Biography of Iqbal
1877 == Born in Sialkot, Panjab;
1893==He passed his matriculation.
1895 == intermediate from Scotch Mission High
1897 == Receives B.A., second division; stands first in
1898 == Begins to study Philosophy with Prof. Thomas
1899 == Receives M.A. in Philosophy, third division;
gets gold medal since he’s the only successful
candidate in M.Phil. At all
1903 == Becomes Ass’t. Prof. of Philosophy and
English Literature, Government College, Lahore
1907 == Awarded doctorate in philosophy by University
1938 == Dies in Lahore; buried next to Badshahi Masjid
Muhammad Iqbal in science
Muhammad Iqbal in science contributed much. His
Asrar-i-Chudi, Rumuz-i-Bechudi, Payam-i-
Masjriq, the Psalms-i-Adjam,
Djawid Namah, Pas Aye Aqwam Tjeh Baid Kard-
2. Urdu Language
al-Iqtisad, Bang-i-Dara, Bal-i-jibril, Zarb-i-
Kalim, , Iqbal Namah
Armghan-i-Hidjaz, devil-i-ki Madjlis
Development of Metaphysic
THE THOUGHT MUHAMMAD IQBAL ABOUT
ISLAMIC EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES.
Islamic purpose of education.
Education begins from a sense of ego.
Ego will undergo a process of evolution.
Ego always striving to achieve perfection.
Perfect Ego that according M. Iqbal called
perfect man and that is the purpose of
education. The details of the purpose of
purpose of education
Education is not merely to achieve happiness in the Hereafter
in the introduction of the soul with God.
The ultimate goal of education should be to strengthen and
reinforce the individuality of all private, so they can be aware of
all the possibilities that could have happened to them.
To achieve this goal of education should be focused on the
overall development of human potential that covers the
intellectual, physical and willingness to move forward.
In relation to this, Muhammad Iqbal explained some thoughts
on creative wills. Life is a creative wills by Muhammad Iqbal
called Soz. That itself is always moving toward unity. Creative
activity, struggle endlessly and active participation in the world’s
problems should be the goal of life.
The purpose of education should be able to solve new
problems in conditions of individuals and communities or to
adjust to the conditions.
According to Muhammad Iqbal:
art and literature,
Science and technology.
Muhammad Iqbal argued that religion is a force of great
importance in the lives of individual communities. If the
knowledge in this sense is not placed under the religion, he
would come into force satan.
Understanding in this sense is seen to function as a first step
in order to obtain actual knowledge. So that, the book is a tool
in the delivery of science.
Thus, according to Muhammad Iqbal, between religion and
science have to walk in harmony, because religion was able to
prepare the modern man to take on a huge responsibility that
science must also be involved. The existence of science and
religion categorizing according to Iqbal is an act of
And then, Education curricula should also include the
formation of personality or character.
Educational method based on the age level of the
students based on consideration of the period of
development of the students, the
Prophet(P.B.U.H.) suggests a good way to
educate. He(P.B.U.H.) stated educate your
children by playing around the age of seven first
and plant their discipline in the next seven years
and then invite them to discuss the time they reach
the age of seven-year period of the third and
subsequent release before they can take a stand
for life on their own .
The appropriate educational methods by
Muhammad Iqbal is:
It’s an open method that students can
develop their self by doing something
according to their self. It means that self
activity to looking for their potential and
develop it, with a free developing based on
their students self.
“How long will thou abide under the wings of
others? Learn to wing thy flight freely in the
garden of breeze”.
Learning by doing
This method is appropriate with
Muhammad Iqbal statement that is :
Raise the observation and experiment
method isn’t only theoretical.
It means that experiment method is
needed to develop the knowledge, while
knowledge is not only theoretical, but also
need authentication and actualization.
“Seek not the bounty of the glass-blowers
of the West Make your own cups and
goblet from the clay of India”
Question and Answer
According to Muhammad Iqbal education
should be able to make critical person, it
mean keep asking is not simply accept
based on the believers to the educators.
THE ROLE OF STUDENTS
Students have a freedom to develop their
personality and their talents.
Looking for their position, students are
creatures that are in the process of
development based on their nature.
They are need guidance and direction
towards the optimum points consistently
toward their nature capability.
Muhammad Iqbal’s thoughts in particular on
the role of education, students are stems on
human freedom. Man is an ego that has the
freedom to make choices with consequences
With that freedom, allowing students to be
directed to have the creativity to think high
to bring new innovations that can be used
to address the challenges of the present
Muhammad Iqbal absolutely believe, the
value of the culture of a society to
education and the right to development of
ROLE OF THE TEACHER
Educators in exploring and developing the concept
of education will have to review and examine the
nature of individuality and the environment.
Muhammad Iqbal found individuality growth is not
possible without direct contact with the concrete
and dynamic environment.
Iqbal says that it is essential that the teacher
should awaken in his students a keen
consciousness of their manifold relations with
the environment and thus stimulate the
formation of new & creative purposes.
The attitude of good educators by
Muhammad Iqbal is the true way to raise
awareness regarding their students with a
variety of relationships with the
environment and thus stimulating the
formation of new goals creatively.
Muhammad Iqbal lack of education approved
the class system, that students of teachers
who locked between the four walls of the
class. This is because the children need to be
in touch with nature in any learning process,
which is to cultivate an attitude of curiosity
and to foster creativity.
Function of schools
Muhammad Iqbal hoped that schools can foster
and develop personal freedom, brave and creative.
Muhammad Iqbal argues that all living organisms
are strive to achieve more complex levels of
individuality and perfect. Meaning imply great
Freedom sometimes means other than choosing
something good is also free to determine the
choice of evil.
The freedom of man’s duty to implement and
realize his belief that with the use of the gift of
freedom wisely and constructively.
ENVIRONMENT of EDUCATION
The learning environment is one of the
factors that support the educational
According to Muhammad Iqbal “each
continuity of education relies on the fact
that the life of a human organism is
continuously interacting with an
environment that is stable and complex.
No one can develop a theory intelligence of
education, without consciously postulate some
natural concepts of the nature of the individual to
be educated, which is associated with the
community and the so-called final destination.
With the school environment should seek to
explore the meaning of intellectual, aesthetic, and
moral interests of the activities and day-to-day, and
to increase the use of common sense in dealing
with everyday life issues.
Education will not be able to be effective without
any environment that support the achievement of
the goals set .
Iqbal does not criticize female education but
in this respect he follows the famous proverb
that “the hands that rocks the cradle, rule the
This shows that how much importance is the
guidance and training of the child by the
mother. About his own mother Iqbal, in Bang-
e-Dara, says that only due to her guidance he
had achieved the honored and respected
position and great fame and glory.
Iqbal wished that the parents should spend their
lives according to the teachings of Quran and
sayings of prophet (P.B.U.H), so that they can set an
example of ideal life before children and of good
habits and high moral values.
Woman, according to Iqbal, will be a knower of the
realities of life and she is a symbol of nobility. She is
also aware of the prevalent trends in the society. The
main characteristic of her life is her nobility, softness
and a lover of truthfulness.
In another place Iqbal has given her the important
place which can cause unity of the whole world that
is why he delegates the responsibility of her
protection to the whole nation.
Iqbal asserts that if she is not given due status and
if not protected from the ups and downs of life she
can cause destruction to the whole universe.
According to him the fate of the nation and country
lies in their hands. When God has given them such
a high position then why we should not give them
due respect and deprive them of education. To
educate them is a compulsion on the nation and is
the responsibility of the government.
He says in Zarb-i-Kalim;
The whole universe is colourful due to her presence
The life’s music is charming due to her tune. (P.94)
According to Iqbal’s educational philosophy;
firstly, the good life must be a life of active
effort and struggle.
The activity must be creative and original. A
person should have close contact with his
environment and he should constantly reshape it to
suit his purposes.
Secondly, the good man must learn to apply
his intelligence through, intellect he can take
command of nature.
Intellect does give us power but this power
can be utilized constructively for the good of
humanity only if it is guided and controlled by
Teaching moral education
According to Iqbal, for teaching morality to child, there should be
situations in school environment where he would learn it.
School should provide opportunities of social life &
For learning morality again freedom is needed he said,
“Goodness is not a matter of compulsion: it is the self’s free
surrender to the moral ideal and arises out of a willing
cooperation of free egos. A being whose movements are
wholly determined cannot produce goodness. Freedom is thus
seen to be a condition of goodness.
Iqbal says that it is essential that the teacher should
awaken in his students a keen consciousness of their
manifold relations with the environment and thus stimulate
the formation of new & creative purposes.
Three qualities cultivated by education
Iqbal is of the view that there are three
qualities which should be cultivated by
education. These are
Iqbal believes that the cultivation of an attitude of courage is
essential for the proper education of character. Education
should be such which should eradicate all types of fear.
In Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, he wrote:
Flattery, treachery, cunning and spite
Are all nurtured in the beam of fear
Every hidden evil, nesting in your heart
Is the product of fear, if you will rightly regard.
Courage can be cultivated as an attribute of character by
making Tawhid an active working principle of conduct. This
according to Iqbal implies a rejection of all fears except
God, a surrender of our will. When it becomes a guiding
principle of conduct, it gives human beings a sense of self
respect and courage.
The second quality which Iqbal considers
to be an essential constituent of good
character is Tolerance.
He remarks, “The principle of the ego
sustained deed is respect for the ego in
myself as well as in others.
It clearly implies that unless education
strengthens in us a sense of respect for the
other’s individuality their opinions and
belief their thoughts and behavior, our own
will remain distorted and incomplete.
The third quality according to Iqbal is Faqr or
It is a kind of intellectual and emotional asceticism
which does not turn away from the world as a
source of evil and corruption but uses it for the
pursuit of good and worthy ends. it is evident
from the history too that all great achievements
in history were due to individuals inspired by
this ideal of Faqr, not in the accretion of material
possessions for them selves but in the selfless
service of some great purpose.
Idealism in Education
Iqbal agrees with the idealists that the material and
the physical universe, as known to science, is an
incomplete expression of reality. Man has a
peculiar power which manifests itself in the form of
intellect, intuition, culture, art, morality and religion.
Idealism is bitterly opposed to naturalism, in so far
as it regards that the real aim of education is to
mould the environment according to ideals or the
individual values and not to yield oneself to the
physical environment which is an eternal
embodiment of human will and intelligence; much
of it is the result of man’s capacity for
Iqbal beautifully gives expression to this
You (God) created the night, I the lamp;
You created the clay, I the vase.
You created the jungle, mountains and
I created gardens, orchards and flower-
It is I who make glass out of stone
It is I who extract elixir out of poison. 36
Education is always developing and always influential
in the social life of the community. From that it can’t be
denied if the education has always appeared a very
actual problems developed inside. All the problems
that appeared heavily influenced by various factors
associated therein. Namely, educators factor, factor
learners, curriculum factors and environmental factors.
Various of these factors are never separated from the
problems of education. Therefore the educational
leaders in donating works thoughts in finding a solution
to problems of education, not forgetting highlight and
analyze the various factors.
The characters are always making new paradigm
underlying the changes in education are ideal as
desired. In this case, Muhammad Iqbal has
contributed heavily in the work of his thoughts on
education and the concept of paradigm can be
used as a source of reference in order to
reconstruct education. The concept of the role of
educators, learners, curriculum and environment
built by Muhammad Iqbal are very consistent with
those expected by education in contemporary
Based on the reality it can’t be developed
by equally cause the failed system of
education that do the rule, so the system
of education be the first tool that give the
successfulness about the productivity,
education, inside the output. Maybe after
rearrange our system, the goals of
education will be rich.