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Proof reading, editing and revising by sohail ahmed


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Proof reading, editing and revising by sohail ahmed

  1. 1. Revising, Editing & Proofreading Sohail Ahmed
  2. 2. Revising • Revision occurs throughout the writing process and involves such tasks as rethinking, overall structure, focus, thesis and support, editing and proofreading. Sohail Ahmed
  3. 3. Why should writers proofread? • I had a lot of trouble reading your Writing. You make good points, but your writing has too many sloppy errors. • Sorry! I know I should have proofread my work before I handed it in. To be honest, I waited until the last minute. I was hoping you wouldn’t notice my mistakes. Sohail Ahmed
  4. 4. Your reader may focus on your mistakes and may ignore your overall point. Sohail Ahmed • Subject-verb agreement • Wrong verb • Capitalization error • Missing word • Article • Missing word • Pronoun Case • Fragment • Spelling errors • Parallel structure
  5. 5. Writing is a form of communication. • Don’t communicate that you are a sloppy writer! • Don’t let your reader become distracted by your careless errors. Sohail Ahmed
  6. 6. Strategies for Proofreading • Slowly read your Writing aloud. • Use an electronic grammar and spell check. • Try reading your Writing backwards • Read someone else’s Writing. • Examine the content of the Writing, piece by piece. Sohail Ahmed
  7. 7. Examine the content of the Writing, piece by piece. • Examine the introduction. • Examine each body paragraph. • Examine the conclusion. Sohail Ahmed
  8. 8. Introductory Paragraph • Is there a catchy opening to grab the reader’s attention? • Does this opening fit the mood of the thesis and the rest of the Writing? • Have you made a smooth transition between the first line(s) and the thesis statement? Sohail Ahmed
  9. 9. Thesis Statement • Does the thesis address the assignment? • Is the thesis stated in an opinion form? • Does the thesis reflect the content of the body? Sohail Ahmed
  10. 10. The Body Paragraphs • Does each body paragraph contain a leading topic sentence? • Do the sentences in the body develop the opening sentence? • Does each paragraph cover one main point? Are they in logical order? • Does each paragraph have a smooth ending? Sohail Ahmed
  11. 11. Concluding Paragraph • Have you rephrased the thesis statement? • Have you drawn a conclusion from the separate body paragraphs? • Have you made an overall statement concerning the points that you discussed separately in the body paragraphs? • Have you brought up a new idea? If so, delete it. Do not bring up new information in the closing. • Is there a feeling of closure in the last line? Sohail Ahmed
  12. 12. Editing • Editing is the process writers use to catch errors typical to their own writing. Because editing focuses on problems that are particular to an individual writer and that occur again and again, effective editing requires that you know the types of errors you typically make and that you have specific strategies for finding those errors. Sohail Ahmed
  13. 13. Rules to Edit • Read the paper aloud as if you are reading a story. • Listen for errors. If you listen carefully, you will be able to correct any errors that you hear. • Listen for incomplete phrases, sentences and ideas, as well as things that sound funny. • Stop and change anything you wish as soon as you see it punctuation, spelling, and sentence structure. Move through the paper at a reasonable rate. Sohail Ahmed
  14. 14. Rules to Edit • Read one sentence at a time. • Read this sentence carefully. • Does it sound and look correct? Does it say what you want it to say? Continue down the page in the same way. • Know your grammar and punctuation rules Sohail Ahmed
  15. 15. Editing Style • Edit, don’t rewrite • Keep the spirit, just play with the words • Grammar, spelling, formatting • Spellcheck and grammar check are not enough • Read each word and sentence carefully Sohail Ahmed
  16. 16. Where We Do Errors? • Subject-Verb Agreement • Verb Tense • Verb Form • Pronoun Case • Pronoun Reference • Pronoun Point of View • Misused or omitted articles • Misused or omitted prepositions • Sentence structure (fragments, run-ons, and comma splices) • Misspellings • Missing words • Missing endings on words • Punctuation • Parallel structure Sohail Ahmed
  17. 17. Subject-Verb Agreement • Do your subjects agree with your verbs? • Know the rule of subject-verb agreement: • Singular subjects require singular verbs, and plural subjects require plural verbs. • Many attempts to persuade the reader (has, have) been attempted. Sohail Ahmed
  18. 18. Are you using the appropriate forms of your verbs? • If you are discussing an event that has happened, are you using the past tense? • Are you being consistent in using the same verb tense? If you begin in one tense, generally you should continue in the same tense. Sohail Ahmed
  19. 19. Check your sentence structure. • Look for: • Fragments—incomplete thoughts. • Comma splices—two sentences separated by only a comma. • Run-ons—two sentences running into each other with no separation. Sohail Ahmed
  20. 20. Look for fragments • Fragments are incomplete thoughts that should not be used in academic writing. • Examples: • Because the dog was out in the rain. • While I was in Karachi. Sohail Ahmed
  21. 21. Look for comma splices. • Look for comma splices—two sentences separated by only a comma. • He was late he had to wait for the next bus. • He was late, he had to wait for the next bus. Sohail Ahmed
  22. 22. Advice • Double-check so you don't miss an error for others to revise and have plenty of time to prepare for it. Sohail Ahmed
  23. 23. Sohail Ahmed Good Luck