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Allama Muhammad Iqbal's educational philosophy

philosophy of eduacation by Sir Dr.Allama Iqbal. foundation of education

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Allama Muhammad Iqbal's educational philosophy

  1. 1. Introduction Name Sohail Ahmad Class B.Ed hons 5th semester Class# 72 Subject Educational Philosophy Teacher Mam. Shazia Date 18/3/2014 1
  2. 2. Presentation on The educational philosophy of Allama Muhammad Iqbal. 2
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  4. 4. Biography of Iqbal  1877 == Born in Sialkot, Panjab;  1893==He passed his matriculation.  1895 == intermediate from Scotch Mission High School, Sialkot  1897 == Receives B.A., second division; stands first in Arabic  1898 == Begins to study Philosophy with Prof. Thomas Arnold  1899 == Receives M.A. in Philosophy, third division; gets gold medal since he’s the only successful candidate in M.Phil. At all  1903 == Becomes Ass’t. Prof. of Philosophy and English Literature, Government College, Lahore  1907 == Awarded doctorate in philosophy by University of Munich  1938 == Dies in Lahore; buried next to Badshahi Masjid 4
  5. 5. Muhammad Iqbal in science  Muhammad Iqbal in science contributed much. His works are: 1. Persian  Asrar-i-Chudi, Rumuz-i-Bechudi, Payam-i- Masjriq, the Psalms-i-Adjam,  Djawid Namah, Pas Aye Aqwam Tjeh Baid Kard- i-Sjarq, Lala-i-Thur. 2. Urdu Language  al-Iqtisad, Bang-i-Dara, Bal-i-jibril, Zarb-i- Kalim, , Iqbal Namah  Armghan-i-Hidjaz, devil-i-ki Madjlis Sjura, Baqiyat-i-Iqbal 3. English Development of Metaphysic 5
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  8. 8. Continue….. Islamic purpose of education. Education begins from a sense of ego. Ego will undergo a process of evolution. Ego always striving to achieve perfection. Perfect Ego that according M. Iqbal called perfect man and that is the purpose of education. The details of the purpose of education, including: 8
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  10. 10. purpose of education  Education is not merely to achieve happiness in the Hereafter in the introduction of the soul with God.  The ultimate goal of education should be to strengthen and reinforce the individuality of all private, so they can be aware of all the possibilities that could have happened to them.  To achieve this goal of education should be focused on the overall development of human potential that covers the intellectual, physical and willingness to move forward.  In relation to this, Muhammad Iqbal explained some thoughts on creative wills. Life is a creative wills by Muhammad Iqbal called Soz. That itself is always moving toward unity. Creative activity, struggle endlessly and active participation in the world’s problems should be the goal of life.  The purpose of education should be able to solve new problems in conditions of individuals and communities or to adjust to the conditions. 10
  11. 11. CURRICULA According to Muhammad Iqbal: Religion , philosophical subjects, art and literature, social subjects, History , Science and technology. 11
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  13. 13. Continue…..  Muhammad Iqbal argued that religion is a force of great importance in the lives of individual communities. If the knowledge in this sense is not placed under the religion, he would come into force satan.  Understanding in this sense is seen to function as a first step in order to obtain actual knowledge. So that, the book is a tool in the delivery of science.  Thus, according to Muhammad Iqbal, between religion and science have to walk in harmony, because religion was able to prepare the modern man to take on a huge responsibility that science must also be involved. The existence of science and religion categorizing according to Iqbal is an act of indiscretion.  And then, Education curricula should also include the formation of personality or character. 13
  14. 14. EDUCATIONAL METHOD  Educational method based on the age level of the students based on consideration of the period of development of the students, the Prophet(P.B.U.H.) suggests a good way to educate. He(P.B.U.H.) stated educate your children by playing around the age of seven first and plant their discipline in the next seven years and then invite them to discuss the time they reach the age of seven-year period of the third and subsequent release before they can take a stand for life on their own .  The appropriate educational methods by Muhammad Iqbal is: 14
  15. 15. Self Activity  It’s an open method that students can develop their self by doing something according to their self. It means that self activity to looking for their potential and develop it, with a free developing based on their students self. “How long will thou abide under the wings of others? Learn to wing thy flight freely in the garden of breeze”. 15
  16. 16. Learning by doing This method is appropriate with Muhammad Iqbal statement that is : Raise the observation and experiment method isn’t only theoretical. It means that experiment method is needed to develop the knowledge, while knowledge is not only theoretical, but also need authentication and actualization. 16
  17. 17. Continue….. “Seek not the bounty of the glass-blowers of the West Make your own cups and goblet from the clay of India” 17
  18. 18. Question and Answer According to Muhammad Iqbal education should be able to make critical person, it mean keep asking is not simply accept based on the believers to the educators. 18
  19. 19. THE ROLE OF STUDENTS  Students have a freedom to develop their personality and their talents.  Looking for their position, students are creatures that are in the process of development based on their nature.  They are need guidance and direction towards the optimum points consistently toward their nature capability.  Muhammad Iqbal’s thoughts in particular on the role of education, students are stems on human freedom. Man is an ego that has the freedom to make choices with consequences 19
  20. 20. With that freedom, allowing students to be directed to have the creativity to think high to bring new innovations that can be used to address the challenges of the present and future. Muhammad Iqbal absolutely believe, the value of the culture of a society to education and the right to development of depressed individuals. 20
  21. 21. ROLE OF THE TEACHER  Educators in exploring and developing the concept of education will have to review and examine the nature of individuality and the environment. Muhammad Iqbal found individuality growth is not possible without direct contact with the concrete and dynamic environment.  Iqbal says that it is essential that the teacher should awaken in his students a keen consciousness of their manifold relations with the environment and thus stimulate the formation of new & creative purposes. 21
  22. 22. Continue…..  The attitude of good educators by Muhammad Iqbal is the true way to raise awareness regarding their students with a variety of relationships with the environment and thus stimulating the formation of new goals creatively.  Muhammad Iqbal lack of education approved the class system, that students of teachers who locked between the four walls of the class. This is because the children need to be in touch with nature in any learning process, which is to cultivate an attitude of curiosity and to foster creativity. 22
  23. 23. Function of schools  Muhammad Iqbal hoped that schools can foster and develop personal freedom, brave and creative.  Muhammad Iqbal argues that all living organisms are strive to achieve more complex levels of individuality and perfect. Meaning imply great freedom.  Freedom sometimes means other than choosing something good is also free to determine the choice of evil.  The freedom of man’s duty to implement and realize his belief that with the use of the gift of freedom wisely and constructively. 23
  24. 24. ENVIRONMENT of EDUCATION The learning environment is one of the factors that support the educational process. According to Muhammad Iqbal “each continuity of education relies on the fact that the life of a human organism is continuously interacting with an environment that is stable and complex. 24
  25. 25. Continue…..  No one can develop a theory intelligence of education, without consciously postulate some natural concepts of the nature of the individual to be educated, which is associated with the community and the so-called final destination.  With the school environment should seek to explore the meaning of intellectual, aesthetic, and moral interests of the activities and day-to-day, and to increase the use of common sense in dealing with everyday life issues.  Education will not be able to be effective without any environment that support the achievement of the goals set . 25
  26. 26. Female Education:  Iqbal does not criticize female education but in this respect he follows the famous proverb that “the hands that rocks the cradle, rule the world.”  This shows that how much importance is the guidance and training of the child by the mother. About his own mother Iqbal, in Bang- e-Dara, says that only due to her guidance he had achieved the honored and respected position and great fame and glory. 26
  27. 27.  Iqbal wished that the parents should spend their lives according to the teachings of Quran and sayings of prophet (P.B.U.H), so that they can set an example of ideal life before children and of good habits and high moral values.  Woman, according to Iqbal, will be a knower of the realities of life and she is a symbol of nobility. She is also aware of the prevalent trends in the society. The main characteristic of her life is her nobility, softness and a lover of truthfulness.  In another place Iqbal has given her the important place which can cause unity of the whole world that is why he delegates the responsibility of her protection to the whole nation. 27
  28. 28.  Iqbal asserts that if she is not given due status and if not protected from the ups and downs of life she can cause destruction to the whole universe.  According to him the fate of the nation and country lies in their hands. When God has given them such a high position then why we should not give them due respect and deprive them of education. To educate them is a compulsion on the nation and is the responsibility of the government.  He says in Zarb-i-Kalim; The whole universe is colourful due to her presence The life’s music is charming due to her tune. (P.94) 28
  29. 29. Moral education  According to Iqbal’s educational philosophy; firstly, the good life must be a life of active effort and struggle.  The activity must be creative and original. A person should have close contact with his environment and he should constantly reshape it to suit his purposes.  Secondly, the good man must learn to apply his intelligence through, intellect he can take command of nature.  Intellect does give us power but this power can be utilized constructively for the good of humanity only if it is guided and controlled by love. 29
  30. 30. Teaching moral education According to Iqbal, for teaching morality to child, there should be situations in school environment where he would learn it. School should provide opportunities of social life & experiences. For learning morality again freedom is needed he said, “Goodness is not a matter of compulsion: it is the self’s free surrender to the moral ideal and arises out of a willing cooperation of free egos. A being whose movements are wholly determined cannot produce goodness. Freedom is thus seen to be a condition of goodness. Iqbal says that it is essential that the teacher should awaken in his students a keen consciousness of their manifold relations with the environment and thus stimulate the formation of new & creative purposes. 30
  31. 31. Three qualities cultivated by education Iqbal is of the view that there are three qualities which should be cultivated by education. These are Courage, Tolerance Faqr. 31
  32. 32. Courage  Iqbal believes that the cultivation of an attitude of courage is essential for the proper education of character. Education should be such which should eradicate all types of fear.  In Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, he wrote: Flattery, treachery, cunning and spite Are all nurtured in the beam of fear Every hidden evil, nesting in your heart Is the product of fear, if you will rightly regard.  Courage can be cultivated as an attribute of character by making Tawhid an active working principle of conduct. This according to Iqbal implies a rejection of all fears except God, a surrender of our will. When it becomes a guiding principle of conduct, it gives human beings a sense of self respect and courage. 32
  33. 33. Tolerance  The second quality which Iqbal considers to be an essential constituent of good character is Tolerance.  He remarks, “The principle of the ego sustained deed is respect for the ego in myself as well as in others.  It clearly implies that unless education strengthens in us a sense of respect for the other’s individuality their opinions and belief their thoughts and behavior, our own will remain distorted and incomplete. 33
  34. 34. Faqr(Poverty)  The third quality according to Iqbal is Faqr or Istighna.  It is a kind of intellectual and emotional asceticism which does not turn away from the world as a source of evil and corruption but uses it for the pursuit of good and worthy ends. it is evident from the history too that all great achievements in history were due to individuals inspired by this ideal of Faqr, not in the accretion of material possessions for them selves but in the selfless service of some great purpose. 34
  35. 35. Idealism in Education  Iqbal agrees with the idealists that the material and the physical universe, as known to science, is an incomplete expression of reality. Man has a peculiar power which manifests itself in the form of intellect, intuition, culture, art, morality and religion.  Idealism is bitterly opposed to naturalism, in so far as it regards that the real aim of education is to mould the environment according to ideals or the individual values and not to yield oneself to the physical environment which is an eternal embodiment of human will and intelligence; much of it is the result of man’s capacity for inventiveness. 35
  36. 36. Continue….. Iqbal beautifully gives expression to this idea: You (God) created the night, I the lamp; You created the clay, I the vase. You created the jungle, mountains and deserts I created gardens, orchards and flower- plots. It is I who make glass out of stone It is I who extract elixir out of poison. 36
  37. 37. Conclusion  Education is always developing and always influential in the social life of the community. From that it can’t be denied if the education has always appeared a very actual problems developed inside. All the problems that appeared heavily influenced by various factors associated therein. Namely, educators factor, factor learners, curriculum factors and environmental factors. Various of these factors are never separated from the problems of education. Therefore the educational leaders in donating works thoughts in finding a solution to problems of education, not forgetting highlight and analyze the various factors. 37
  38. 38. Continue…..  The characters are always making new paradigm underlying the changes in education are ideal as desired. In this case, Muhammad Iqbal has contributed heavily in the work of his thoughts on education and the concept of paradigm can be used as a source of reference in order to reconstruct education. The concept of the role of educators, learners, curriculum and environment built by Muhammad Iqbal are very consistent with those expected by education in contemporary ideal times. 38
  39. 39. Continue….. Based on the reality it can’t be developed by equally cause the failed system of education that do the rule, so the system of education be the first tool that give the successfulness about the productivity, education, inside the output. Maybe after rearrange our system, the goals of education will be rich. 39
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  42. 42. Q & A Thoughts Reflections Questions
  43. 43. Thank you…..