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Tragedy of the Commons


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Tragedy of the Commons

  1. 1. Tragedy of the Commons Kalyani Pingle Soham Pablo Banerjee Aditya Singal Aditya Singh Amit Rai Varun Malpani
  2. 2. Brief description of Hardin’s paper • Pasture analogy • Overuse of finite resources • The problem is not one of resources, but one of population Garrett Hardin • Benefit reaped by individual, loss shared by entire population The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality. Garrett Hardin (1915-2003) Author – Tragedy of the Commons (1968)
  3. 3. Prisoner’s Dilemma •Ideal situation -3 1 2 •Real life tends to - 1 (About 5% respondents opt for 3 on the first try) 4 3
  4. 4. Easter Island - A classic tragedy • First human inhabitations about 400 AD • Europeans arrive in mid 1700’s to find about 2000 inhabitants • Huge Statues • Evidence unearthed shows a once rich ecosystem, supportive of a much larger Avg height- 14.5ft Avg weight – 15 tons population of about 30,000 • Overpopulation created social problems, Most isolated human habitation in history leading to massive deforestation, loss of vegetation • Eventual Collapse
  5. 5. Solution approach to problems of ‘Commons’  Self -Regulation through community norms : • Lake water in a village • Small scale  Government Regulations : • Tradable instrument • High Cost & resources • Issued by approved agencies • Difficult when independent • Global Market place governments are regulating  Market Mechanism (Kyoto Protocol- Carbon offset credit)
  6. 6. Criticisms of the theory • The Myth of tragedy of Commons. • Where’s the evidence • Solution to “Tragedy of Commons” : Privatization of the commons • The tragedy of Anti commons/ Grid Lock Economy. “The commons leads to overuse and destruction; the anti commons leads to underuse and waste” E.g. Pharmacy Industry Patents
  7. 7. Learning/Practical applications • Incentive to increase individual responsibility for common benefit • Implementation of property rights • HDB (Singapore) • Traffic controls • Failure in Brazil • Success in Singapore
  8. 8. Thank You Quem deum vult perdere Prius Dementat