
3.3.3.1 Outdoor Units 
Figure 
3.5: 
Rows 
of 
t...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.3 Findings and Analysis 
3.3.3 Components 
3.3.3.1 Outdoor Units 
a) Compressor 
Air condit...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.3 Findings and Analysis 
3.3.3 Components 
3.3.3.2 Indoor Units 
a) Evaporator! 
!The evapo...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.3 Findings and Analysis 
3.3.3 Components 
3.3.3.3 Refrigerant Pipes 
The refrigerant pipin...
3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 
3.4 Conclusion 
The central air conditioning using split system has its advantages. Due to th...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.1 Literature Review 
Mechanical ventilation has been defined as the system which hel...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.1 Literature Review 
4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.1 Literature Review 
4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.1 Literature Review 
4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.1 Literature Review 
4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.1 Literature Review 
4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.1 Literature Review 
4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.1 Literature Review 
4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.2 Introduction 
Mechanical ventilation as explained in the literature review, consis...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.3 Findings and Analysis 
4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) 
FIGURE 4.16 AHU ROOM PLACE...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.3 Findings and Analysis 
4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) 
Building Services [ ARC 24...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.3 Findings and Analysis 
4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) 
4.3.1.1 Air Handling Unit ...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.3 Findings and Analysis 
4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) 
4.3.1.4 Compressors 
Compr...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.3 Findings and Analysis 
4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) 
4.3.1.5 Exhaust Ventilatio...
4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM 
4.4 Conclusion 
According to the UBBL requirement and regulation (UBBL 2012, Amendment...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.1 Literature Review 
5.1.1 Power Transmission System 
Wisma LJT is located at Taman Melawa...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.1 Literature Review 
5.1.2 Electrical Components 
Electrical supply system is divided into...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.2 Introduction 
Electricity is a form of energy used in buildings. It provides electrical ...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.3 Findings and Analysis 
5.3.1 Electrical Distribution System 
WISMA LJT receives its elec...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.3 Findings and Analysis 
5.3.2 High Voltage Room 
The high voltage room is usually located...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.3 Findings and Analysis 
5.3.2 High Voltage Room 
The switch gear is in charge of regulati...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.3 Findings and Analysis 
5.3.3 Low Voltage Room 
The low voltage room stores the main swit...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.3 Findings and Analysis 
5.3.4 Wire, Raceway and Riser 
Various types of wires can be used...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.3 Findings and Analysis 
5.3.5 Generator Set Room 
Diesel generator is used as an emergenc...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.3 Findings and Analysis 
5.3.5 Generator Set Room 
The generator is placed on the lower gr...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.3 Findings and Analysis 
5.3.5 Generator Set Room 
CO² fire protection system is used in t...
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 
5.4 Conclusion 
Electrical supply system in any building is complicated, from its placement ...
6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION 
SYSTEM 
Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 
82 
6.1 Literature Review 
Vertical transportation ...
6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION 
SYSTEM 
Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 
83 
6.2 Introduction 
This section of the report wi...
6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION 
SYSTEM 
Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 
84 
6.3 Findings and Analysis 
6.3.1 External Lift ...
6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION 
SYSTEM 
Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 
85 
6.3 Findings and Analysis 
6.3.1 External Lift ...
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
Building services report
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Building services report

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  • hi sir. im firdaus, graduating architecture students from IIUM, Gombak. can i get the softcopy of this report? precious treasure that i need to understand and memorize before graduating this August. really appreciate your cooperation sir.
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Building services report

  1. 1. B u i l d i n g S e r v i c e s [ ARC 2423 ] Case Study and Documentation of Building Services Systems WISMA LEMBAGA JURUKUR TANAH Pusat Bandar Melawati Lamiya Yousuf Al – Rawahi 0312476 Meera Nazreen Masrulhisham 0309630 Nurul Jannah Masturah Jailani 0310210 Sharifah Diyana Syed Hussain 1006AH78373 Soh You Shing 0308010 Surayyn Selvan 0309818
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Abstract 1.2 Acknowledgements 1.3 Name of Building 1.4 Location of Building 1.5 Description of Building 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.1 Literature Review 2.1.2 Introduction 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.1 Introduction 2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 2.3 Conclusion 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.1 Literature Review 3.2 Introduction 3.3 Findings and Analysis 3.4 Conclusion 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review 4.2 Introduction 4.3 Findings and Analysis 4.4 Conclusion 5.0 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.1 Literature Review 5.2 Introduction 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.4 Conclusion Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] i
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS 6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 6.1 Literature Review 6.2 Introduction 6.3 Findings and Analysis 6.4 Conclusion 7.0 CONCLUSION 8.0 REFERENCES 9.0 ATTACHMENTS Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] ii
  4. 4. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Abstract This research report will look into the details of the services present in Wisma Lembaga Jurukur Tanah such as the fire protection system, air-conditioning system, mechanical ventilation system, electricity supply system and the mechanical transportation system. Thorough analysis on the components and the functions of these systems will be conducted to further understand the importance of these systems in a buildings’ operation. A conclusion of these systems will be generated through our understanding of these services in regards to the Uniform Building By-Law requirements as well as other relevant rules and regulations. 1.2 Acknowledgements Firstly, we would like to thank Mr. Adib Ramli for guiding us throughout this entire process and ensuring that we were on the right track. We would also like to thank Puan Nur Faridahtul Akmal binti Rahmat, Assistant Officer, Property and Building Management Unit of Board of Land Surveyors, whom so kindly helped us with our assignment by introducing us to the people in charge of the technicians in charge of the maintenance of Wisma Lembaga Jurukur Tanah : Ahmad Ramdhan bin Mat Yasin, Assistant Officer, Property and Building Management Unit of Board of Land Surveyors ; Mohd Syafiq bin Mohd Khalid, Technician, Property and Building Management Unit of Board of Land Surveyors and Mohd Azrul bin Mokhtar, Technician, Property and Building Management Unit of Board of Land Surveyors. Finally, we would like to thank all the group members who put in so much effort and hard work into making this research report into a success. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 1
  5. 5. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.3 Name Of Building Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Picture 1.1 : Wisma Lembaga Jurukur Tanah 1.4 Location Of Building Diagram 1.1 : Lorong Perak, Pusat Bandar Melawati, Taman Melawati, 53100 Kuala Lumpur 2
  6. 6. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.5 Description Of Building The Lembaga Jurukur Tanah ( The Land Surveyors Board ) are the main tenants of the building that was developed and managed by Sime Darby Properties. The first floor is where the Sime Darby Property offices are located, both the sales and operations office. The East Selangor Surveyors office is located on the second floor. The fifth floor houses a 9415 square feet function hall which caters for mostly wedding banquets. It also functions as a convention centre as well as an exhibition space. The seventh floor is where the corporate office for the Board of Land Surveyors is operates. Located in front of the building is an open space car park which is a site for the Thursday night market. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Picture 1.2 : A view of the open space carpark located in front of Wisma LJT Picture 1.3 : The directory board of the floors located on the Ground floor 3
  7. 7. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.1 Literature Review According to Oxford Dictionary, fire is a process which substances combine with oxygen and produces combustion or burning. A fire can spread at the rate of 4.6 meters per second (Binggeli, 2014). Also, fire is supported by three essential factors, which are fuel, heat and oxygen. An existing fire will be extinguished immediately if any one of these factors is absent. Chadderton (2000) stated that the fire-fighting system must be appropriate to the location of the fire and preferably limited to the area in order to minimize damage to materials, plant and the building structure. A building’s fire protection is divided into two forms, which are active and passive fire protection system. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FUEL - Fuel can be any combustible material; solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids become a vapour or gas before they will burn. OXYGEN - The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen. HEAT - Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapours are given off for ignition to occur ! AIM There are a few purposes of the operation of fire protection system. Nullifire (2014) shared that the fundamental purpose of fire protection systems whether active or passive is • To prevent the passage and spread of smoke and fire, from one area of the building to another • To allow for the safe escape of the building occupants • To prevent or to reduce the amount of damage to the building structure, neighbouring structures • To reduce the risk of collapse for the emergency services 4
  8. 8. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.1 Literature Review Fire Safe Europe (2011) states that Active fire protection is an integral part of any fire safety strategy, characterised by items and/or systems requiring a certain degree of motion and response in order to work. An active fire protection system works to detect, control, suppress, and extinguish fire. It requires an action to trigger it’s involvement, either manual, electrical or mechanical. The benefits of using active fire protection system are permitting design freedoms and encourage innovative, inclusive and sustainable architecture. Nullifire (2014) stated that the overall aim of active systems is to extinguish the fire by: • Detecting the fire early and evacuating the building • Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire • Control the movement of smoke and fire • Suppress and/or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel There are benefits using active fire protection system, which are permitting design freedoms and encourage innovative, inclusive and sustainable architecture. Basically, active fire protection system is divided into a few categories. Fire can be controlled or extinguished either automatically or manually. Automatically is with the used of water sprinkler system whereas manually is by using fire extinguisher. Next, fire sprinkler system is usually installed at the ceiling level of the building and it is connected to a water source. This system will help to reduce the spread of fire and protect the asset of the building. For fire detection system, it is usually through the used of smoke and heat detectors. The detectors will sound an alarm and enable emergency evacuation. Lastly, all the active fire protection system requires maintenance to maintain compliance with the building code and the fire code. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 5
  9. 9. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.2 Introduction Active fire protection system is widely used in process industries for protection of storage vessels, process plant, loading installations and warehouses. The duty of the fire protection system may be to extinguish the fire, control the fire, or provide exposure protection to prevent domino effects. The design of active fire protection system needs to follow the requirement of Uniform Building by-Laws. Active fire protection system is further divided into different categories, like fire detection, smoke and heat extraction system, fire suppression and sprinkler system. Below are a list of active systems that are found in Wisma LJT. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Active Fire ! Protection System! Extinguish the fire! Control the fire! Provide exposure protection! 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems and Alarm Devices Petromas stated that fire detection and alarm systems are designed to provide warning of the outbreak of fire and allow appropriate fire-fighting action to be taken before the situation gets out of control. There are two ways of how fire alarm system operates. It is either automatically or manually. Automatic operation is basically through the detectors, like smoke and heat detector whereas manual operation is by breaking the glass at the call point (Petromas, 2014) As a result, architects have great responsibility to design each fire detection system and alarm system based on the building’s requirements because all systems are designed primarily to protect our precious life, asset and property. Figure 2.1: Different types of fire detectors and alarm devices ! 6
  10. 10. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems and Alarm Devices Smoke spreads very fast and it can overcome human in moments. Because of smoke, we might not be able to see and we might have trouble in breathing. Hence, smoke detector is required in every building. According to Burberry (1997), there are two ways of how smoke detectors work. It either uses a small radioactive source that emits ions to charged electrodes, or they use a beam of light and a photocell. The smoke of fire will actually interrupt the flow of ions or the passage of light. Thus, it activates the detector. Under UBBL 1984 section153: Smoke detectors for lift lobbies. • All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors. • Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door. • Reopening devices controlled by light beam or photo detectors unless incorporated with a force close features which after thirty second of any unless incorporated with a force close feature which are thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a preset-time. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.2: Smoke detector found in Wisma LJT ! Figure 2.3 : Smoke detector at the lift lobby! a) Smoke Detectors 7
  11. 11. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems and Alarm Devices b) Fire Alarm Bell The fire alarm bells in WISMA LJT are activated by the fire detector throughout the building. The sound produced by the fire alarm bell is unique which will not be confused with some other similar audible signals used for other purposes. As the building is large, sounding the alarm system is operated on a phased basis to avoid congestion in the escape route (Burberry, 1997). Usually, those nearest the fire will be alerted first. There are two types of fire alarm bell (Alertek, 2006): Continuous bells have a mechanism inside which uses an electronic coil called a solenoid to pull back a hammer. When the hammer goes back, it disconnects the circuit, causing the solenoid to let go, sending the hammer into the gong and ringing it. When the hammer moves forward, it reconnects the circuit, which pulls the hammer back again. It continues this cycle until the power is disconnected. Single-Stroke bells use a solenoid which pulls the hammer back and holds it. When the power is disconnected, the hammer moves forward, ringing the bell. The hammer bounces back after hitting, ready to be rang again. Single-Stroke bells require a timing circuit to make them ring more than just once. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.4: Fire Alarm Bell in Wisma LJT! 8
  12. 12. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems and Alarm Devices b) Fire Alarm Bell According to UBBL 1984, Section 237: • Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule to these by-laws. • All premises and building with gross floor area excluding car park and storage area exceeding 9290 square meters or exceeding 30.5m in height shall be • provided with a two-stage alarm system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the affected section of the premises while an alert • (Intermittent signal) be given adjoining section. • Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action of a master control. c) Horn Loudspeaker Figure 2.5: One of the horn loudspeakers in the basement car park ( Wisma LJT)! The horn loudspeaker acts as a fire alarm signalling device in Wisma LJT. It is mostly found in the basement parking of the building. It uses a large diaphragm which supplies periodic pressure to a small entry port of a long horn The large diaphragm system is called a "compression driver" since its large air displacement which feeds into a small port causes a larger pressure variation than ordinary loudspeakers. The long tapered horn increases the sound production efficiency (HyperPhysics, 2014). Since it reproduces electronic signals, it can be made to sound like any mechanical signalling device. Besides that, it has the ability to reproduce unique sound that is not practical on mechanical appliances (Oppenheim, 2011). The staff can control it from the control room. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 9
  13. 13. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.1 Fire Detection Systems and Alarm Devices c) Horn Loudspeaker Figure 2.6: Components of a horn loudspeaker! (Source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr. Figure 2.8: A close up of the location of Fire Control Room in Wisma LJT! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] gsu.edu/)! Figure 2.7: The flow of sound in a horn louspeaker! (Source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr. gsu.edu/)! 2.1.3.2 Fire Control Room A fire control room shall be provided for all commercial buildings and apartment buildings. Cosumnes Fire Department (2014) stated that the exterior access door shall be full size and clearly marked “Fire Control Room” with a minimum of 3” letters contrasting in colour to their background. The room must be provided with permanent and emergency lighting. Also, it stated that two keys of each of the following shall be located in an approved Knox box mounted directly adjacent to each fire control room: fire control room, manual pull stations, fire alarm control panel, breakaway lock for PIV and building entrance keys. The fire control room of Wisma LJT is located at the ground floor level of the building.! 10
  14. 14. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.2 Fire Control Room Figure 2.9: The control panel and intercom system in the fire control room ! UBBL 1984 section 238:- Command and Control Centre! Every large premises or building exceeding 30.5 meters in height shall be provided with a command and control center located on the designated floor and shall contain a panel to monitor the public address, fire bridge communication, sprinkler, water flow detectors, fire detection and alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the appropriate fire station by passing the switchboard! a) Control Panel The "brain" of the fire detection and alarm system is the control panel. It is responsible for monitoring the various alarm "input" devices such as manual and automatic detection components, and then activating alarm "output" devices such as horns, bells, warning lights, emergency telephone dialers, and building controls.(NEDCC, 2014). Also, it is used to test whether the pumps are working properly by the management staff.! ! OSHA (2014) stated that when an automatic or manual device is activated it sends a signal to the control panel where, depending on the type of system and hazards, can be programmed to:! ! • Activate a pre-discharge alar! • Initiate agent release! • Shutdown ventilation systems! • Shutdown machinery or equipment! • Activate visual and audible fire alarms! • Notify emergency response personnel! ! Figure 2.10 The control panel in the fire Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] control room ! 11
  15. 15. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom System !Fireman Intercom System provides a two-way communication between remote areas and the Fire Command Centre in a building. The system consists of a Master Control Console and Remote Handsets which are located at designated areas. ! a) Master Control Console and Remote Control Handset Patent Premium (2014) shared that the Master Control Console comprises a Master Handset, a System Control Module and Zone Control Modules. The Master Handset is used to communicate with the remote handsets. The lifting of the handset will allow the operator to have control of the Master Control Console. It is located in the control room of Wisma LJT. ! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.11: Typical Master Control Console! (Source: Patent, 2012)! Figure 14: Typical “ Telefon Bomba Api:! Figure 2.12: “Telefon Bomba Api” which is located outside the genset room! 12
  16. 16. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom System b) Fire Break Glass Callpoint A fire break glass call point is a device that enables the occupant to raise the alarm when there is fire. Occupants just need to break the glass, which is a fragile element and there it will trigger the alarm system. Below are some guidance for the correct placing and positioning a fire break glass call point (Fire Action LTD, 2014):! ! • It should be placed on the exit routes and in particular on the floor landings of staircase and at all exits to the open air.! ! • It should also be located so that no person needs to travel more than 45m from any position within the premises in order to give an alarm (30m if layout is unknown).! ! • Call points should usually be fixed at a height of 1.4m above the floor, at easily accessible, well-illuminated and conspicuous position free from obstruction.! ! • The method of operation of all call points in an installation should be identical unless there is a special reason for differentiation. ! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.13: Fire Break Glass Call Point! 13
  17. 17. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom System b) Fire Break Glass Callpoint Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 14
  18. 18. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom System c) Manual Pull Station Manual pull and key switch box are usually located near HT sub station and genset room. While the room is on fire, ones can straight activate the key switch or pull box. All the manual fire alarm box should be test annually.! Figure 2.15: Typical dimensions of manual key switch ! (Source: http://www.demcoalarm.com/pdf/KeyBox.pdf)! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.14: Manual pull and key switch box! 15
  19. 19. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.3 Fireman Intercom System d) Fireman’s Switch A fireman switch is a switch-disconnector / isolator for special applications. It is found at the emergency staircase area in Wisma LJT so that it will be easy to spot. It is used by the fireman to turn-off neon-lighting or other hazardous electrical equipment in case of fire. ! ! Next, this fireman switch is used for the breaking of low voltage circuit for exterior and interior sign and luminaries installations. Besides that, it can also be used to run the under voltage release or shunt trip in the main incoming breaker. If there is a fire in the building, the fireman uses an insulated rod (Firemans axe) to pull the handle which isolates the utility supply to the building (ABB, 2012).! Figure 2.16: Fireman switch which is located at the emergency staircase (Ground Floor)! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.17: Typical sign of fireman switch! (Source: https://www.hfe-signs.co.uk)! 16
  20. 20. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.4 Emergency Light Figure 2.18: Location of Emergency Light in level 4 Wisma LJT! Emergency light is lighting for an emergency situation when the main power supply is cut and any normal illumination fails. It is required to operate fully automatically and give illumination of a sufficiently high level to enable all occupants to evacuate the premises safely. ! ! Emergency lighting is a general term and is sub-divided into emergency escape lighting and standby lighting (Fire Safety Advice Centre,2011):! ! Emergency escape lighting – It provides illumination for the safety of people leaving a location or attempting to terminate a potentially dangerous process beforehand. This emergency escape lighting can be easily found in Wisma LJT which is located on the top of every exit door. The minimum duration for the emergency escape lighting is one hour.! ! Standby lighting – It enables normal activities to continue substantially unchanged when there is a fire. This guide does not include standby lighting as it is not a legal requirement and is a facility that may or may not be needed, depending on the use and occupancy of the premises. Standby lighting can be found on every floor of the walkway in Wisma LJT. ! ! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 17
  21. 21. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.4 Emergency Light According to UBBL 1984, Section 255:! 1. Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified in the Tenth Schedule to these by-laws.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.19: “Keluar” signage and emergency light! 18
  22. 22. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems Water based suppression systems utilize the inexpensive and readily available medium of water to discharge onto flames through a normally fixed piping system (Janus, 2012). There are different types of water based system! a) Fire Sprinkler System A fire sprinkler system is a system which consists of water supply system, providing pressure to a water distribution piping system where fire sprinklers are connected. Sprinkler system requires central control and test gear and it is usually arranged in the basement (Burberry, 1997) .! There are four types of sprinkler system:! • Wet Pipe! • Dry Pipe! • Deluge! • Pre-action! ! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM! Wet Pipe! Dry Pipe! Deluge! Pre-action! 19
  23. 23. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems a) Fire Sprinkler System The sprinkler system that is used in Wisma LJT is wet pipe sprinkler system. It is known as the most common type of fire sprinkler system. A wet pipe system is one in which water is constantly maintained within the sprinkler piping. When a sprinkler activates, this water is immediately discharged onto the fire. Below are some advantages of using a wet pipe sprinkler system (VFP, 2014):! • System is simple and reliable. This system has the least number of components thus it has the lowest number of items to malfunction.! • Relative low installation and maintenance expense. Wet pipe sprinkler system requires the least amount of the time for installation due to their overall simplicity. Maintenance cost savings are also realized since less service time is required compared to other system. ! • Ease of modification. This system is advantageous since the modifications involve shutting down the water supply, draining pipes and making alterations. Following the work, the system is pressure tested and restored.! • Short term down time following a fire. Wet pipe sprinkler system requires the least amount of effort to restore. Sprinkler protection is reinstated by replacing the fused sprinklers and turning the water supply back on.! 1. Water sprinkler tank! 2. Sprinkler pump! 3. Pump controller panel! 4. Pump switch! 5. Butterfly switch! 6. Sprinkler head! 7. Sprinkler drain! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.20: Diagram of sprinkler system ! (Source: http://www.firefightingindia.com/fire-sprinkler-system-1.html)! 20
  24. 24. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems a) Fire Sprinkler System i) Sprinkler In Wisma LJT, the sprinkler water outlets are located at ceiling level and distance between each sprinkler is about 2.5 meters. The sprinkler itself is the spray nozzle which will distribute water over a defined fire hazard area (typically 14 to 21 m2).! ! “Each sprinkler has a frame containing a friable heat-sensing quartz bulb, containing a coloured liquid for leak detection, which seals the water inlet. Upon local overheating, the quartz expands and fractures, releasing the spray. Water flow is detected and starts an alarm, pressure-boosting set and automatic link to fire brigade monitoring station.” (Chadderton, 2014)! ! The components of a typical sprinkler are frame, thermal operated linkage, cap, orifice, and deflector (NEDCC, 2014). ! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.21: Components of a sprinkler! (Source: http://www.sarian.ir/)! 21
  25. 25. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems a) Fire Sprinkler System i) Sprinkler • Frame. The frame provides the main structural component which holds the sprinkler together. Water supply piping is connected to the sprinkler at the base of the frame. The frame holds the thermal linkage and cap in place, and supports the deflector during discharge. Frame styles include standard and low profile, flush, and concealed mount. Special coatings are available for areas subject to high corrosive effect. ! • Thermal linkage. A component that controls water release. The linkage holds the cap in place and prevents water flow under normal conditions. As the link is exposed to heat, however, it weakens and releases the cap. Common linkage styles include soldered metal levers, frangible glass bulbs, and solder pellets. Each link style is equally dependable.! • Cap. The cap provides the water tight seal. It is held in place by the thermal linkage, and falls from position after linkage heating to permit water flow. Caps are constructed solely of metal or a metal with a teflon disk.! • Deflector. Its purpose is to break up the water stream discharging from the orifice into a more efficient extinguishing pattern. Deflector styles determine how the sprinkler is mounted, with common sprinkler mounting styles known as upright (mounted above the pipe), pendent (mounted below the pipe, i.e. under ceilings), and sidewall sprinklers which discharge water in a lateral position from a wall. The sprinkler must be mounted as designed to ensure proper action. ! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 22
  26. 26. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems a) Fire Sprinkler System i) Sprinkler There are different types of sprinkler but the two types of water sprinkler found in Wisma LJT are recessed pendent sprinkler and upright sprinkler.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.22: Types of sprinkler! (Source: http://cool.conservation-us.org/waac/wn/wn16/wn16-3/wn16-309.html)! 23
  27. 27. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems a) Fire Sprinkler System i) Sprinkler RECESSED PENDANT SPRINKLER Figure 2.23: Recessed Pendant Spinkler! Figure 2.24: Deflector facings downwards! Recessed pendant sprinkler is hang from the pipe which heads hang down from the ceiling. It’s water deflector is placed at the bottom and it spreads water in a circular pattern. Recessed pendant sprinklers are found in the office level of Wisma LJT as the obstruction to spray water are minimal. Also, recessed pendant sprinkler has higher water flow speed than upright sprinkler as the radial water pattern flow begins between sprinkler orifice and the deflector whereas upright sprinkler is between the orifice and somewhat above the deflector.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] (Souce: www.archtool.com)! 24
  28. 28. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems a) Fire Sprinkler System i) Sprinkler UPRIGHT SPRINKLER Figure 2.25: Upright Spinkler! Figure 2.26: Deflector facings upwards! Upright sprinkler stands atop a pipeline which heads project up into a space. Generally , it is used in mechanical rooms or other inaccessible areas to provide better coverage between obstructions. Besides, it has a water deflector on the top so that water coming out of the orifice shoots upward and spread in a circular pattern like pendent sprinkler.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] (Souce: www.archtool.com)! 25
  29. 29. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems b) Dry Riser Dry rising system need to be provided in every building in which the topmost floor is more than 18.3m but less than 30.5m and above fire appliances access level. When the pipe is not in use, it has no water within it, thus it is dry with only air inside. According to Advance Fire (2013), the purpose of these risers is to allow the Fire & rescue services to connect lay flat hose to it and pump up the required water to the necessary floor to fight a fire. Whilst these are only used by the Fire & Rescue service, the responsibility to maintain falls on the building owners, tenants or managers and severe penalties could ensue should this be neglected.! ! Wisma LJT uses dry riser system as the building consists of 9 floors including the basement which is more 30.5m. Wet risers are found within fire-fighting shafts, and where necessary in protected escape staircase, or 'landing valves‘.! ! Besides, dry risers need to be inspected and tested regularly so that that equipment is functioning correctly and ready for use. Problems can be very serious in the event of a fire, and are typically caused by vandalism or theft, blockages or pipework failure or by connection failure or outlets being open (Designing Buildings Ltd, 2014).! Diagam 2.27: Typical Dry Riser Layout (Source:http://www.castlefire.co.uk/)! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Diagam 2.28: Landing valve located at the ground floor of Wisma LJT! 26
  30. 30. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems c) Pumps Pumps are needed to provide adequate supply of water to each riser at all times. Each pump is capable to deliver a minimum flow rate of 15 litre/s (Frederick, 1998). All the pumps are connected in parallel, with their suctions permanently “wet” when the tank is filled.! Figure 2.29: Fire pumps which located in the fire pump room! Figure 2.30: Signs which states the cut in and cut out pressure for sprinkler system! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 27
  31. 31. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems b) Pumps Jockey Pump! Jockey pump is an apparatus that works together with a fire-pump as a part of the fire protection system. It maintains the pressure in the system elevated to a specific level when the system is not in use, so that the fire pump does not have to run all the time. Next, it can also help to prevent the system from drainage when a fire happens and water rushes into the pipes.! ! Duty Pump and Stand-by Pump! When pressure in pipe goes down to 35 PSI, duty pump takes the lead and supply enough pressure of water so that the system in running order. However, if duty pump fails to run due to some defaults or the pressure goes down to 25 PSI, standby pump is activated automatically by the system. Duty pump can be switch off manually from the control panel in case of necessity.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 28
  32. 32. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems c) Water Storage Tank Figure 2.31: Location of water storage tank in Basement 1! Figure 2.32: The water The fire water storage tank is located at basement 1 of Wisma LJT in the fire pump room. The sprinkler system and the hose reel system use the same water. The quantity of water plus the amount needed to satisfy daily peak demands is available in fire water storage tank. The material of the storage tank is made out of pressed steel.! ! According to UBBL 1984, Section 247:! 1) Water storage capacity and water flow rate for fire fighting system and installation shall be provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the tenth schedule to these By-laws.! 2) Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for the hose reel system, shall be located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connection accessible to fire appliances.! 3) Storage tanks for automatic sprinkle installation where full capacity is provided without the need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location.! ! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] storage tank which is made out of pressed steel coloured in red ! 29
  33. 33. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems d) External Fire Hydrant MFPA (2008) stated that fire hydrant system consists of a system of pipe work connected directly to the water supply to provide water to each and every hydrant outlet. It is intended to provide water for the firemen to fight a fire. The water is discharged into the fire engine form which it is then pumped and sprayed over fire. It also stated that where the water supply is not reliable or inadequate, hydrant pumps should be provided to pressurize the fire mains.! ! There are only a few external fire hydrants found around Wisma LJT. One of the fire hydrant is placed opposite the building which is right beside the road to ease the fire brigade access their input hose. The fire hydrant found is a two-way fire hydrant which is made up of cast iron that could withstand high water pressure.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.33: Diagram of external hydrant! Figure 2.34: Two of the fire hydrants found around Wisma LJT! 30
  34. 34. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.5 Water Based Systems e) Hose Reel System Hose reel system is designed for the occupant to use during the early stages of fire. The hose reel system normally serves as an initial fire fighting aid. Petromas (2014) stated that when the hose reel is brought into use the pressure in the pipe immediately downstream of the pump check valves will drops below the field adjusted pressure setting of the pressure switch thereby triggers the pump to comes into operation automatically to feed a steady supply of water to discharge through the hose. ! Hose reel is a very easy to use first-aid method. The hose of hose reel is wound on to a drum, which is called drum holding hose (Chadderton, 2000). A drum holding hose is normally 18 to 30 metres long. The hose reels in Wisma LJT use reinforced hose, which is up to 22mm internal diameter. The hose is connected to the water supply serving the spindle of the drum and fitted with a small diameter nozzle with control cock. The hose reels are located in clearly visible recesses corridors to make sure that there is no part of the floor is further than 6m from a nozzle when the 25mm bore flexible hose is fully extended.! ! Figure 2.35 : Components of a hose reel! (Source : Chadderton, 2000)! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.36: Hose Reel which is located beside the emergency staircase! Figure 2.37: Hose reel! 31
  35. 35. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based Systems Non-water based system is gaseous and chemical fire suppression systems which use fire suppression medium other than water for special, specific hazards or equipment. Gaseous and chemical fire suppression systems are engineered systems designed to protect a specific area or equipment, or for a specific hazard. The components of the system will specifically relate to the design of the system and the choice of suppression agent (NFPA, 2014).! a) Fixed Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide is used in fixed installation to protect the electrical equipment such as transformers, switchgear, computer rooms and etc. When the smoke detectors sound alarms, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas will flood in the room from high-pressure storage tanks. Then, pipework will transfer all the CO2 to ceiling and underfloor distributors. This system can be either manual or automatic but it is very crucial that CO2 can only me allowed after complete personnel evacuation (Chadderton, 2000). In Wisma LJT, the CO2 fire extinguisher can be found in the Genset Room. If the genset room is on fire, CO2 will be released from the high-pressure storage cylinders and the pipe will transfer the CO2 to the ceiling and thus the louvers opening will be closed by the smoke curtain to prevent CO2 to flow out from the room. ! The Genset Room! Carbon dioxide tanks release Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] CO2 gas! Smoke Curtain CO2 gas will not escape will be triggered ! through louvers opening of the Genset room! CO2 gas is transported by the pipework to the room! Figure 2.38: Diagram of fixed carbon dioxide system! 32
  36. 36. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based Systems b) Portable Fire Extinguisher Portable fire extinguishers are manually operated appliances to stop or limit the growth of small fires (Chadderton, 2014). The staffs in the building are trained to use it and these appliances need to be regularly maintained by the suppliers.! ! Based on different type of fire, fire extinguishers are divided into five categories.! CLASS A! Fire that result from in ordinary combustible such as wood, paper, fabric and other ordinary materials.! CLASS B! For fire involving flammable liquids such as petrol, oil, diesel, paint and etc.! CLASS C! Suitable for use on fire caused by flammable gases such as butane, Methane and etc.! CLASS D! Designed for use on flammable metals and are often specific for the type of metal in question. e.g. sodium, titanium, magnesium & potassium.! CLASS E! Suitable for use on electrically energized fires. Combustion of circuit breaker, wires, outlets, and other electrical equipment.! Source: http://www.fireextinguishermalaysia.com/Fire-Extinguisher-Types.html! According to Fire Extinguisher Malaysia (2012), the 2 most common type of fire extinguisher used in Malaysia are ABC Dry Powder Extinguisher and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguisher. These 2 types of fire extinguishers are found in Wisma LJT:! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 33
  37. 37. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based Systems b) Portable Fire Extinguisher Diagram 2.39: Components of ABC Dry Powder Extinguisher ! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Diagram 2.40: Components of Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher ! ABC Dry Powder Extinguisher ! Suitable for mixed fire risk environments and are especially suited for flammable liquid and fire involving flammable gases such as natural gas, hydrogen, methane and etc. Safe for Class A, B and C fire, ideal for home and vehicle use.! ! Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguisher ! Suitable for Class B, C & E fire which involve flammable liquids and electrical hazards. CO2 is harmless to electrical equipment and is ideal for modern office. Chadderton (2000) stated that CO2 vapour displaces air around the fire and combustion ceases. Besides that, he also mentioned that there is minimal cooling effect and there will be chances for the fire to restart if high temperatures have become established. It is not safe for wood, paper and cloths.! ! 34
  38. 38. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based Systems b) Portable Fire Extinguisher Diagram 2.41: The portable fire extinguishers which are located in level 2 ! It is very important to read the fire extinguisher instruction first before using it. Below are the 4 steps of using a fire extinguisher (FEMA, 2006):! I. Pull! Pull the pin.! II. Aim! Aim the nozzle or hose at the base of the fire from the recommended safe distance.! III. Squeeze! Squeeze the operating lever to discharge the fire extinguishing agent.! IV. Sweep! Sweep the nozzle or hose from side to side until the fire is out. Move forward or around the fire area as the fire diminishes. Watch the area in case of re-ignition.! According to UBBL Law 1984, Section 227:! Portable Fire Extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent position on exit routes to be visible from all direction and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Diagram 2.42: Steps of how to use a fire extinguisher ! 35
  39. 39. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.1 Active Fire Protection System 2.1.3 Findings and Analysis 2.1.3.6 Non-Water Based Systems b) Portable Fire Extinguisher Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 36
  40. 40. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.1 Introduction The definition of the fire protection of a building refers to the buildings ability to detect, withstand, prevent, and reduce any damage caused by a sudden un expected fire whether man made or non-man made. This section of the report will focus on the passive fire protection systems used in the building mentioned above. Passive fire protection systems (PFP) are known as building materials that are always present and available within the building, placed and located evenly within every floor of the building to be accessed easily by its occupants. These materials do not rely on the operation of any mechanical device in order to be activated or triggered. They are used manually by the buildings occupants in order to take immediate action in case of any fire emergency or life threatening situation. These passive materials are used within the construction of the building in the aim to : 1. Contain the growth and spread of fire within the building with the use of fire rated walls and doors. 2. Reduce the amount of damage to the building inflicted by the fire. 3. delaying the collapse of the building structure. 4. Reduce the possible life and health risks of the building occupants and fire fighters. Therefor it provides the building the strength to withstand fire for a certain period of time ensuring the save evacuation of its occupants and the safety of the buildings surrounding it. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 37
  41. 41. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 2.2.2.1 Fire Resistant Escape Stairs a) Stair Type The fire resistant escape stairs found on site were reinforced concrete stairs enclosed within concrete walls that are only accusable through self closing fire doors. The type of stair case found was a half turn stair case taking a 180 degree turn at an intervening landing. This allows an increase of human capacity within the stair case lobby which in return provides an easy flow of a large number of occupants evacuating the building during a fire in the fastest and shortest amount of time ensuring a safe non harmful evacuation. b) Material Used The type of building material used to construct the fire resistant escape stairs was re-enforced concrete. This material has many important characteristics that make it suitable for use in fire resistant escape stairs such as: 1. Strength: concrete is one of the few materials that gain strength over time, therefor it is able to provide strength and stability to the building and the stairs in case of an un expected natural or fire disasters. It is able to withstand the massive weight focused on a small area in the building exerted by the occupants while evacuating the building in a rush and panic. 2. Fire resistant: concrete is a natural resistant to fire and heat, therefor it forms a highly effective barrier between different rooms and floors within the building that prevents the spread of fire through the building while withstanding the extremely high heat from the fire for a long period of time. 3. Thermal mass: concrete slows the passage of heat moving through the building reducing thermal heat gain and temperature changes within the small area of the fire escape lobby preventing the overheating of the enclosed area witch may cause breathing difficulty during the long evacuation presses. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 38
  42. 42. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 2.2.2.1 Fire Resistant Escape Stairs c) Location and Dimensions The locations of witch the fire escape stairs are located is extremely important. It must be located in areas that are easily accessible from any location in the building. The building is 11 floors high, there are 3 fire escape stairs on each floor one in the center and one on each far end of the building (left and right). The travel time and distance from each room and area of the building to the fire escape stairs are mentioned in the table bellow: ROOM / AREA TRAVEL TIME TRAVEL DISTANCE LOBY 30 SEC - 1 MIN 3 M ELEVATORS 30 SEC – 1 MIN 3 M OFFICES 2 – 5 MIN 6 M RATAIL SHOPS 2 – 5 MIN 8 M MULTI PURPOSE HALL Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 2 – 5 MIN 6 M RESTROOMS 3 – 6 MIN 7 M PRAYING ROOM (SURAU) 2 – 5 MIN 10 M ROOF 2 – 5 MIN 6 M (Time travel and distance varies from the weight and speed of the occupant and its position in the area at a certain time). 39
  43. 43. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 2.2.2.1 Fire Resistant Escape Stairs c) Location and Dimensions The dimensions of the fire escape stair case were measured on site and compared with the dimensions of the international fire safety standards shown in the table bellow: Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] STAIRS FOUND ON SITE INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TREAD 240 MM NOT LESS THAN 225 MM RISER 155 MM NOT MORE THAN180 MM TOTAL RISER IN A SINGLE FLIGHT 11 RISERS NOT MORE THAN 16 RISERS WIDTH OF STAIR CASE 1200 MM NOT LESS THAN 910 MM LANDING 1500 MM BY 2500 MM LENGTH OF LANDING NOT LESS THAN 2225 MM HANDRAIL 900 MM HIGH NOT LESS THAN 900 MM HIGH After carefully analyzing the table above the following conclusions were as follows: MEASUREMENT FINDINGS AND RESULTS TREAD 15 MM LESS THAN THE REQUIREMENT RISER 25 MM LESS THAN THE REQUIREMENT TOTAL RISER IN A SINGLE FLIGHT (11 RISERS –16 RISERS = -5 RISERS) STAYED WITHIN THE INTERNATIONAL SAFETY REGULATIONS WIDTH OF STAIR CASE (900 MM – 1200 MM = -300 MM) STAYED WITHIN THE INTERNATIONAL SAFETY REGULAYIONS LANDINGS INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS: NOT LESS THAN 900 MM BY 2225 MM ON SITE FINDINGS: 1500 MM BY 2500 MM STAYED WITHIN THE INTERNATIONAL SAFETY REGULATIONS HANDRAIL STAYED WITHIN THE INTERNATIONAL SAFETY REGULATIONS 40
  44. 44. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 2.2.2.1 Fire Resistant Escape Stairs c) Location and Dimensions Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] The ventilation ducts in the building were separated from the fire escape lobby, this was done so the fire and smoke from the burning rooms wont transfer to the fire escape lobby causing the accumulation of smoke and heat in the small restricted lobby effecting the health and safety of the occupants while exiting the building. Fire resistant escape stair case. Figure 2.43: Floor plan on the buildings first floor Figure 2.44: Fire resistant escape stair case lobby 41
  45. 45. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 2.2.2.2 Fire Resistant Doors A fire resistant door is defined as door or shutter fitted into a door opening that is constructed with fire proofing materials in order to prevent and restrict the transition of heat and fire for the longest period of time possible protecting the buildings occupants from smoke and fire. a) Materials Used The fire proof doors on site were made of wood. They are 60 mm thick with a layer of chock in between with a thickness of 20 mm. the wooden doors are painted with a fire resisting paint that is 2 mm thick. The thickness of the door and the materials used to fire proof it play a large role in resisting the heat and pressure accumulating in the room. The layer of chock provides extra strength while providing a highly effective heat barrier while the fire proof paint allows the door to withstand high temperatures allowing the door to contain the fire and heat for a longer period of time. These fire resistant doors are located in all the technical, mechanical and IT rooms as well as the office areas and the fire escape stair case doors. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.45: Fire resistant door section Fire resistant paint Middle layer of chock 20 mm thick 20 mm thick layer of wood on both sides of the door. 60 mm thick 42
  46. 46. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 2.2.2 Findings and Analysis 2.2.2.2 Fire Resistant Doors a) Materials Used Figure 2.46: Genset room fire proof door Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.47: Fire proof doors located at the entrance of the offices Figure 2.48: The fireproof doors located at the entrance of the offices are equipped with fire detection sensors that detect the fire early and automatically triggers the doors to close protecting the occupants in the office. Figure 2.49: The fireproof doors used in the fire resistant stair case. There are three fire escape stairs on each floor. 43
  47. 47. 2.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 2.3 Conclusion In a nutshell, neither active or passive fire protection system plays an important role to protect a building when a fire breakdown. The main goals of fire protection system are to protect lives, assets and property. A building will not work without fire protection system. Thus, architects and designers must design a building compliance with the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL) and fire code. Also, education is very significant for everyone in order to use the fire equipment when there is a fire. For example, building owners and operators must have copies and a working understanding of the applicable building and fire codes. Children nowadays must be taught to learn to use a portable fire extinguishes. Next, all the fire equipment and machines must be under maintained and tested regularly to ensure it works perfectly when a fire breakdown. It is vital to know that fire protection system within a building relies on all of its components. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 2.50: Fire safety certificate 44
  48. 48. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.1 Literature Review Air conditioning is defined as the simultaneous mechanical control over temperature, humidity, and air motion. One of the most important components of the system is the air-distribution. The processes of the component involve achieving proper levels of temperature, humidity, cleanliness and air motion in an occupied zone of the conditioned area. All of this is done in a manner that the occupants of the room do not experience any draft. (Ananthanarayanan, 2013) The purposes of an air conditioning system are to improve indoor air quality and provide human thermal comfort, which not only can be attained by controlling the level of the temperature but as well as the combination of the temperature of relative humidity and air movement around the occupants’ bodies. Package air conditioners or central system air conditioners serve for larger areas. It consists of a cycle where the conditioned air is distributed throughout the area and the air that has picked up heat and moisture will be returned to the air conditioning apparatus for cooling. The other type of air conditioning system is centralized system. Central air conditioners have a centralized duct system. The duct system (air distribution system) has an air handler, air supply system, air return duct and the grilles and register that circulates warm air from a furnace or cooled air from central air conditioning units to our room. It returns that air back to the system and starts again. (Central-air-conditioner-and-refrigeration.com, 2014) Small sized rooms or houses require a room or split-system air conditioner. Split-system comprises of two parts: the outdoor unit, which houses the compressor, condenser and expansion valve, and the indoor unit, that houses the evaporator or cooling coil and cooling fan. In small sized commercial or office buildings, multi split system is used instead. It is similar to the split system but with an ability to connect a single outdoor unit via refrigerant grade piping to multiple indoor units, which can be mounted in a number of rooms throughout the building, providing conditioned air wherever it is required. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 45
  49. 49. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.2 Introduction This research paper covers the air conditioning system adopted by the chosen building, Wisma LJT to learn and acquire an in-depth knowledge on how thermal comfort and improved indoor air quality can be achieved. Air conditioning helps to create a comfortable indoor environment, by allowing air to be circulated through out the building and expelling stale air, purifying it. It helps for better ventilation inside the building by controlling the temperature of each area to a more suitable degree and dehumidifying the air conditioned areas. Wisma LJT requires the aid of mechanical cooling to distribute fresh cool air indoors as it is a multi-story office. In sequence, the topics that will be covered in this research paper include: • Central Air Conditioner Split System • Basic Refrigeration Cycle • Components of Air Conditioning Rules and standards are being compared with the research paper, in order to investigate whether the building complies to the standards in ensuring the quality of indoor air provided through the air conditioning system. The standards that have been used to compare is the UBBL (Uniform Building by Law). Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 46
  50. 50. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.3 Findings and Analysis 3.3.1 Central Air Conditioning Split System Wisma LJT, is a multi-storey office building that requires high cooling. The air conditioning system that has been adopted by the building is ducted central air conditioning split system. The split system describes air conditioners that have been split into 2 components, an outdoor unit and an indoor unit, in order to separate the hot and cold components of the system, which are connected by refrigerant tubing. The outdoor unit comprises of the compressor and condenser, while the indoor unit comprises of the air handler and evaporator. (Diagram 5.3.1) The split system of Wisma LJT operates on the same principles and have similar benefits of the split systems found in residential circumstances, except it is greater in quantity and size to accommodate the large building. Each floor is equipped with multiple air handlers, connected to the rooms by a network of ducting that is hidden inside the ceiling. The benefit of using ducted split system is that the outdoor and indoor units are either in an isolated part of the floor or located on the rooftop of the building, making it one of the quieter air conditioning systems. The system also allows for even air distribution, eliminating the possibility of having colder or warmer spots in the air-conditioned area. Figure 3.1 : A typical split air system and the typical process of cooling from the Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] outside unit to the indoor unit (air handler).! 47
  51. 51. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.3 Findings and Analysis 3.3.1 Central Air Conditioning Split System Figure 3.2: The cool supply air is blown into the room through a linear slot air diffuser.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] (Source: Jannah Jailani, 2014) ! 3.3.2 Basic Refrigeration Cycle For an economical operation of an air conditioning system, the refrigerant must be used repeatedly. Thus, all air conditioners use the same cycle of compressions, condensation, expansion, and evaporation in a closed circuit. The refrigerant moves the heat, thus cooling the area, and expelling the heat outdoors. ! Figure 3.3: The basic refrigeration cycle occurring inside an air conditioner! (Source: https://www.swtc.edu/Ag_Power/air_conditioning/lecture/basic_cycle.htm)! 48
  52. 52. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.3 Findings and Analysis 3.3.2 Basic Refrigeration Cycle !The refrigerant comes into the compressor as a low-pressure gas, gets compressed, and moves out as a high-pressured gas that then flows into the condenser. The gas is condensed into liquid, and then moves to the expansion valve under high pressure. The expansion valve restricts the flow of the liquid, lowering the pressure as it passes through the valve and into the evaporator. Heat from inside air is absorbed and changes the refrigerant from liquid to gas. The cycle repeats as the heat carrying low-pressured gas flows back into the compressor. (Swtc.edu, 2006)! 3.3.2.1 Refrigerant !Refrigerant is a chemical compound that converts from liquid to gas, and back to liquid in a continuous cycle. This compound is easily converted into gas at relatively low temperatures compared to water, which requires high temperature to be converted into gas. The refrigerant used by the air conditioning system of Wisma LJT is chloroflouromethane (CHClF2), or better known as R-22, a hydrochloroflourocarbon (HCFH) (Image 5.3.2.1). It’s a common refrigerant used in air conditioning, process chiller and industrial refrigeration plan applications.! Figure 3.4:The type of refrigerant (R-22) used in Wisma LJT’s air conditioning system.! Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] (Source: Jannah Jailani, 2014)! !R-22 has lesser ozone depleting potential compared to CFC-11 and CFC-12, and along with its excellent refrigerant properties, it has help facilitate the transition from CFCs. However, HCFCs, including R-22, may be scheduled for eventual phaseout, under the Montreal Protocol. (Whitman, Johnson & Tomczyk, 2000)! 49
  53. 53. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.3 Findings and Analysis 3.3.3 Components 3.3.3.1 Outdoor Units Figure 3.5: Rows of the outdoor units located on the roo8op of the building Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] (Source: Jannah Jailani, 2014) Figure 3.6: Basic components of an outdoor unit, comprising of the condenser and compressor (Source:h6p://inspectapedia.com/aircond/Clearance_Distances.php) 50
  54. 54. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.3 Findings and Analysis 3.3.3 Components 3.3.3.1 Outdoor Units a) Compressor Air conditioning system functions to transfer heat from a relatively low temperature heat source (indoors) to relatively high-temperature heat sink (outdoors). In air conditioning system, the heat transfer is not driven by the temperature difference between heat source and heat sink, energy must be expended through a mechanical refrigeration system to force the heat transfer. The compressor inputs energy into the system. The conversion of low pressured gas to high pressured gas occurs in the compressor. The buildup pressure can only be achieved by putting a restriction, reed valves in the expansion valve. The reed valves controls the intake and exit of refrigerant during the pumping operation. b) Condenser Hot compressed refrigerant leaves the compressor and is condensed into liquid by the condensing coils. It is the final point in the heat exchange cycle, where the heat is transferred from the refrigerant to the atmosphere. In split systems, air cooled condensers are most common compared to water cooled, due to reasons being air is readily available. Compared to water cooled, air cooled does not require chemical treatments or special disposal considerations. It also requires less maintenance, due to having fewer components compared to water-cooled, thus making it cost less as well. Figure 3.7: The indoor unit located in an isolated area called AHU (Air Handling Unit) room and the connected ductwork. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] (Source: Jannah Jailani, 2014) 51
  55. 55. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.3 Findings and Analysis 3.3.3 Components 3.3.3.2 Indoor Units a) Evaporator! !The evaporator is the starting point of the refrigerant cycle. The expansion valve throttles the high-pressured liquid refrigerant to the evaporator, causing the pressure in the evaporator to be less than the saturation pressure of the entering refrigerant and consequently boiling the liquid refrigerant. The heat needed to boil the refrigerant is gathered from the medium surrounding the evaporator, which then leaves the refrigerant by cool air stream. ! ! b) Expansion Valve! !Pressure is removed from liquid refrigerant at the expansion valve, allowing the change of state from liquid to gas in the evaporator. Heat is not removed by the orifice within the valve, only the pressure is reduced, enabling the heat molecules in the liquid refrigerant to spread as it moves out of the orifice. The refrigerant is at its coldest when leaving the expansion valve due to the greatly reduced pressure and enters the evaporator. ! ! Figure 3.8: Basic components of an indoor unit, comprising of the evaporator and air handler. (Source: h6p://www.thermospace.com/central-­‐air-­‐condiConer/aircon-­‐3-­‐ton.php) Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 52
  56. 56. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.3 Findings and Analysis 3.3.3 Components 3.3.3.3 Refrigerant Pipes The refrigerant piping allows for the refrigerant of both liquid and gas to flow from the indoor unit to the outdoor unit, through different pipes. These pipes are usually insulated in order to prevent overheating of the refrigerant which may make the cooling process redundant. The sizing of the pipes must take several points into consideration such as the change of state of the refrigerant, movement of lubricating oil mixed with the refrigerant, and minimum practical pressure loss. Fiigure 3.9: The image shows the refrigerant piping that connects to the indoor unit. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] (Source: Meera Nazreen, 2014) 53
  57. 57. 3.0 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 3.4 Conclusion The central air conditioning using split system has its advantages. Due to the units being placed in an isolated area of the floor or outside the building, there is minimum noise production. The system also gives a good aesthetic value since it’s ducting works are concealed inside the ceiling. It also provides even air distribution, without having any areas that are cooler or warmer than the other parts of the room. Although with its advantages, there are some aspects that need to be reconsidered. The number of air conditioners are more than necessary to condition the building. The extra outdoor and indoor units cost more and require more maintenance to be done. The usage of refrigerant is also not suitable. Even with its lesser environmental effect compared to CFC, it is still considered to be ozone depleting and is not a recommended system. Despite its consequences, gas refrigerants remain to be one of the more popular system for air conditioning. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 54
  58. 58. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review Mechanical ventilation has been defined as the system which helps in the process of changing air in an enclosed space into a fresher and cleaner air. In order for the process to be working, the supposedly dirty indoor air would first be withdrawn and fresh air would be supply in through an external source. Various types of mechanical devices could help in this procedure such as fans and air-conditioner. Apart from extracting out the dirty and unwanted indoor air and drawing in fresher air, mechanical ventilation would also distribute the air collected throughout the entire building or the targeted area inside a building. This system consists of several components but the most basic components are: a) Fan : Extracting stale air b) Makeup Supply : Distribute outside air indoor Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.1: Example of fan http://www.maxmechanical.com/tips-how-tos/indoor-air-quality- arlington-hvac/ FIGURE 4.2: Example of a makeup supply http://i1361.photobucket.com/albums/r675/msimons127/ AD-B_zpse233c083.jpg There are two main systems which can be use depending on the climate of the country: a. Spot Ventilation b. Heat Recovery and Energy-Recovery Ventilation System Each of the system is composed of similar components; fan, filters, ductwork, fire dampers and diffusers. 55
  59. 59. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review 4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Different building sizes and purposes would use a different type of mechanical ventilation. Larger buildings (offices, shopping malls, etc.) usually composed of a plant system which consists of three main components; refrigeration plant, air handling unit (AHU) and cooling tower. The refrigerant, which is the substance that will be release to cool rooms, is placed in the refrigerant plant room. It would be distributed to the AHU which then would be distributed to the targeted rooms or area through ducts. 4.1.1.1 Refrigeration Plant Room Chiller, water pumps, control panel, air compressor and automatic temperature controller are the components that made up the refrigerant plant room. The planning of this room should be considered during the construction of the building as it requires specific dimensions to fit in all the equipment. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.3: Example of a refrigeration plant room FIGURE 4.4: Chiller 56
  60. 60. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review 4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning 4.1.1.2 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) Air handling unit (AHU) exist with the purpose to prepare air and handling all the basic functions. These functions include cooling and heating (applies to countries with cold climate). AHU are placed on every floor level. Each AHU distributes cool air to the floor level it is placed. All the ducts distributing and receiving back the air are connected to this room. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.5: Placement of the AHU inside the specified room 4.1.1.3 Cooling Tower Cooling tower is usually connected to the chiller. The placement of this tower is either on the roof top if there are spaces, in the basement of a building or anywhere suitable which can provide optimum ventilation. The purpose of having this tower is to exert the heat transferred by the chiller out to the surrounding. To do so, the process of evaporation is done here. In order to avoid loss of water through the evaporation process, this particular tower is joined by a water tank. FIGURE 4.6: Example of cooling tower 57
  61. 61. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review 4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning 4.1.1.4 Heating, Ventilating and Air- Conditioning System There are 3 types of systems: a. All Air System b. All Water System c. Air And Water System a) All Air System A system which distributes the air through series of diffusers to the targeted rooms. This type of system too can help in regulating the indoor air quality, temperature as well as humidity. It controls the air quality through pressure control. There are 2 types of pressure control, negative pressure and positive pressure. Negative pressure is usually found in odorous and humid area in a building such as the kitchen and toilets. Positive pressure on the other hand is to keep an area or room with clean and fresh air, preventing stale air to come in. This type of pressure is usually used in shopping malls, hospitals, and any similar places. All air system is divided into 2: i. Single Duct System ii. Double Duct System i) Single Duct System Single duct system has 3 different methods; single zone method, variable air volume (VAV) and terminal reheat method. Single zone method is often used in a small building as it would be control by one thermostat which means the temperature of the area would always be the same. It leads to being a low cost system. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.7: Single Duct System 58
  62. 62. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review 4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning 4.1.1.4 Heating, Ventilating and Air- Conditioning System VAV varies from the single zone method as this method would distribute a constant temperature air at different speed or airflow, depending on the size of the fan used. This leads in contributing to saving the energy used. VAV system usually needs a terminal which are then placed either suspended on the ceiling or below a raised floor. Dampers are included in this system to control the air flow. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.8: VAV System FIGURE 4.9: VAV Terminal Terminal reheat method is a mixture of single zone method and VAV. This method supplies a constant air temperature but instead of a damper, heater are joined or applied to the duct. FIGURE 4.10: Terminal Reheat System 59
  63. 63. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review 4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning 4.1.1.4 Heating, Ventilating and Air- Conditioning System Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.11: Terminal Reheat Method iii) Double Duct System This system is similar to the other all air system mentioned beforehand except for the number of ducts. It has two separate ducts to distribute both cold and warm air simultaneously. Both of the airs from both of the ducts are mixed at each zone’s air terminal. This system provides a much better comfort under reduced load conditions in comparison to the single duct system. However the downside to double duct system is that it cost more. FIGURE 4.12: Double Duct System 60
  64. 64. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review 4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning 4.1.1.4 Heating, Ventilating and Air- Conditioning System b) All Water System All water system adopt the fan coil terminal or unit. Water will flow through pipes towards the installed fan coil which would then be mix with the outdoor and indoor air and finally be released back into the targeted space. Fan coil unit is composed of a finned tube coil, filter and a fan. It circulates or moves the air a room, whether it is for heating or cooling. There are different types of fan coil; high rise fan coil, vertical fan coil and horizontal fan coil. FIGURE 4.13 High Rise Fan Coil Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.14 Vertical Fan Coil FIGURE 4.15 Horizontal Fan Coil FIGURE 4.16 All Water System Schematic Diagram 61
  65. 65. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.1 Literature Review 4.1.1 Plant System / Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning 4.1.1.4 Heating, Ventilating and Air- Conditioning System c) Air And Water System Both air and water are being applied in this system. For the air, it consists of central air conditioning equipment, duct distribution system and a room terminal. Airs are being provided by the AHU room which will then be distributed to the targeted area through the ducts. The water on the other hand plays the supply and return role as the all water system except that the fan coil unit would be replaced by an induction unit. Induction unit is usually located below a window. The fan provided in the unit would draw the return air from the space that was conditioned and the unit will then mix the return air with the conditioned air from the plant room through a high velocity duct. Finally, it would be distribute again through a chiller coil. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 62
  66. 66. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.2 Introduction Mechanical ventilation as explained in the literature review, consist of different system depending on the type and size of building. As for our case study building which is the Wisma Lembaga Jurukur Tanah (LJT), it uses the Central Air-Cond Split System. This system does not compose of a chiller plant room and a cooling tower. However, it still requires AHU room. 4.3 Findings and Analysis 4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) The AHU in Wisma LJT is placed on each level. Each level would have 2 AHU rooms with each one located on either wing of the building. Every single one of the room consist of 2 blowers. However, each room would only use 1 blower at once. The reason there are 2 blowers in each room is to act as a backup. The second blower would be activate if the main blower goes through a maintenance process or fails to function. Since this particular building do not have a chiller and a cooling tower for the air-conditioning, it uses the gas Helium instead. The gas would be compressed into liquid state with a compressor found inside the AHU room to the condenser located on the roof top. Each compressor would have its own condenser. After the gas has been liquefy, the liquid would be pumped back down through ducts in a high pressure which would change the liquid into gas (air). The air will be distributed to each level or to the area targeted. Basically, the air and water system are being applied to Wisma LJT. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 63
  67. 67. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.3 Findings and Analysis 4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) FIGURE 4.16 AHU ROOM PLACEMENT (GROUND FLOOR PLAN WISMA LJT)- Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] AHU Room FIGURE 4.17 PLACEMENT OF CONDENSER (ROOF PLAN OF WISMA LJT) Condenser 64
  68. 68. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.3 Findings and Analysis 4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.18 Blowers in the AHU room connected to The ductworks FIGURE 4.19 Control Panel in AHU Room FIGURE 4.20 Condensers on the Roof Top 65
  69. 69. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.3 Findings and Analysis 4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) 4.3.1.1 Air Handling Unit Blower Fans Blower as shown in Figure 6.18 is efficient to distribute air. Centrifugal fan are commonly used in large buildings. However, for Wisma LJT, it uses a centrifugal blower pump. The difference between fan and blower is that blower achieve much higher pressure in comparison to fans. 4.3.1.2 Ductworks Ductworks system is used to transfer or distribute air from one place to another. Usually it is to moved the air towards the area which is needed to be air-conditioned. This system is placed suspended on the ceiling, sometimes being hidden or most of the time is just left bare. As for Wisma LJT, the ducting system in the AHU rooms are not hidden. This is to save cost as the AHU rooms are not public accessible therefore aesthetically not important. The starting of the ducts are connected to the blower for air circulation purposes. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.21 Ducts Connected To The Blower In Wisma LJT 4.3.1.3 Condensors Condensers are machines which are responsible in the process of changing the gas into liquid in order to distribute cool air throughout the entire building. The condensation process would release quite an amount of heat. The condensers for Wisma LJT are located on the rooftop on both sides of the building’s wing. This was shown in Figure 4.17 and Figure 4.20. Each of the condensers are connected to one compressor. 66
  70. 70. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.3 Findings and Analysis 4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) 4.3.1.4 Compressors Compressors would help in compressing the refrigerant, in this building it uses helium gas, and pump it throughout the targeted area in the whole building. The process when the gas would enter the compressor absorbs a lot of heat. Majority of the heat is absorbed during the process when liquid change into gas. The compressor is always connected to a condenser via ducts. This object is placed in the AHU room while the condenser would be on top of the roof. 4.3.1.5 Exhaust Ventilation Exhaust ventilation has been installed in Wisma LJT as safety purposes. The exhaust fan (Figure 4.22) is located on all 7 floors of the building. The fan would be activated when there is a fire emergency. It would help in draining some of the smoke during fire to minimize the hazard indoor. Smoke will be sucked through the fan which would then be vented outdoor. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] FIGURE 4.22 Exhaust Fan Located On The 6th Floor EXHAUST FAN 67
  71. 71. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.3 Findings and Analysis 4.3.1 Air Handling Unit ( AHU ) 4.3.1.5 Exhaust Ventilation FIGURE 4.23 Exhaust Fan (Output) Located On The Roof Top Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 68
  72. 72. 4.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM 4.4 Conclusion According to the UBBL requirement and regulation (UBBL 2012, Amendments on EE and MS 1525), each mechanical ventilation system (supply and/or exhaust) shall be equipped with a readily accessible switch or other means for shut-off or volume reduction when ventilation is not required. Examples of such devices would include timer switch control, thermostat control, duty cycle programming and CO/CO2 sensor control. In the AHU room, there is a control switch box (Figure 6.24) which proved the UBBL requirement mentioned beforehand has been applied to Wisma Lembaga Jurukur Tanah. According to the MS1525 year 2007, ACMV system should be equipped with automatic controls capable of accomplishing a reduction of energy use for example through equipment shutdown during periods of non-users or alternative use of the spaces served by the system. Since Wisma LJT is an office, it is schedule to be open during working days and working hours only with the exception of any events being held there. In conclusion, the system used for Wisma LJT is appropriate to the building size and purposes. The components are all placed at an appropriate location, well-maintained and taken care of. Every mechanical components are also adequate for a building of that scale. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 69
  73. 73. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.1 Literature Review 5.1.1 Power Transmission System Wisma LJT is located at Taman Melawati, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is an office building that is developed and managed by Sime Darby Properties. It provides a function hall which serves as a convention centre, exhibition space, as well as wedding banquets. Therefore the building itself requires sufficient flow of electricity without disruption to ensure that it is fully functioning during working hours. Electricity used it this building is mostly for lighting, air conditioning, elevators, fire system and appliances. High current electricity is produced at various power stations such as Tenaga National Berhad. To prevent loss of energy, the current generated is passed through a step up transformer. Electric transmission is the link between power production and power usage. The high voltage electricity is then carried along overhead lines and underground cables from power plants to substations. The electricity with high voltage undergoes several reduction stages at distribution stations before reaching specific buildings by using step down transformers. The transmission voltage are 500kV, 275kV and 132kV, while the distribution voltages are 33kV, 11kV and 400/230 volts (Tenaga National Berhad, 2014). The electricity voltage is then further stepped down according to suitable usage in each space. Figure 5.1: Explanation on electricity generation, transmission and distribution. (Source: http://www.bravoprojects.co.in/transmission.php) Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 70
  74. 74. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.1 Literature Review 5.1.2 Electrical Components Electrical supply system is divided into two, off-site power system and on-site power system. On-site power systems contains normal power sources such as transformers, auxiliary power supply, cables and emergency power supply (generator). The power system consists of the grid, generators, transmission and distribution systems. Electrical supply from TNB is firstly distributed to the high voltage (HV) room of a building. Lower voltage (LV)room then receives electrical supply from HV room and transmits electricity to risers on each floor of a building. The risers then distribute electrical supply throughout the floors. Generator rooms can only be found in private buildings which acts as an emergency power system. Newly developed buildings adapts the Building Automatic System (BAS). It monitors and controls facilities through a centralized system, such as lighting, air handling units, switchboards and CCTV. Electricity is distributed by several devices throughout the building. Measurement of electricity usage is done by meters, usually in kilowatt per hour. Safety devices such as fuses and circuit breakers are used to prevent fire or damage of devices due to over usage of electricity. Fuses have a disadvantage where it operates once and must be replaced , unlike circuit breakers where it can be reset to function normally. Circuit breakers functions both as a protective device as well as a switch (Stein, B. & Reynolds, J. ,1992). It allows electricity to pass through , while ensuring to break the circuit when overloaded or short circuit. They are various types of circuit breakers to cater for different needs. Distribution boards receives current which is then distributed through a branch circuit. Branch circuits are commonly used due to its safety purposes. It contains a reserve capacity which protects the circuit from over usage and short circuit. There are 3 different types of outlets used such as single, multiple and general multiple circuits. They are generally used for appliances, small devices and lighting respectively. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 71
  75. 75. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.2 Introduction Electricity is a form of energy used in buildings. It provides electrical power to various parts, such as electric outlets, lighting, HVAC equipment, communications equipment, transport systems, and as well as fire system. Electric power in a building is very crucial as failure could paralyze a facility. It is important that the facility is equipped with proper emergency equipment that would supply temporary electrical needs to the building. Electricity suppliers in Malaysia differs according to areas of the country. Electricity is distributed by Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) in Peninsular Malaysia, whereas in Sabah and Sarawak electricity is distributed by Sabah Electricity Sdn. Bhd. and Sarawak Energy Bhd. respectively. These electrical utility company provides generation, transmission and distribution of electricity throughout the country. They are involved in the services such as repairs, testing and maintenance of each equipment, as well as construction and manufacturing of power plants to produce high voltage electricity for transmission and distribution. In Peninsular Malaysia, all equipment proposed to be installed and connected to TNB supply must comply with the stated short circuit ratings (Tenaga National Berhad, 2014). The electricity supply and installation practice in Peninsular Malaysia are governed by (Tenaga National Berhad, 2014): 1. Electricity Supply Act 1990 – Act 447 2. Licensee Supply Regulations 1990 3. Electricity Regulations 1994 4. Occupational, Safety & Health Act 1994 5. Malaysian Standard MS IEC 60364 Electrical Installation of Buildings Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 72
  76. 76. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.3.1 Electrical Distribution System WISMA LJT receives its electricity supply directly from the TNB Substation. Electricity is received by the high voltage (HV) room and sent to the low voltage (LV) room. The electricity supply is then brought to the risers located on each floor of the building, which then helps to distribute electricity to the entire floor. The transmission voltage in Malaysia are 500kV, 275kV, 132kV and the distribution voltages are 33kV, 11kV, and 400/230V which is usually used in residential buildings. SWITCH Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] TNB DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION TRANSMISSION SUBSTATION WISMA LJT SWITCH POWER TRANSFORMER POWER PLANT APPLIANCES GENERATOR SET ROOM RISER HV ROOM LV ROOM Figure 5.2: Power transmission from TNB to WISMA LJT 73
  77. 77. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.3.2 High Voltage Room The high voltage room is usually located in an easy access area for TNB. As seen in WISMA LJT, the high voltage room is located on the ground floor in a well ventilated switchgear room. It is usually protected with a wire screen enclosure and necessary signs of danger outside the high voltage room. Figure 5.3: Location of high voltage room at ground floor of WISMA LJT Figure 5.4: Necessary danger signs found outside the high voltage room Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 74
  78. 78. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.3.2 High Voltage Room The switch gear is in charge of regulating the flow of electricity in the whole electrical system of the building. Some of the functions of the switch gear includes functional switching, emergency switching, emergency stopping, as well as stopping of mechanism for maintenance purposes. It also provides protection against overloading usage of current and short curcuit. Emergency switching is an option used when failure of power arises. The switch gear would then run on the backup generators installed in the building. Electricity from TNB substation reaches the switch gear in high voltage room before it is sent to the transformer. A step-down transformer is located in the high voltage room. It allows the high voltage current to step down from 11kV to 415V. The transformer transfers energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. It changes alternating current (AC) from one voltage to another. Transformers cannot be used on dc. They are available in single-phase or three-phase construction, WISMA LJT uses the three-phase transformer. Switch gear rooms are required to have vacuum circuit breakers with current up to 6300A. The device acts both as a protective function as a fuse and also as a switch. It allows the circuit to be open or closed easily. This helps to prevent overload of current usage by cutting off power. There are various sizes of circuit breakers to provide for different purposes. Vacuum circuit breakers have a longer life span rather than air circuit breakers. Figure 5.5: Specific dimension of high voltage room to allow easy access for installation and Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] maintenance of mechanism 75
  79. 79. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.3.3 Low Voltage Room The low voltage room stores the main switchboard. It is an assembly of panels that contains switches allowing the redirection of electricity. It helps in dividing the current supply from high voltage room into smaller currents before further distribution throughout the facility. The entire electrical network can be controlled from this source itself. The switchboard provides switching, protection and metering of current. It distributes power to various components such as panel boards, control equipment and transformers. Distribution panel is part of the electrical supply system which divides electrical power into subsidiary circuits and providing protective fuses and circuit breakers to each of the circuit. Residual current devices or breakers with current protection can be found in the main switch. Current from the low voltage room is then transferred to risers on each floor. Figure 5.6: Location of low voltage room at lower ground floor of WISMA LJT Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 5.7: Main switchboard in low voltage room 76
  80. 80. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.3.4 Wire, Raceway and Riser Various types of wires can be used to transfer electrical current. It could either be round or rectangle. They are conductors usually made out of metals such as copper and aluminum. Current are carried through these wires that are covered with raceways. Raceways are generally insulators to prevent from electric shock. The are used as casings and protection for the electrical wiring. It is also used as a form of routing of the wires. The raceways are usually mounted on the ceiling. Electrical risers are located on each floor of the building. This is to transfer electrical supply from the low voltage room and distribute them to each floor in WISMA LJT. The risers are placed at the same position in every floor which acts as an electrical shaft. Figure 5.8: Location of riser shaft at ground floor of WISMA LJT Figure 5.9 & 5.10: Electrical raceway and riser in WISMA LJT Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 77
  81. 81. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.3.5 Generator Set Room Diesel generator is used as an emergency system in WISMA LJT. This system allows backup electricity generation and prevent the building from any electrical loss. The diesel generator runs with the usage of diesel and electric generator to produce the electrical energy. The generator set room is located right next to the low voltage room. This is to prevent energy loss and increase efficiency. Diesel generators are used as emergency power supply, if ever the grid fails. The generator will automatically start running when power failure arises. The system will detect power shortage, and therefore produce sufficient energy to cover the loss. The generator consists of the fuel system and the set itself. Maintenance of the generator is very important, as it is needed to be able to work during power failure. Figure 5.11: Location of generator set room at lower ground floor of WISMA LJT Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 5.12: Fuel tank and generator set 78
  82. 82. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.3.5 Generator Set Room The generator is placed on the lower ground of WISMA LJT to avoid noise pollution and prevent diesel emission from the users in the building. The generator room must be well ventilated as natural air is required for it to run properly. The diesel gas produced is carefully directed out of the building through the exhaust system. Figure 5.13: Natural ventilation of generator room Figure 5.14:Exhaust pipe seen from outside of Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] building Figure 5.15: Diesel gas carried out of generator room to the outside of building through piping system 79
  83. 83. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.3 Findings and Analysis 5.3.5 Generator Set Room CO² fire protection system is used in the generator room. Carbon dioxide is released as an extinguishing agent in case of any fire outbreaks. An indication sign is placed outside the room to detect the safety of the space inside before entering. According to the UBBL, Section 253(1), emergency power system shall be provided to supply and power automatically in the event of power failure of the normal supply or elements of the system supplying power and illumination for safety to life and property. Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] Figure 5.16: CO² cylindrical tank in generator room Figure 5.17: Components of a generator and natural ventilation of room. (Source: http://www.generatorjoe.net/html/stepxstepgenerator.html) 80
  84. 84. 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM 5.4 Conclusion Electrical supply system in any building is complicated, from its placement to the maintenance of each component. Looking at WISMA LJT, their arrangement of each systems are well thought of and they maintain the quality of the systems to be able to work on a daily basis. The entire system is needed to be able to run smoothly to produce undisrupted amount of electricity to the building. Persons in charge, be it from TNB itself or the buildings maintenance crew will regularly ensure that all the systems are up to date and able to carry out its own functions. Since the building is fairly new, all the equipment used are still in good condition and of top quality. Therefore it is easier to maintain and allows a lasting life span of the mechanisms. Being able to visit each of the electrical supply components in WISMA LJT, I gained better understanding and further knowledge on electrical systems and how they work. In order for the electrical supply system to be efficient, the architects and designers in charge must abide to the rules and regulations set by the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL). Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 81
  85. 85. 6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 82 6.1 Literature Review Vertical transportation has been a very important component especially in the present construction industry. High rise buildings and skyscrapers have become very common and thus requires a method of transportation to and from the respective floors. With the advances in technology, different types of vertical transportations have been invented and one of the most recent one is the machine-roomless (MRL) elevators which do not require the use of a machine room. Wisma Lembaga Jurukur Tanah uses this latest technology as their main form of vertical transportation from their basement all the way to their seventh floor. These types of elevators are usually used in buildings of about two to thirty stories high. The MRL system uses a reduced sheave size allowing the machine to be mounted within the hoist way walls. A flexible control room would be placed within the hoist way as well thus increasing the amount of usable space (“About Elevators”, 2014). Some of the advantages of using a machine roomless traction elevators are:- a) The availability of extra space to be used in the building b) Reduction in construction costs, time materials and coordination issues c) Easier installation d) Reduces the carbon footprint of the building while using up to 75% less energy A traction elevator works like a pulley system in which the car is balanced by a counterweight on the other end. These two components are linked together by steel belts or steel wire ropes that is looped over the machine. The counterweight functions as a counterbalance to the weight of the car thus reducing the energy required to raise and lower the elevator. Some of the components that make up a machine-roomless traction elevator include:- a) The compact controller / inspection or test panel which is fitted within the hoistway b) Flexible steel coated belts that provide a smaller bending radius than wire ropes
  86. 86. 6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 83 6.2 Introduction This section of the report will cover the components that are used in the interior of a lift car as well as in the lift lobbies, highlighting the functions and the specifications of these components. Besides that, an explanation on the machine-roomless traction elevator system will be provided to further understand the advantages of using it. The components used within this system will be highlighted and analyzed as well. Besides that, the entire system and specifications will be analyzed in accordance to the Uniform Building By-Law requirements as well as other requirements to identify the efficiency in it’s design. Finally, a summary of the lift system will be provided to clarify the dimensions as well as specifications. 6.3 Findings and Analysis 6.3.1 External Lift Components 6.3.1.1 Landing Lanterns Figure 6.1: The landing lanterns located in front of the service lift at the ground floor level The main purpose of the landing lantern is to indicate whether the respective lift is coming down or going up to a certain floor. These lanterns must be placed as such that it is visible from any angles within the lift lobby.
  87. 87. 6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 84 6.3 Findings and Analysis 6.3.1 External Lift Components 6.3.1.2 Call Buttons Figure 6.2: The call button located in front wall of the lift Call buttons are used to request for a lift and each floor that requires a lift must have its respective call buttons. Once requested, the button must be illuminated to indicate that the request has been received and the elevator is on its way to the passenger.
  88. 88. 6.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Building Services [ ARC 2423 ] 85 6.3 Findings and Analysis 6.3.1 External Lift Components 6.3.1.3 Fireman’s Lift Switch Figure 6.3: The fireman’s lift switch located in the lift lobby on the ground floor The use of the fireman’s switch allows the fire department to over-ride all the floor calling systems to return all the lifts to where the fireman’s lift switched is placed. In this case, it is located on the ground floor of Wisma Lembaga Jurukur Tanah. This means that once the lift switch is toggled, all the lifts will return to the ground floor of the building. Once returned to the designated floor, the doors will open and remain open until the switch is toggled once again ( “Reference”, n.d).

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