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Evolutionary
tendencies in
Monera
PRESENTED BY:
M.Sohail Riaz
PRESENTED TO:
Dr. Atifa Masood
Kingdom Monera
 One-celled organism
 no nucleus
 Prokaryotic
 Smallest and simplest kind of living thing
 These are oldest and most abundant organisms
 Undergo asexual reproduction
Cont…..
 They form spore is called ENDOSPORE
 Endospore is a protective structure that forms inside a
moneran cell during unfavorable conditions
 Kingdom has two major groups of organisms, namely
bacteria and cyanobacteria
Bacteria
 Evolutionary history
 Found roughly 3.2-3.5 billion years ago
 Discovered through gene sequencing of bacterial nucleoids
 Furthermore, evidence of permineralized microfossils of
early prokaryotes was also discovered
 This suggests that an organism is present
Introduction
 Kingdom Monera
 Prokaryote=no nucleus or internal compartments
 All are single cells
 Single circular piece of DNA
Habitate
 They are found in nearly every habitat studied, including
some that no other organism is able to withstand
 These bacteria live in very hot
 Acid habitats and pH 2-4
Structure of Bacteria
Cell wall Protects and gives shape
Outer Membrane Protects against antibodies
Cell Membrane Regulates movement of materials, contains enzymes important
to cellular respiration
Cytoplasm Contains DNA, ribosomes, essential compounds
Chromosome Carries genetic information. It is circular
Plasmid Contains some genes obtained through recombination
Capsule & Slime Layer Protects the cell and assist in attaching cell to other surface
Endospore Protects cell against harsh environments
Pilus Assists the cell in attaching to other surfaces
Flagellum Moves the cell
Shapes of bacteria
1.Bacilli- rod shaped (rod shaped)
 Certain bacteria that live in your stomach are bacilli bacteria
2.Spirilla- spiral shaped (corkscrew shaped)
 Best known cause serious diseases
3.Cocci- sphere shaped (sphere or ball shaped)
 An example is bacteria that cause strep throat.
 Staphylococci- grape-like clusters
 Streptococci- in chains
Reproduction
 Reproduction is by fission
 Prokaryotes reproduce by simply splitting in two
 The DNA is copied and the cell divides into two identical
cells.
How do Bacteria cause disease?
 Metabolize their host for food (Heterotrophic bacteria)
 Secrete a toxin which can attack other body parts (Botulism is
an example)
How can Bacteria work to our benefit?
 Digest waste at sewage plants
 Chemical industry- make acetone and butanol
 Pharmaceutical- vitamins, antibiotics, insulin
 Food- yogurt, cheese, alcoholic beverages
 Decomposer
 Nitrogen fixers
 Symbiosis
CYNOBACTERIA
 Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae
 Autotrophic bacteria
 Its fossil has found age 3.8 billion years B.C
 This group of bacteria is one of the largest and important in
the earth.
Evolution
 Roughly 2.45 billion years ago, oxygen had appeared
 Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria evolved during this period
because they were the first microbes to produce oxygen as
a byproduct of their metabolic process
 Therefore, this phylum was thought to have been
predominant roughly 2.3 billion years ago.
Example of cynobacteria
 Nostoc is Cyanobacteria has the form of colony that adhere
 shape would be lone circle like necklace
 Nostoc reproduce by fragmentize
Evolution
 They are 3.5 billion years old
 Dominated as biogenic reef
 During Proterozoic – Age of Bacteria they were wide spread
 Then multicellularity took over
 Cyanobacteria were first algae.
Cyanobacteria terminology
 Division Cyanophyta - Cyanobacteria ‘formerly known as’
Blue Green Algae
 Cyano = blue
 Bacteria – acknowledges that they are more closely related
to prokaryotic bacteria than eukaryotic algae
Importance
 First organisms to have 2 photosystems
 produce organic material and give off O2 as a biproduct.
 Many – fix or convert atmospheric nitrogen into usable forms
through Nitrogen Fixation when other forms are unavailable.
 IMPORTANT because atmospheric N2 is unavailable to most
living organisms because breaking the triple bond is difficult.
Actinomycetes
 These are the organisms with characteristics common to
both bacteria and fungi
 They are unicellular like bacteria
 They do not have distinct cell-wall
 Their cell wall is without chitin and cellulose
 Actinomycetes colonies grow slowly
 Actinomycetes are numerous and widely distributed in soil
and are next to bacteria in abundance
Cont…..
 Plate count estimates give values ranging from 10^4 to 10^8
per gram of soil
 They are sensitive to acidity / low PH (optimum PH range 6.5
to 8.0)
 The population of actinomycetes increases with depth of soil
 They are heterotrophic
 The common genera of actinomycetes are Streptomyces
(nearly 70%)
Streptomyces
 Streptomyces is a genus of bacteria
 Grows in various environments
 Its shape resembles filamentous fungi
Functions/Role of actinomycetes:
 Degrade/decompose all sorts of organic substances like
cellulose, polysaccharides, protein fats, organic-acids etc
 Substances added soil are first attacked by bacteria and fungi
and later by actinomycetes, because they are slow in activity
and growth than bacteria and fungi
 They decompose / degrade the more resistant organic
substance
Cont….
 They are also responsible for subsequent further
decomposition of humus in soil
 They are responsible for smell of freshly ploughed soils
 One of the species of actinomycetes Streptomyces scabies
causes disease"Potato scab"in potato
THANK YOU

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Evolutionary Tendencies in Monera: From Bacteria to Actinomycetes

  • 3. Kingdom Monera  One-celled organism  no nucleus  Prokaryotic  Smallest and simplest kind of living thing  These are oldest and most abundant organisms  Undergo asexual reproduction
  • 4. Cont…..  They form spore is called ENDOSPORE  Endospore is a protective structure that forms inside a moneran cell during unfavorable conditions  Kingdom has two major groups of organisms, namely bacteria and cyanobacteria
  • 5. Bacteria  Evolutionary history  Found roughly 3.2-3.5 billion years ago  Discovered through gene sequencing of bacterial nucleoids  Furthermore, evidence of permineralized microfossils of early prokaryotes was also discovered  This suggests that an organism is present
  • 6. Introduction  Kingdom Monera  Prokaryote=no nucleus or internal compartments  All are single cells  Single circular piece of DNA
  • 7. Habitate  They are found in nearly every habitat studied, including some that no other organism is able to withstand  These bacteria live in very hot  Acid habitats and pH 2-4
  • 8. Structure of Bacteria Cell wall Protects and gives shape Outer Membrane Protects against antibodies Cell Membrane Regulates movement of materials, contains enzymes important to cellular respiration Cytoplasm Contains DNA, ribosomes, essential compounds Chromosome Carries genetic information. It is circular Plasmid Contains some genes obtained through recombination Capsule & Slime Layer Protects the cell and assist in attaching cell to other surface Endospore Protects cell against harsh environments Pilus Assists the cell in attaching to other surfaces Flagellum Moves the cell
  • 9.
  • 10. Shapes of bacteria 1.Bacilli- rod shaped (rod shaped)  Certain bacteria that live in your stomach are bacilli bacteria 2.Spirilla- spiral shaped (corkscrew shaped)  Best known cause serious diseases 3.Cocci- sphere shaped (sphere or ball shaped)  An example is bacteria that cause strep throat.  Staphylococci- grape-like clusters  Streptococci- in chains
  • 11.
  • 12. Reproduction  Reproduction is by fission  Prokaryotes reproduce by simply splitting in two  The DNA is copied and the cell divides into two identical cells.
  • 13. How do Bacteria cause disease?  Metabolize their host for food (Heterotrophic bacteria)  Secrete a toxin which can attack other body parts (Botulism is an example)
  • 14. How can Bacteria work to our benefit?  Digest waste at sewage plants  Chemical industry- make acetone and butanol  Pharmaceutical- vitamins, antibiotics, insulin  Food- yogurt, cheese, alcoholic beverages  Decomposer  Nitrogen fixers  Symbiosis
  • 15. CYNOBACTERIA  Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae  Autotrophic bacteria  Its fossil has found age 3.8 billion years B.C  This group of bacteria is one of the largest and important in the earth.
  • 16. Evolution  Roughly 2.45 billion years ago, oxygen had appeared  Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria evolved during this period because they were the first microbes to produce oxygen as a byproduct of their metabolic process  Therefore, this phylum was thought to have been predominant roughly 2.3 billion years ago.
  • 17. Example of cynobacteria  Nostoc is Cyanobacteria has the form of colony that adhere  shape would be lone circle like necklace  Nostoc reproduce by fragmentize
  • 18. Evolution  They are 3.5 billion years old  Dominated as biogenic reef  During Proterozoic – Age of Bacteria they were wide spread  Then multicellularity took over  Cyanobacteria were first algae.
  • 19. Cyanobacteria terminology  Division Cyanophyta - Cyanobacteria ‘formerly known as’ Blue Green Algae  Cyano = blue  Bacteria – acknowledges that they are more closely related to prokaryotic bacteria than eukaryotic algae
  • 20. Importance  First organisms to have 2 photosystems  produce organic material and give off O2 as a biproduct.  Many – fix or convert atmospheric nitrogen into usable forms through Nitrogen Fixation when other forms are unavailable.  IMPORTANT because atmospheric N2 is unavailable to most living organisms because breaking the triple bond is difficult.
  • 21. Actinomycetes  These are the organisms with characteristics common to both bacteria and fungi  They are unicellular like bacteria  They do not have distinct cell-wall  Their cell wall is without chitin and cellulose  Actinomycetes colonies grow slowly  Actinomycetes are numerous and widely distributed in soil and are next to bacteria in abundance
  • 22. Cont…..  Plate count estimates give values ranging from 10^4 to 10^8 per gram of soil  They are sensitive to acidity / low PH (optimum PH range 6.5 to 8.0)  The population of actinomycetes increases with depth of soil  They are heterotrophic  The common genera of actinomycetes are Streptomyces (nearly 70%)
  • 23. Streptomyces  Streptomyces is a genus of bacteria  Grows in various environments  Its shape resembles filamentous fungi
  • 24. Functions/Role of actinomycetes:  Degrade/decompose all sorts of organic substances like cellulose, polysaccharides, protein fats, organic-acids etc  Substances added soil are first attacked by bacteria and fungi and later by actinomycetes, because they are slow in activity and growth than bacteria and fungi  They decompose / degrade the more resistant organic substance
  • 25. Cont….  They are also responsible for subsequent further decomposition of humus in soil  They are responsible for smell of freshly ploughed soils  One of the species of actinomycetes Streptomyces scabies causes disease"Potato scab"in potato