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Building construction-report (1)


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Building construction-report (1)

  1. 1. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 [ ARC 1513 ] ASSIGNMEN T 1 : Experiencing Construction: Experiencing, Documentation and Analyzing the Construction Process CONSTRUCTION REPORT GROUP MEMBERS Surayyn Selvan 0309818 Sharifah Diyana 1006AH78373 Soh You Shing 0308010 Meera Nazreen 0309630 Sonia Manyie 0801A65704 Nurul Jannah 0310210 Kee Ting Ting 0310019 Gertrude Lee 0306265 Nasreen Hajibeigy 0310538
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION pg1 1.1 Introduction to the project (MN) 1.2 Introduction to the sites (MN) pg5 2.0 SITE SAFETY 2.1 Safety Precautions (KTT) 3.0 MACHINERIES AND EQUPIMENTS pg7 3.1 Types of machineries used (JJ) 3.2 Types of equipments used (JJ) pg12 4.0 SITE PREPARATION 4.1 Site Clearance & Establishment (GL) 4.2 Earthworks (GL) 5.0 EXTERNAL WORKS 5.1 Sewerage Works (SYS) 5.2 Drainage Systems (SYS) 5.3 Landscaping Works (SYS) 5.4 Fencing Works (SYS) pg14
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS pg19 6.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 6.1 Temporary Supplies (SYS) 6.2 Hoardings (SYS) 7.0 FOUNDATION pg24 7.1 Foundation Types (GL) 7.2 Foundation Laying Process (GL) pg26 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.1 Beams and Columns (SD) 8.2 Wall Slabs (SM) 8.3 Staircases (SM) 9.0 ROOF pg34 9.1 Roof Types (SS) pg37 10.0 SUMMARY (NH) 11.0 REFERENCE LIST pg40
  4. 4. 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT !This project requires us, in a group of 9, to select a minimum of one on-going construction site to survey. The site chosen should be a medium rise building with a maximum of 4-storeys level or a low rise building such as a bungalow house, etc. From the site, we are to identify various types of the building elements. Apart from that, we need to observe as well as to record the construction process, the details such as the specificatiosn of the materials used, including the dimensions, sizes and procedures in constructing the components. In addition to that, we need to analyse and explain on how the construction chosen affect its surroundings. Our group photo on-site, Fire Station in Jalan Tun Razak Our group photo on-site, Green Mosque in Cyberjaya
  5. 5. 2 1.0 INTRODUCTION We have decided to survey three sites for this project. This is to allow us to obtain more information on the processes that happen on the construction sites due to the variation of the types of elements, materials as well as the process in completing the building. 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE SITES 1.2.1 Balai Bomba dan Penyelamat, Jalan Tun Razak !! !This project was initiated by Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) in order to build a fire station in Jalan Tun Razak, opposite the Tokio Marine Tower. FNA Builders & Services Sdn Bhd were the contractors whom the project was tendered to. The site is located at Jalan Tun Razak with a size of 1500m₂ equivalent to about 0.6 acres. The building is an operational building built for firemen to be on a standby shift. The project started construction the 21st February 2012 and was supposed to be completed on the 20th August 2013. However due to several complications created by the Industrialized Building System, the project was given an extension of time (EoT) and is now targeted to be fully erected on the 28th December 2013. This particular project is over 35% upon its completion. Computer rendering of the completed site Industrial Building System (IBS) !Industrialised Building System, or IBS, is used in the construction industry where some or all components of a building are made in a factory and then assembled on site. In other words, it is a system where buildings are constructed by the using pre-fabricated components. the components are usually done by machines, formwork and other form of mechanical equipment that are not on the site. Constructions that use the IBS system are usually faced with site size and space constraints and therefore on site construction cannot be conducted as the use of large machineries aren’t allowed. There are several advantages of the IBS in the construction of buildings, such as the reduction of the total cost of the construction and the reduction of the amount of workers on site. This will also reduce the number of foreign workers emplyed on the site. Besides that, the construction period is reduced greatly due to the ease of erection. Finally, the waste management on site is greatly enhanced due to the minimal use of timber formworks. The prefabricated concrete structures of the building Thus, producing a cleaner construction site. Finally, noise is greatly reduced due to the lack of heavy machineries. !
  6. 6. 3 1.0 INTRODUCTION We have decided to survey three sites for this project. This is to allow us to obtain more information on the processes that happen on the construction sites due to the variation of the types of elements, materials as well as the process in completing the building. 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE SITES 1.2.2 Cyberjaya Green Mosque, Persiaran Semarak Api ! !The building of constructing an eco-friendly green mosque is a project that is under the supervision of a firm called ATSA Architects. It intends to achieve a Platinum GBI rating for this project. The mosque is an extension of a bigger project which is the new University Islam Antarabangsa campus. The 70819.98m2 site is situated in Persiaran Semarak Api with a size of which is equivalent to 17.5 acres. The mosque is supposedly to be able to support a total capacity of 8300 people at a time. Some other facilities that are included in the mosque that will be build are the parking facilities, a staff quarters which takes up 340m2 of the whole site, a multipurpose hall with a proposed size of 2376m2 and more. The project is targeting to finish up the whole construction work in approximately 40 months with its construction beginning in March 2013. As for now, the project is only in its piling Computer rendering of the completed site and foundation stages. The construction zoning and the mosque zone The construction site in it’s foundation stages
  7. 7. 4 1.0 INTRODUCTION We have decided to survey three sites for this project. This is to allow us to obtain more information on the processes that happen on the construction sites due to the variation of the types of elements, materials as well as the process in completing the building. 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE SITES 1.2.3 – Terrace Houses, Pandamaran KS5, Klang ! This project is proposed to construct a residential area made up of double-storeys semi-detached terrace houses. The site chosen for this project is about 220000m2(22 hectares). There will be a total of 254 units that will make up 22 Blocks. The project started early October 2012 and is expected to be completed by February 2014. Depending on the location units, they are in different stages of the construction sequence. Some units are in it’s finishing stages, others were still yet to have their roofing constructed and some are still yet to have the masonry constructed. The plastered units of the semi-detached terrace houses ! The different stages of the units of the terrace houses The signage outside the site
  8. 8. 5 2.0 SITE SAFETY We are advised to put on safety ware before entering any construction site as it can be dangerous during the progression of the construction work. There are several ways and methods that should be taken in order to ensure the safety of the construction workers as well as the site itself. However, it can be seen that some of the sites, have not taken full precautions. 2.1 SITE SAFETY FIRE EXTINGUISHER ABC is the most used and most popular multipurpose powder fire extinguisher for construction site. can be used on class A (burning solids), B (liquid fires) & C ( Gases fires) POWER BOX CORRECTION: electrical area should be covered up with the electrical box to prevent electricity from losing when it comes to raining. CORRECTION: Portable fire extinguishers shall be mounted on a wall or post at each usable stairway and such that the travel distance to any extinguisher does not exceed 75 feet. Mounting height to the top of the extinguisher shall not exceed 5 feet. The general contractor shall ensure that an enough number of individuals are trained in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers. EASY STAIRS SAFETY SIGNS Easy Stair are temporary stairs for construction which makes life much easier on construction sites - allowing the free passage of men, materials and tools to upper floors without the danger of climbing ladders. The safety sign is to keep all the employees safety and aware of the safety rules with custom safety sign. CORRECTION: the distorted tread should be fixed. the hook have to be fixed in one position as it may bouncing up and down when stepping on it. the railing should be attached together as well.
  9. 9. 6 2.0 SITE SAFETY 2.1 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS General construction site signs The board that pinned up with the rules and regulations for the employees to follow. Safety Helmet Economic Safety Vest Safety helmet is to protect users' head from falling objects. 3-Series Lace Up Safety Boots Safety boots is to protect the feet from sharp and dangerous objects.
  10. 10. 7 3.0 MACHINERIES & EQUIPMENTS The use of heavy equipment in the construction industry – heavy machines like backhoe, crane and bulldozer – have been increasing due to high demand fueled by the need to accommodate growth for new constructions, refurbish old projects and buildings, and increased mining activity to extract raw materials. A major task in any construction operation is the handling of supplies and excavating done by suitable equipment. 3.1 TYPES OF MACHINERIES USED BACKHOE LOADER A backhoe is a mechanical excavator, with the combined features of a shovel and a dragline. Primarily used to excavate materials below its track level like small and large pits, basement, trenches and survey for underground hazards. Its commonly used in urban construction projects, due to its relatively small size and versatility.   It has the combined features of a shovel and a dragline. Backhoes are fitted with a dipper in front and a small backhoe in the back. Instead of digging away from the machine like a shovel, it digs towards the machine. Cab Backhoe Bucket BACKHOE EXCAVATOR The excavator is equipped with an excavating bucket that moves in a downward and inward direction. It is crawler mounted and is best suited for excavating below track level such as excavation for trenches and basements.   All movements and functions of the excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid. It is versatile in the mining, forestry, construction and pipeline industries. Cab Track based crawler
  11. 11. 8 3.0 MACHINERIES & EQUIPMENTS The use of heavy equipment in the construction industry – heavy machines like backhoe, crane and bulldozer – have been increasing due to high demand fueled by the need to accommodate growth for new constructions, refurbish old projects and buildings, and increased mining activity to extract raw materials. A major task in any construction operation is the handling of supplies and excavating done by suitable equipment. 3.1 TYPES OF MACHINERIES USED COMPACTOR (VIBRATORY ROLLER) – SMOOTH DRUM Vibratory compactor consists of a smooth drum vibratory rollers and tamping foot vibratory rollers, widely used for compacting non-cohesive soils.   They are used to increase the density of coarse-grained soils. The vibration improves the compaction of soil and save time when compared with the static weight method of compaction. Smooth Drum BULLDOZER (TRACK) The bulldozer is a versatile machine. It can be used for moving earth up to 100m, stripping top unwanted soil, clearing and grubbing sites, excavating to a shallow depth, pushing scrapers, spreading soil for leveling areas, ripping bare soft rock and maintaining roads.   Normally track wheeled, dozers excavate and push earth with the help of a stiff welded steel blade fitted in front. Backhoe attachments can also be fitted for ripping hard soil and rock, and a winch for uprooting trees, skidding boulders and heavy materials. Cab Cutting Edge
  12. 12. 9 3.0 MACHINERIES & EQUIPMENTS The use of heavy equipment in the construction industry – heavy machines like backhoe, crane and bulldozer – have been increasing due to high demand fueled by the need to accommodate growth for new constructions, refurbish old projects and buildings, and increased mining activity to extract raw materials. A major task in any construction operation is the handling of supplies and excavating done by suitable equipment. 3.1 TYPES OF MACHINERIES USED PILE DRIVER (CRANE MOUNTED FRAME – DROP HAMMER) A piling driver is used to drive piles into the ground. The frame is mounted on a crane base for more flexible mobility and it holds the pile vertical during driving and guides the hammer to fall vertically onto the pile head.   It uses a large drop hammer that is lifted and dropped under gravitational force onto the pile head to drive the piles into the ground, down to the specific depth set by the engineer. MOBILE CRANE (TRUCK MOUNTED) Truck mounted mobile cranes are specially designed heavy-duty motor trucks to easily transport to a site and use with different types of load and cargo with little to no setup or assembly.   They are used to lift medium to heavy loads over high and wide reaches (i.e. placing precast concrete slabs in medium rise buildings).   Truck mountings restrict the efficient use of these cranes to firm, level terrain. This type of mounting provides a less stable base, higher ground bearing pressures and poorer on-the-job mobility than the crawler mounting but has excellent inter-job mobility. Hoist Hook Block
  13. 13. 3.0 MACHINERIES & EQUIPMENTS The use of heavy equipment in the construction industry – heavy machines like backhoe, crane and bulldozer – have been increasing due to high demand fueled by the need to accommodate growth for new constructions, refurbish old projects and buildings, and increased mining activity to extract raw materials. A major task in any construction operation is the handling of supplies and excavating done by suitable equipment. 3.2 TYPES OF EQUIPMENTS USED HOIST (DEVICE) Hoists are similar to cranes except that they are compact and portable. They are used to transport loose materials vertically in small loads. CONCRETE DRUM MIXER Concrete mixer is a machine that combines cement, aggregate and water to form concrete. Operated either electrically or mechanically, it is an alternative for mixing concrete by hand. Concrete discharge by mixer must be used within 30 minutes before it starts to harden. 10
  14. 14. 11 3.0 MACHINERIES & EQUIPMENTS The use of heavy equipment in the construction industry – heavy machines like backhoe, crane and bulldozer – have been increasing due to high demand fueled by the need to accommodate growth for new constructions, refurbish old projects and buildings, and increased mining activity to extract raw materials. A major task in any construction operation is the handling of supplies and excavating done by suitable equipment. 3.2 TYPES OF EQUIPMENTS USED POWER GENERATORS Generators used fuel such as petrol or diesel to produce and provide electricity for electrical equipment and site lights. It allows contractors to continue working without disruption and meet deadlines. CIRCULAR ELECTRIC SAW A circular saw turns a round, flat blade to cut wood, metal or plastic depending on the blade selected. It is popular as a woodworking tool because of the time and labor it saves, precision and it’s ease of handling and maneuverability. Most circular saws use a cord and plug connection.
  15. 15. 12 4.0 SITE PREPERATION 4.1 SITE CLEARANCE & ESTABLISHMENTS View of the cleared site in Cyberjaya View of the cleared site in Cyberjaya A proper procedure must be done for both site establishment and site clearance. For site establishment, firstly, pre-entry survey must be done before work commences on the site, preferably a photographic survey supplemented with a written record. Next, advance warning must be done before work begin on site to make sure that if any parties who will be affected by the works must be notifies of the intention to commence work. Protection to existing structures must be done to ensure if any structures which cannot be removed for the duration of the works and which may be affected by the works must be protected to avoid damage. After this, establishment of boundaries is important as it must be treated following the contract to make work safe and secure. Later, any items or materials which may be re-used on site should be removed and stored in a safe area. Office accommodation, welfare facilities, storage for materials and first aid were all established after. Next, storage of hazardous materials and establishment of services is done. Lastly for site establishment, it is a must to maintain boundaries and maintain accommodation. As for site clearance, reinstatements of the works are done first. Later, when ground is contaminated with unwanted material, this is to be removed from the site to an approved tip and replaced with uncontaminated materials and disconnection of services must be done. Later, the removal of fencing and removal of advance warning is done. Lastly, roads and footpaths are checked for cleanliness and fitness for use by the public and where possible photographs taken.
  16. 16. 13 4.0 SITE PREPERATION 4.2 EARTH WORKS The soil level in Cyberjaya The flattened compaction of the soil in Cyberjaya Earthwork at construction site includes grading, which is to modify the site contours according to grading plan for construction, finish grading, which is the final finished grade according to landscape or paving plan, and excavation, which is to remove soil for working on foundation, pipelines and sewage system, basement floors. The project which is still ongoing at Cyberjaya, which is the Masjid Cyberjaya, they use soil compaction. Soil compaction is a method which increases the density of the soil. The construction project uses mechanical compaction techniques. As for this site, they import a big quantity of soil which is 200000m3 to the site and for each compaction test, they fill at least 300mm of soil into the ground. For each time they fill in the soil, they do a density test for the compact soil until it arrive to a certain weight. The total formation height for it is 3m. It is important to test for the density of the compact soil as poor compaction can result in basement and pool cracks and leaks, slab cracks, pipe leakage and breaks, foundation erosion, under abutments erosion gullies and utility trench settling.
  17. 17. 14 5.0 EXTERNAL WORKS 5.1 SEWERAGE WORKS Cover A sewer can be defined as a means of conveying waste, soil or rainwater below the ground that has been collected from the drains and conveying it to the final disposal point. The functions of sewerage system are to protecting the community from flood, restoring clean rivers and fertile waters, creating life environment and with enhanced amenity. Basically, there are two types of sewerage systems in Malaysia.  The premises' sewerage systems are either connected to a public sewage treatment plant or have an individual septic tank. At the residential construction site, all the houses have sewage pipelines that are directly linked to a sewage treatment plant through a network of underground sewer pipes.  According to the site manager, there will be a small space outside the houses to locate the inspection chamber. In the inspection chamber are sewage outlets from the premises' toilets, bathrooms and kitchen that are connected to the public sewerage pipelines to the public sewage treatment plant. The checking and clearing of the blockage will be done via the inspection chamber if there is any blockage. Frame A diagram of an inspection chamber Inspection cover 600m min diiameter Private sewerage pipeline from the inspection chamber will be connected to the public sewerage pipeline. There will be manholes along the public road and it is usually connected with a round metal cover. In the manholes, which are about 3 meters to 6 meters deep, are sewerage pipes connecting premises to the sewage treatment plant. Main drain channel Branch Ddrain Typical shallow inspection chamber
  18. 18. 15 5.0 EXTERNAL WORKS 5.3 DRAINAGE SYSTEM Drainage is a system of pipes, generally underground, used to convey discharge from roofs, paved areas and sanitary fittings to a suitable disposal installation. The usual method of disposal is to connect to the pipework to the public sewer, which will convey the discharges to a local authority sewage treatment plant for processing. Rainwater drainage installation is essential to collect the discharge from roofs and paved areas and convey it to a suitable drainage system. It consists of a collection channel, called a gutter, which is connected to a vertical rainwater downpipe. Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (uPVC) is used as the material for the gutter at the residential construction site. . Half-round gutters are supplied in standard effective lengths up to 6m with a diameter ranging from 75 to 150mm.A few advantages of using the uPVC are it is easier jointing as gutter bolts are not required and it is light to handle. Besides, it can prevent corrosion and also fewer breakages. Rain gutter piping Half round rainwater gutter section Gutter brackets fixed to fascia at 1.000 c/c 112’ offset or swan-neck Pipe clip / Holderbat Rainwater pipe
  19. 19. 16 5.0 EXTERNAL WORKS 5.3 DRAINAGE SYSTEM Surface water runs away from the building Ground level About 3m Water Table Impervious level Ground water runs away on impervious layer Subsoil drainage is applied at the mosque construction site. Subsoil drainage is used to avoid the passage of ground moisture to the interior of the building and also damage to the fabric of the building. The purpose of subsoil drainage is to lower the water table to a level so that it will not rise to within 0.25m of the lowest floor of a building. Next, subsoil drainage can increase the stability of the ground, lowering the humidity of the site and improving its horticultural properties.
  20. 20. 17 5.0 EXTERNAL WORKS 5.4 LANDSCAPING WORKS The landscape work for the mosque construction site is divided into softscape and hardscape. Softscape refers to the elements found on the landscape which comprise live and horticultural elements. Hardscape refers to paved areas and water features, like street and sidewalks. According to the landscape architect of the construction site, the landscape will be Tropical and Modern with varieties of local and native plants, like Cempaka, Kemboja, Pandan, Kemuning and more. Golden chain tree will act as a welcoming feature at the entrance. Other flowering tree (Tekoma) will enhance the roadside and other big canopy trees (Semarak Api, Rain tree, Mambu etc) will act as a shades to the parking and other open spaces. The hardscape that will be found on site is the planter box with seating area, water features, Islamic pattern tiles, steps and more. Images of the flowering plants Planter box with seating area Water features Islamic patterned tiles Ablution qrea Steps Flowering shrubs Islamic garden layout plan Images of the flowering trees
  21. 21. 18 5.0 EXTERNAL WORKS 5.5 FENCING WORKS Diagram of the fencing The fence is made of brick with cement rendering and there are iron rods coated with paint in between. Full perimeter fencing is installed on the site. The purpose is to stop or cut down any unwanted pedestrian or vehicular access. At the same time for high level security, the fence was built for high security and maximum protection.
  22. 22. 19 6.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES A construction site will need to be set up in whereby temporary welfare facilities are provided for construction workers and staffs, like toilets, washing facilities, accommodation, waste disposal, car parking, storage and more. 6.1 TEMPORARY SUPPLIES SITE OFFICE Site office is actually a portable cabin which is durable and functional in order to accommodate the intricate demands of daily work. At the fire station construction site, the size of the cabin is 6.0m long x 2.4m wide x 2.3m high and it is about 1500kg. Generally, a typical semi-portable site office is 9.6m or 7.5m long x 3.4m wide x 2.6m high. The site office in the Pandamaran, Klang site The site office in the Jalan Tun Razak site The site offices for this three construction site are weatherproof, insulated, lit and furnished with desks, work surfaces, plan and chairs so that it suits the office activity. The roof is covered with a solar reflective material on profiled galvanised steel to prevent over-heating. 2.6 m The site office at the mosque construction site is much bigger than the other two site offices. A series of cabins are linked together to form an office complex, with units delivered fully serviced to fit together. 7.5 m Standard dimensions of a typical site office The site office in the Cyberjaya site
  23. 23. 20 6.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES A construction site will need to be set up in whereby temporary welfare facilities are provided for construction workers and staffs, like toilets, washing facilities, accommodation, waste disposal, car parking, storage and more. 6.1 TEMPORARY SUPPLIES DISPOSAL BIN There are different sizes of disposal bin which can be rented so that workers can throw the waste construction materials and broken appliances into it. It plays an important role as it gets rid of the unwanted materials properly without causing any relative harm to the people around as well as the environment. At the fire station construction site, no disposal bin is found on site. The site manager said that most of the materials are pre-casted so there are not many waste material found on site. Thus disposal bin is quite unnecessary. Although disposal bins can be found at the residential construction site, rubbish and waste materials are threw everywhere on site. The site manager stated that there are a lot of waste materials as most of the materials are cast in situ. More disposal bins should be placed on site so that the waste materials can be done more diligently. On the other hand, as the mosque construction site is still in foundation stage, not many waste materials are produced yet but according to the site manager, they will throw all the waste materials to an empty land near the construction site.   A typical disposal bin in a construction site Waste in the Pandamaran site Waste in the Pandamaran site
  24. 24. 21 6.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES A construction site will need to be set up in whereby temporary welfare facilities are provided for construction workers and staffs, like toilets, washing facilities, accommodation, waste disposal, car parking, storage and more. 6.1 TEMPORARY SUPPLIES TEMPORARY SITE TOILET The temporary site toilet is small as it has a limited space so it is large enough for a single occupant. Usually, the dimension of the toilet is about 90 cm (35 inches) square by 210 cm (83 inches) high. At the fire station construction site, there are only two temporary toilets for this construction site. One is for the workers, another one is for the VIP but different gender shares the same toilet although Urinal, squat toilet and a water basin are placed in the toilet. They should have provide separate toilets for male and female instead for VIP. In contrast, separate toilets for male and female are provided at the construction site of the residential area and also the mosque. SITE ACCOMMODTION The site accommodation is something similar like the site office, which is the portable steel container. Standard units are in 10, 20 or 40 foot long x 8 foot wide. Furthermore, each unit can be used as a standalone, or in combination by being stacked on top of each other and joined together to form a larger space. The stacked units are accessed by a steel staircase that is connected via a docking point to ensure the workers safety and high security. One of the benefits using this portable container is that they are easily relocated. Although there are around 400 workers working on the residential construction site, majority of them lives on site. A reserved toilet for the contractors The toilet structure in the Jalan Tun Razak site The site accommodation in the Pandamaran site
  25. 25. 22 6.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 6.2 HOARDINGS CONSTRUCTION HOARDING Construction hoarding is a temporary fencing used to secure a construction site and it is also a prerequisite for any developer. The hoarding defines the limit of the site and it is tall enough to prevent people from climbing or jumping over. Besides, there is a gate for access and it can be locked when no one is at the site. From a safety perspective, construction hoarding keeps unauthorized personnel out of a site, which reduces the risk of injury. People without hard hats, safety training, or awareness of hazards on site like pits and sharp objects won’t be exposed to danger if they can’t get onto the site without an escort. Construction firms are responsible for injuries incurred on site. To reduce the risk of suits from people who wandered onto a site and were injured, a company may secure it with hoarding to keep people out and provide clear legal evidence of a reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized access. There are two forms of hoarding are commonly used, which are vertical and fan hoardings. All the three construction sites use the vertical hoardings. The vertical hoardings consist of a series of sheet panels securely fixed to resist wind loads and accidental impact loads. They are usually freestanding or fixed by stays to the external walls of an existing building. Access Gate 100 X 50 braces 1.8 m to 2.12 m 50 X 50 fixing stakes Typical free standing vertical hoarding
  26. 26. 23 6.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 6.2 HOARDINGS CONSTRUCTION STORAGE The type of storage facilities of any particular material will depend upon durability, vulnerability to damage from weather and also financial value. At the fire station construction site, there is no storage for the materials as most of the materials are precast with the use of “just in time” (JIT) delivery process thus it reduces the amount of site storage required. There are a few on site storages can be found on the residential site. As the storage containers are weatherproof, the workers store some of their equipment in the storage container so that it is locked for maximum protection and security purposes. The open storage areas are mainly for the workers to store bulks and heavy materials. Cement and plaster which are supplied in a bag form are stored in a dry store as the moisture in air may cause an air set of material. Storage containers in Pandamaran, Klang Roof tiles have a greater resistance to load when they are laid on their edge so it is correct that the workers at the residential construction site stack the tiles on edge and in pairs, head to toe to give protection to the nibs that they hang on. They should have use the shrink-wrapping to ensure that the tiles are secure until loaded onto the roof for fixing. The correct and incorrect arrangement of the roof tiles
  27. 27. 24 7.0 FOUNDATION 6.2 FOUNDATION TYPES The metal cap which the pile driver will knock  Piles can be described as a structural stilt hammered into the ground. The type of pile used at this Masjid Cyberjaya site is 250 x 250 reinforced concrete (RC) piles. Each of these piles has a sheet plate on top of it. These sheet plates help to drive the pile in the ground without damaging the RC pile. The blue markings The markings on the pile are used to help see the depth of the pile caps. For this project, the depth of the pile which is driven into the ground was about 12 m deep. The remaining of the RC pile which is extruding out from the ground is being cut off. These remaining which were cut off are crushed and used as foundation. Piled foundation is being used in this construction site. Piled foundation is a foundation that enables a structure to be supported by a layer of soil found at any depth below the ground surface. A pile foundation has two basic structural element which is pile and pile cap. Pile cap is a structural base that supports a structural column, wall or slab, similar to spread footing. Pile cap bears on single pile or group of piles. The type of piling used can be classified as endbearing pile. The pile cap Diagram of a pile foundation A test is also done to test the weight for the column load. Blocks of big concrete is stack up above each other to a certain amount of concrete and height in order to test the weight. A gauze reading is used to take the reading. The workers would have to stay there for at least 3 days in order to get the readings of the test for the weight of the column load. Load testing structure
  28. 28. 25 7.0 FOUNDATION 6.2 FOUNDATION LAYING PROCESS The remaining cut RC piles are crushed and used as foundation A steel mat is laid and formed in the shape of the pile Timber is set around the steel met to contain the wet concrete mix Pile cap is made out of aggregate of small rocks and cement but in this case, for this site, they use the remaining cut-off piles as the material for the foundation. They crush the remaining cut-off piles and used them as foundation. As to avoid sagging and fracture whilst setting, the mixture has to be supported by framework. This process is known as shuttering and reinforcing. The materials used to make the steel mat are long twisted steel bars between the piles and thinner tie wires. Once the steel mat is done, the timber is attached around the steel mat in order to complete the framework before pouring in the wet concrete mixture. Once the wet concrete mixture is poured, the concrete has to be stirred in order to remove air pockets which might weaken the structure. Chemical changes that is happening in the concrete would help to harden the concrete and at the same time, it will produce heat.
  29. 29. 26 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.1 BEAMS AND COLUMNS Beams and columns are frequently used for a building's structure as a replacement for steel. They are commonly used for precast building solution, when combined with precast walling and flooring. This method is used in constructing the Jabatan Balai Bomba dan Penyelamat at Jalan Tun Razak. The structural precast columns are reinforced and can be used as a part of a total precast concrete structure. A variation of finishes can be applied according to the building type once the beams and columns are done. Beams are commonly used as ledges for other forms of precast flooring to rest on, but can also be used as a flooring option on their own. They are manufactured to suit each particular building design. Some of the beams included are Tee-Beams, L-Beams, Rectangular Beams, U-Beams and Beam shells. The post and lintel joints of the beams and columns Wooden planks are used to hold the structures together temporarily The wall slabs are grouted to the columns Assembly of precast concrete columns and beams Steel reinforcements are place inside the precast columns and beams to further enhance their strength capabilities Joint between columns and beams are drypacked with grout after alignment Before assembly Reinforcement of the concrete Assembled Grouted Process of the connection of precast columns
  30. 30. 27 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.1 BEAMS AND COLUMNS However, the most common method of constructing beams and columns are through in situ cast concrete. This method can be seen in the construction of the Green Mosque in Cyberjaya. The beams and columns are built on site and are affected by the site conditions. Weather plays a major role in the construction process as it can cause detrimental effect if precautions are not taken. The in-situ concrete structure mostly contains steel reinforcements for stronger support. The steel reinforcements are placed in between the concrete during casting. Steel reinforcements set up in the formworks The timber formwork to hold the wet concrete mix Concrete formworks Steel reinforcement Concrete Steel reinforcements placed inside the timber formwork Section of a column
  31. 31. 28 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.2 WALL SLABS HOLLOW CORE COMPONENTS The primary physical difference between this type of element and solid flat components is the void. Hollow-core slabs are lighter and structurally more economical and efficient. Moreover, they can carry more load and span a longer distance while having a small cross-section. However, its lack of weight, mass and the limited distance between floor-to-floor height which prevents it from being used as a long member makes it less practical and economical for wall members. Hollow core section Hollow core wall slabs on site Void PRECAST HOLLOW CORE WALL PANELS Pre-stressed bar Post-tensioning conduit Hollow core wall slabs grouted together on site Concrete There are modifications that can be done to the hollow-core system as it is adapted to be used as wall panels while maintaining their advantages. The essential components of this system includes two types of hollow-core slabs. These are the standard pre-stressed hollow-core slab and the partially prestressed hollow-core slab with post-tensioning conduits. The wall panels can be made in the same form and by the same manufacturing method similar to the standard pre-stressed hollow-core slabs. Hollow-core wall panels have been used in some structures in 8’ to 9’ long members. However, three modifications are required in order to be able to use hollow-core slabs practically and economically as wall panels.
  32. 32. 29 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.2 WALL SLABS BRICK WALLS Brick Walls is masonry produced by brick layering which uses bricks and mortar. They are rows of bricks laid on top of each other building up a structure of a wall. This is used in the Pandamaran, Klang construction site. The joint of any two bricks is usually filled with mortar. The style of mortar joints used in this particular brick wall is the recessed joint which basically leaves the edge of the brickwork exposed. The arrangement of the bricks also comes in different bond patterns. The bond patterns that are used in this structure are a mixture of English bond and Flemish bond. Recessed joints which are raked out leave the edges of the brick works exposed. English bond pattern which is made up of alternating stretchers and headers. It is easy to lay and is one of the strongest bond. Due to this wall being the interior and it is going to be cemented, the workmanship is relatively poor. Flemish bond which is alternating layering stretchers and headers in a single course. Recessed joints Brick bond patterns
  33. 33. 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.2 WALL SLABS First, pre-stressed tendons should be added at the top of the slab and some being eliminated at the bottom during manufacturing in order to secure symmetrical forces in the cross-section of the unit. Then, some or all the voids should be eliminated in order to achieve a more solid section for compressive forces. Two of the eliminated voids in the wall panel should be perpendicular to the post-tensioning conduits in the floor panel. Equal wall panels and the varying wall panels Finally, holes should be provided to enable the slab’s post-tensioning rods to pass through. The holes can be drilled in the factory after manufacturing.   Moreover, the walls can be put beside each other, vertically, in two basic patterns. The pattern is when the height of the wall panels should be equal at each level of erection .The second pattern is when the height of every panel other panel should vary in one story increments. This method adds support and rigidity when construction continues in height. The wall panels in the Jalan Tun Razak site is almost similar in height 30
  34. 34. 31 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.3 STAIRCASES The types may be straight run, platform or winding. The platform type includes landings where the direction of the run is usually changed. In two of the sites, both staircases are of the platform type. However the construction method and type of platform staircase varies. HALF LANDING STAIRCASE The pre-casted staircase in the Jalan Tun Razak Fire Station is a half landing staircase. Here the landing changes a direction of the flight by 180 degrees and serves as a place for rest when moving. The landing divides the staircase into two, thereby reducing quantity of treads in one flight and consequently making walking more comfortable. STRAIGHT STAIRS In the Pandamaran site, the concrete cast in-situ staircase can be seen as a straight staircase with a mid landing platform. The straight run stairway is continues from one floor level to another without landings or turns. Despite being easiest to build, a long run of 12 to 16 steps also has the disadvantage of being tiring as if offers no chance for a rest during ascent.
  35. 35. 32 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.3 STAIRCASES Support Landing Return Landing The front of the tread usually has a nosing The bottom of the stairs is the soffit The concrete stairs have to slop forwards for drainage is usually The tread The depth of the soffit is called the throat Support Landing given a float finish semi rough The footing has to rest on bearing ground Concrete stairs cast in-situ assembly Pre-cast concrete assembly
  36. 36. 33 8.0 SUPERSTRUCTURES 8.3 STAIRCASES Single step riser on the first flight of stairs The flight of staircase is the set of steps between one floor or landing and the next. According to the Malaysian Building By-law, no part in any flight of staircase is allowed to have less than two risers. However it is seen here in the Pandamaran, Klang construction site that the first flight of staircase only consists of a single step which means that the design does not abide by the law. This may cause danger to the user as they tend not to see them and get confused. If a single step were allowed, it would require a handrail. This is because handrails gives the users a visual sense of how long the stairs are.
  37. 37. 34 9.0 ROOF 9.1 TYPES OF ROOFS MONOPITCHED ROOF A monopitched roof, also commonly known as the lean-to roof, is a roof structure that has one sloping surface and the sloped surface does not rest on any from of wall on the opposite ends. Monopitched roofs encourage good drainage during rainy weather as well as aiding in reflecting heat away from the building if oriented appropriately. Usually the larger opened end is oriented facing away from the sun to ensure that sunlight and heat gain is reduced. It is one of the easiest roof structures to build and requires less cost. The fire station roof is composed of a concrete surface that rests on a lightweight roof truss made our of foam core steel. Due to it being an IBS based building, the roof components are delivered and the structure is fabricated on site. The fire station in Jalan Tun Razak with several monopitched roof structures Pitching point Gutter Steel bars Soffit Concrete wall with aluminum cladding Howe truss roof structure A sectional cut of the roof structure
  38. 38. 35 9.0 ROOF 9.1 TYPES OF ROOFS DUALPITCHED ROOF A more commonly used type of roof in residential areas, the dual pitched roof, is a roof structure that has two sloping surface that form an upside down “V”. Similar to the function of the monopitched roof, the sloped surface ensures proper drainage during rainy weather. The Pandamaran terrace houses uses the Gable shaped dual pitched roof structure. Similar to the Jalan Tun Razak Fire Station, the same material is used as the truss. Lightweight roof trusses were used to create a Double Howe Truss. This enables the building to hold heavier ceiling loads while withstanding a span of about 20 to 50 feet. Terracotta coloured concrete tiles were used for the roof tiles. The terrace houses using the Gable dual pitched roof Ridge Fire resistance barricade Rake Gable Fascia board Half round gutter Soffit Double Roman Concrete TIles Angled Ridge Concrete Tile Components of a dual pitched Gable roof structure
  39. 39. 36 9.0 ROOF 9.1 TYPES OF ROOFS •  Water tank placed on top of steel hollow core joists •  A wooden plank is placed underneath to prevent the tank from becoming distorted when water is added Ridge Exposed Double Howe roof truss without the bottom chord Rafters Webs Post Bottom chord Components of a Double Howe roof truss The components were attached by being bolted to each other
  40. 40. 37 10.0 SUMMARY 10.1 CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATION Throughout this project we’ve come to the conclusion that in the construction industry, organization and proper planning of work is needed. The architects and contractors also have to abide by the Malaysian Building By Law book to ensure that the respective buildings are following the guidelines. We were very lucky to have visited three very different sites and each site had a different approach to their organization and planning. Firstly, the Jalan Tun Razak fire station is constructed based off the Industrialized Building System where most of it’s components are prefabricated. In an IBS construction, the project’s construction duration should be reduced due to the ease of construction as well as the speed of the making of it components. However, in this case it is not. They were expected to finish the project on the 30th of August 2013 but due to poor construction management an extension of time was given and it is now expected to be completed in December 2013. Gantt Chart of the Jalan Tun Razak Fire Station Another major flaw in the project management was the planning of the Gantt chart. The slope of the lines are supposed to decrease gradually and not have a steep drop. The Gantt chart is essential in a construction project because it shows the start and finish dates of the major elements in a project while showing the dependency relationship between the activities. In the Green Mosque in Cyberjaya, the Gantt chart was much more well planned as the slopes were gradual and there were no major steep drops. A major reason for this is because the Green Mosque intends to achieve a Platinum GBI rating and in order to do so, the planning as well as the organization of the project has to be in top shape. Gantt Chart of the Green Mosque in Cyberjaya
  41. 41. 38 10.0 SUMMARY 10.1 CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATION Physical S-Curve for the Jalan Tun Razak Fire Station for the month of July Physical S-Curve for the Green Mosque in the month of June Another major element in the organization and planning of a construction project is the S-Curve. The S-Curve is to determine whether or not the construction project is on the right track or if it is behind schedule. If the construction project is a successful one, the S-Curve would look more like and “S” shape and it would finish behind the set track of schedule. In an S-Curve, there are two lines, one is the line which is the pre-planned schedule of the related topic and the other is the actual line of the schedule. At the bottom of the S-Curve there is a table to calculate how far behind a project is from the planned schedule. If a project is behind schedule, a negative percentage will be calculated if a project is ahead on schedule it will be a positive number There are many types of S-Curves in a construction projects such as one for finance and there are ones that are conducted weekly, but for this example we’ll focus on the physical progress of the sites monthly. It can be seen that in the month of July, the Jalan Tun Razak Fire Station is way behind schedule where the only time they’ve hit the schedule is in the early parts of a project. As of 31st of July, they are -1% behind schedule. However, for the Green Mosque in Cyberjaya, it can be seen the actual line is on the same track as the pre-planned line. This shows that the project is on schedule and is due to finish on time, if not earlier.
  42. 42. 39 10.0 SUMMARY 10.3 WASTE MANAGEMENT Waste management of a site is also an essential part in a construction project as it shows the architects compassion for mother nature. There are many ways to organize waste products on a construction site and 2 out of 3 of our sites did not take the initiative to organize their waste materials appropriately. Firstly, in the Fire Station in Jalan Tun Razak. Due to it being an IBS construction, waste materials were at a bare minimum. However, they were excess formworks and steel reinforcements that were left unattended to in the site. It is understandable that they lack space in the site and might not have the capacity to house a central waste repository. Nonetheless, an initiative should be taken in order to properly organize and dispose of the waste materials. The most unorganized site was the site in Pandamaran, Klang. The 22 acre site was terribly managed in terms of its waste organization. In between houses, piles of formwork, excess concrete roof tiles, aggregate, aluminum frames and excess brickwork were found piled up. This made it very hard to navigate through the site efficiently as some parts were hard to access due to the overwhelming number of waste materials blocking the access routes. It would be recommended for a big site to zone out a space for the organization of waste materials so it would be easier later on for them to conduct their external works. The alley way of the terrace houses The most well planned site was the Green Mosque in Cyberjaya. Due to it wanting to achieve a high rating for the Green Building Index. Measures were taken to ensure that no waste material on site was unorganized and gone to waste. For example, the excess pile caps were crushed and were later used as foundation. Besides that, they have taken the initiative to segregate the waste materials in a central waste repository on site. We were also informed that before construction everyday, the workers will be reminded of these measures so it will be effectively carried out. An area in the Pandamaran site The Jalan Tun Razak site
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