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Grammar books semeser 2


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Grammar books semeser 2

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />Sofía Thompson<br />1st<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1st semester <br />Preterit<br />Trigger Words Preterit <br />Car, Gar, Zar<br />Spock Verbs<br />Snake and Snakey<br />Cucaracha<br />Imperfect<br />Tigger Words Imperfect<br />Irregulars<br />Preterit vs. Imperfect<br />Ser vs. Estar<br />Verbs like Gustar<br />Comparatives/Superlatives<br />Transition Words<br />Future<br />Trigger Words Future<br />Irregulars<br />Por<br />Para<br />Conditional<br />Irregulars<br />
  3. 3. Preterit<br />AR ER/IR<br /><ul><li> For actions that can be viewed as single events
  4. 4. For actions that were repeated a specific number of times
  5. 5. For actions that occurred during a specific period of time
  6. 6. For actions that were part of a chain of events
  7. 7. To state the beginning or the end of an action
  8. 8. Completed actions
  9. 9. Express beginning/end of a completed action
  10. 10. Narrate a series of past actions/events </li></li></ul><li>Preterit <br />Trigger Words<br />anoche<br />a las ocho<br />el __ pasado<br />ayer<br />un día<br />Hace __ que__<br />ante ayer<br />el martes<br />una vez<br />el mes pasado<br />
  11. 11. Car, Gar, Zar Verbs<br />-CAR changes to qué<br />-GAR changes to gué<br />-ZAR changes to cé<br />NOTE: ONLY CHANGES IN THE YO FOURM! <br />jugar<br />buscar<br />almorzar<br />
  12. 12. Spock Verbs<br />Ir/Ser<br />Dar/Ver<br />Hacer<br />
  13. 13. Snake and Snakey<br />Stem changers in usted and ustedes<br />can change e ~ i or o ~u<br />Need to have “y” in the usted and ustedes<br />
  14. 14. Cucaracha<br />andar<br />estar<br />poder<br />poner<br />querer<br />saber<br />tener<br />venir<br />conducir<br />producir<br />traducir<br />decir<br />traer<br />anduv-<br />estuv-<br />pud-<br />pus-<br />quis-<br />sup-<br />tuv-<br />vin-<br />conduj-<br />produj-<br />traduj-<br />dij-<br />traj-<br />endings<br />}<br />eron* in the ellos/ellas/ustedes fourm<br />
  15. 15. Imperfect<br />AR ER/IR<br /><ul><li>For actions that were repeated habitually
  16. 16. For actions that “set the stage” for another past action
  17. 17. For telling time
  18. 18. For stating one’s age
  19. 19. For mental states (usually)
  20. 20. For physical sensations (usually)
  21. 21. To describe the characteristics of people, things, or conditions </li></li></ul><li>Imperfect Trigger Words<br />mientas<br />siempre<br />a menudo<br />frecuentemente<br />todos los días<br />a veces<br />de vez en cuando<br />muchas veces<br />cada días<br />los lunes<br />
  22. 22. Irregulars<br />Ir <br />Ver<br />Ser<br />
  23. 23. Preterit vs. Imperfect<br /><ul><li> Has a definite ending
  24. 24. Has a beginning/ending
  25. 25. The most recent past
  26. 26. Perfected time
  27. 27. Interrupting action
  28. 28. Snapshot
  29. 29. The distant past
  30. 30. No definite ending or beginning
  31. 31. Imperfected time
  32. 32. Continuous action
  33. 33. Movie </li></li></ul><li>Ser vs. Estar<br />DOCTORPED<br />description<br />HELPING<br />health<br />origin<br />emotions<br />characteristics<br />location<br />time<br />present condition<br />}<br />occupation<br />-ando<br />-endo<br />-yendo<br />relationship<br />possession<br />events<br />dates<br />
  34. 34. Verbs like Gustar<br /><ul><li> Singular form used when infinitive form of verb follows
  35. 35. Often used in the conditional (would, should, could) to soften request
  36. 36. Use with pronouns : Me</li></ul> Te<br /> Le<br /> Nos<br /> Les<br />aburrir<br />faltar<br />importar<br />fascinar<br />encantar<br />doler<br />quedar<br />disgustar<br />interesar<br />apetecer<br />preocupar<br />molestar<br />
  37. 37. Comparatives/Superlatives<br />más (adjective) que<br />el/la más (adjective) de<br />menos (adjective) que<br />el/la menos (adjective) de<br />NOTE: Do not need adjective with these<br />Irregulars:<br />bueno ~ mejor<br />viejo ~ mayor<br />malo ~ peor<br />joven ~ menor<br />With numbers:<br />más de or menos de with number<br />tan (adjective) como<br />******* must use adjective after tan!!<br />
  38. 38. Transition Words<br />
  39. 39. Future<br /><ul><li> All verbs use the same endings
  40. 40. Must include the inifinitive of the verb with the appropriate ending </li></li></ul><li>Future <br />Transition Words<br />mañana<br />dos horas<br />proximodía<br />
  41. 41. Irregulars<br />NOTE: Use with the same endings as regular future tense verbs<br />
  42. 42. Por<br /><ul><li> Passing through (PORtal)
  43. 43. General rather than specific location (PORtugal)
  44. 44. How long something lasts (PORever)
  45. 45. the cause of something (PORpuse)
  46. 46. an exchange (imPORt/exPORt)
  47. 47. doing something in place of or instead of something else (I’m POR, pay POR me)
  48. 48. a means of transportation (transPORtation)</li></li></ul><li>Para<br /><ul><li> For whom something is done (surprise PARAty)
  49. 49. Destination (PARAguy)
  50. 50. The purpose for which something is done (PARAsites)
  51. 51. To express an opinion (PARAdon me)
  52. 52. To contrast or compare
  53. 53. To express idea of a deadline (PARAmedic)</li></li></ul><li>Conditional<br />would<br />Infinitive +<br />should<br />could<br />
  54. 54. Irregulars<br />Use the same endings as the regulars<br />
  55. 55. Table of Contents 2nd semester<br />Conditional + Irregulars<br />Present Perfect<br />Past Perfect<br />Present perfect irregulars<br />Subjunctive perfect <br />Tanto y Tan<br />Impersonal ‘Se’<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />Los Mandatos<br />Informal/Formal<br />Affirmative<br />Negative <br />Irregular<br />DOP + IOP placement<br />Nosotros Commands<br />Mono verbs<br />Subjunctive and Irregulars<br />Trigger phrases<br />Impersonal expressions<br />Expressions of Emotion<br />Conjunctions of time<br />Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns<br />
  56. 56. Conditional + Irregulars <br /><ul><li> would; could; should
  57. 57. used for a possibility, probability, or wonder</li></li></ul><li>Present Perfect<br /><ul><li> form of the present verb ‘hacer’ and the past participle of another verb
  58. 58. time in the past + still time
  59. 59. completed recently
  60. 60. have or have not done</li></li></ul><li>Past Perfect<br /><ul><li>a compound tense
  61. 61. need the main verb and the verb had (haber) </li></li></ul><li>Present Perfect Irregulars<br />
  62. 62. Subjunctive Perfect<br /><ul><li>used when a verb or expression requires the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect
  63. 63. when the dependent clause is in the present or future, the present subjunctive is used
  64. 64. when the dependent clause is in the past, use the present perfect subjunctive</li></ul>haber + past participle<br />
  65. 65. Tanto y Tan<br /><ul><li>tan: used with an adjective or adverb followed by como
  66. 66. tanto: used with a noun followed by como; can be tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas</li></li></ul><li>Impersonal Se<br /><ul><li> use ‘se’ to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb
  67. 67. when using ‘se’, the verb is always in the 3rd person
  68. 68. ‘se’ can be used in all tenses
  69. 69. Se hizo mucho. Se haría mucho. Se había mucho</li></li></ul><li>Saber vs. Conocer<br />to know facts<br />to know people, places, literary works <br />
  70. 70. Los Mandatos<br />the commands! <br /><ul><li>can be formal or informal
  71. 71. can be affirmative or negative </li></li></ul><li>Informal/Formal<br />usted/ustededs commands<br /><ul><li> put in the yo form of the verb
  72. 72. drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite ending (ar-e; er/ir-a)
  73. 73. plural, add an ‘n’
  74. 74. comer coma or coman</li></ul>tu commands<br /><ul><li> can be affirmative or negative
  75. 75. affirmitive: conjugate the verb in the 3rd person present</li></ul>hablarhabla<br /><ul><li>negative: conjugate to the ‘yo’ form, drop the o and add the opposite ‘tu’ ending</li></ul>hablar no hables<br />
  76. 76. Affirmative<br />Tu Commands (informal)<br /><ul><li>conjuate to the ‘tu’ form and drop the ‘s’
  77. 77. comer come
  78. 78. cantarcanta</li></li></ul><li>Negative<br />Tu Commands (informal)<br /><ul><li> put in the ‘yo’ form of the verb
  79. 79. opposite vowel (ar-e; er/ir-a)
  80. 80. add an ‘s’
  81. 81. comer no comas</li></li></ul><li>Irregular<br />informal<br />TV DISHES<br />
  82. 82. DOP + IOP Placement<br />affirmative commands:<br /><ul><li> the object pronouns are attached at the end of the command of the verb; cómprelo
  83. 83. when dealing with direct and indirect object pronouns, the indirect object pronoun is attached before the direct object pronoun: cómpremelo</li></ul>negative commands:<br /><ul><li> the object pronoun must be placed before the command; it cannot be attached
  84. 84. just as with the affirmative commands, the direct object comes before the indirect object pronoun</li></li></ul><li>Nosotros Commands<br /><ul><li> conjugate the ‘yo’ form of the verb in the present tense
  85. 85. drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite nosotros ending (ar-emos; eri/ir-amos)
  86. 86. hablarhablemos</li></ul> comer comamos<br />
  87. 87. Mono Verbs<br /><ul><li>with reflexive verbs, conjugate the command the same as regular nosotros commands, drop the ‘s’ of the command then attach the reflexive pronoun; referred to as mono verbs
  88. 88. levantemoslevantémonos</li></li></ul><li>Subjunctive and Irregulars<br /><ul><li> Present Subjunctive is conjugated just like commands; conjuate to the yo form and change to the opposite vowel ending.
  89. 89. The irregulars are conjugated in the irregular form and follow it. Irrgulars include dar, estar, ir, saber, and ser.</li></li></ul><li>Trigger Phrases<br />esmaloque<br />esbuenoque<br />luegoque<br />esperarque<br />esnecesarioque<br />sentirque<br />asique<br />alegrar se de que<br />hasta que<br />
  90. 90. Impersonal Expressions<br />
  91. 91. Expressions of Emotion<br /><ul><li> a main clause (hope, fear, joy, pity, surprise) followed by the subordinate clause (subjunctive)</li></li></ul><li>Conjunctions of Time<br /><ul><li> for conjunctions of time, you take the indicative form when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past
  92. 92. the subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future </li></li></ul><li>Demonstrative Adjectives<br /> + Pronouns<br />Singular<br />Plural<br />