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  1. 1. Motivation in action Curriculum Topics • Motivation • Culture • Motivating people in the workplace • Overcoming barriersIntroduction The company prides itself on providing superb customer service. Only highly motivated staff will provide this quality of service.Motivation is a driving force within an individual to do something Employees deal with customers face-to-face and by phone, emailwell. Motivation is particular to an individual so it is important to and online. The culture at Enterprise supports customer servicefind out what factors drive each person. Some employees may be which excels and differentiates the business from that of itsmotivated by working in a team whereas others could be driven competitors. The term culture refers to typical ways of behaving inby a desire to make a difference. This case study looks at ways in an organisation. Enterprise is a big company that has the approachwhich Enterprise Rent-A-Car (Enterprise) managers find out about and feel of a small business. Each employee has an important rolewhat motivates their staff. to play. To understand how Enterprise continues to meet its financial and strategic objectives, it is necessary to understand the culture.Enterprise Rent-A-Car provides a car rental service for customers. The culture is based on having motivated people working every dayIt was founded by Jack Taylor in 1957 in the basement of a car to deliver the best service for customers. Customer satisfactiondealership in St Louis in the USA. Today the company has over drives the growth of the business because this results in repeat750,000 rental cars in service globally. Its international operations custom, recommendations to other people and an enhancedfocus on providing a reliable and convenient service at a good reputation.price, that is memorable to customers so that they return.Customer service involves all those activities designed to identifyand satisfy customer needs. The company uses a simple What is motivation?customer satisfaction survey - the Enterprise Service Quality index(ESQi) - to find out how satisfied its customers are. It is based on The term ‘motivation’ can be used to describe anything whichtwo simple questions: causes people to accomplish more than they would otherwise1. Were you completely satisfied with your rental experience at achieve. Motivational theorist Frederick Taylor believed that Enterprise? workers needed close supervision and were only motivated by2. Given the opportunity to return to Enterprise, would you? money. However, Enterprise-Rent-A-Car has identified a numberEnterprise knows that to perform well on the ESQi it needs to of factors which are non-financial and which provide high levels ofhave motivated employees. motivation for its employees. GLOSSARY Motivation: Attracting a person to do Customer service: A range of activities something because he or she wants to provided by a business designed to do it. meet the needs of customers. EDITION 15 Enterprise Rent-A-Car | Motivation in action 37
  2. 2. • encouraging employees to identify personal development A fair working Recognition targets Trust & appreciation environment • recognising and rewarding good performance. Efficient Non-financial Opportunities Enterprise also recognises that motivated employees benefit the processes factors to develop company by: Support and • working with passion Increased Work/life balance encouragement • coming up with new innovative ideas responsibility to achieve goals • moving the company forward. These 8 factors fit closely with the theory of human resource Culture and motivation development. For example, Abraham Maslow identified a hierarchy of needs that people want to fulfil through their work. At Enterprise the emphasis is on creating a positive work At the lowest levels they require good pay so their basic needs for environment. Managers and team leaders provide a culture food, clothing and other essentials are met. However, in addition through: employees’ needs include: i. Good relationships – managers take care of their employees. • safety - a need to feel secure, e.g. through job security or They find out about the expectations of their employees. They personal protective equipment give clear directions and the team has fun together. • social - a need for affection, e.g. friendly work places based on ii. Clear communications – clear goals and expectations are set trust, support and encouragement and plans are shared. Reasons for doing things are clearly • self-esteem - a need for self-respect and the respect of others, explained so employees can see how they fit into the big e.g. recognition and promotion picture. • self-actualisation - the opportunity for personal fulfilment, e.g. iii. Adequate resources – managers make sure that materials, learning new skills and working towards personal goals. equipment and information are provided and fit for purpose. iv. Encouragement – employees are praised for getting things Self-actualisation Maslow’s right. Frustrations and problems are acknowledged. The focus hierarchy of needs is on working towards goals. Self-esteem v. Recognition – effort and good performance are rewarded. By Social needs establishing best practice, it is possible for Enterprise to Safety needs measure branch culture against the benchmarks or Basic needs standards it has set. In comparison, another researcher, John Stacey Adams, set out his Equity Theory. This states that employees will balance the Good effort they put into work (input) with the rewards they get from it Relationships (output). They then compare their own input-to-output ratio to what they perceive others’ to be. Adams’ theory suggests that Clear Available materials, employees will be motivated if they feel that they are being treated communications equipment and information fairly in the workplace compared to their colleagues. As part of its motivation programme, Enterprise managers are Encouragement Recognition expected to ensure that employees are engaged and motivated by: • developing good relationships with their staff • providing the right materials, equipment and informationGLOSSARY Human resource development: Hierarchy of needs: A set of layers, Best practice: The development of Benchmarks: Indexes, standards or The framework for helping employees where each one is more important than performance standards based upon the points of reference in measuring or develop their personal and the one beneath it. Maslow said that most efficient practices within an judging a quality or value. organisational skills, knowledge, and human needs were arranged like this. organisation. abilities. EDITION 38 Enterprise Rent-A-Car | Motivation in action 15
  3. 3. Motivating people in the workplace Frederick Herzberg showed that real motivation comes from within. Factors like good pay and working conditions (his ‘hygiene factors’) stop employees from being dissatisfied. However it is the opportunity to set personal targets and to develop oneself that are the true motivators. Hygiene factors Motivators May cause dissatisfaction in Factors which motivate and the working environment but may make workers more cannot motivate by productive. themselves. Examples include: Examples include: • Recognition of effort • Pay and status • ResponsibilityDeveloping a motivating culture takes time and effort. Enterprise • Working conditions • Interesting workmanagers and team leaders are given in-depth training. This • Company policy • Opportunities forallows them to develop a strategic, long-term approach to • Security self-improvementbuilding a culture of customer care through motivated people. Within Enterprise, a number of de-motivating factors have beenEveryone at Enterprise takes part in Motivation Training. This gives identified. These include:employees an understanding of motivation principles and • a lack of organisation or structuretechniques, so everyone buys into business goals. This helps to • a lack of feedbackraise standards of performance across the business. • a lack of understanding why a task is important • a lack of consequences for poor performance.Team leaders need to understand the needs of the people they Managers are therefore trained to identify and work to reducemanage to ensure they apply the right motivating factors for these within their branches. This may be by effectiveindividuals. During training, managers learn to assess the communication, training or clear guidance on job standards.motivation culture of their branch. For example, a branch with Recognition, one of Herzberg’s motivators, is important forhighly motivated employees may demonstrate this by: employees to feel they are valued. To address this, Enterprise has• answering the phone before the working day starts introduced a system called ‘The Vote’. This aims to support and• working together as a team encourage the development of exceptional customer service. It• regularly attending social work functions together works on the basis of co-workers providing assessment on• arriving early every day themselves and each other.• organising and preparing the office at the end of the day.Employees are aware of the benefits of high levels of All employees in rental branches rank everyone in their team,performance, such as recognition and promotion, but also the including themselves, in terms of their customer service efforts.consequences of poor performance. They provide a constructive explanation of the rankings given. These are then fed back to all employees. The names of the best performer and most improved employee are communicated to all employees in the region. This is a way of recognising those employees who are delivering exceptional service and identifying those who may need additional motivation. EDITION 15 Enterprise Rent-A-Car | Motivation in action 39
  4. 4.‘The Vote’ helps to achieve high ESQi scores because:• everyone is involved in suggesting improvements to others• only constructive feedback is allowed• progress reports are issued regularly to remind fellow employees on how to improve.• improvement is valued as much as overall performance. They may also ask questions like:This is illustrated in the table below, in which 1 represents highest • How does your task and position fit your goals?ranking. Ali did best overall because he received the most first- • What could we do better?place votes from fellow workers. However, Chung is the most By actively listening to the employee’s ideas, they may be able toimproved winner because he received more ‘most improved’ make changes that will motivate the employee.votes (shown by an asterisk*). The Times Newspaper Limited and ©MBA Publishing Ltd 2010. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of information, neither the publisher nor the client can be held responsible for errors of omission or commission. Enterprise encourages managers to motivate their teams Paula Ali Chung Chris Total throughout the working day. This involves:Paula 2 3 3 2* 10 • making sure the team understands the objectives and targetsAli 3 1* 1 1 6 for the day (taking into account any constraints such as shortChung 1* 2 2* 4 9 staffing)Chris 4 4 4 3 15 • monitoring progress at mid-day and giving constructive feedback on how to make the rest of the day run smoothlyThe training that managers receive also enables them to consider • thanking and acknowledging each person’s achievement forhow they can motivate employees in non-management roles. It that day and creating enthusiasm for the next day’s work.provides a checklist of actions that managers may take withemployees. This may be by something as simple as saying ‘thank Conclusionyou’ in public or formally publicising exceptional effort resulting in Enterprise managers recognise that motivation is personal to thea satisfied customer. Managers in Enterprise motivate their individual. If employees feel that they are being treated fairly, theyemployees through informal competitions, giving opportunities to will be more likely to give their best. Motivation comes from withintake the lead on projects or providing training to learn new skills. an individual. Enterprise managers therefore need to find out about the personal goals and aspirations of their employees. WhatOvercoming barriers motivates one employee will not necessarily motivate another.A motivated workforce does not just happen. People need to be In addition to ensuring fair pay and conditions, it is also essentialencouraged. This requires skilful management and managers for the business to meet the higher order needs of individualtrained in motivation. Systems also need to be created which employees. These include the need for recognition and fulfilmentencourage employees to be more engaged with their jobs. at work. Enterprise has created the right environment for motivating and engaging its people through the development ofThe table below shows how Enterprise highlights the differences good communication channels, appropriate training and honestbetween engaged employees and those who are not motivated: and timely feedback. Engaged Not engaged Actively disengaged 1. Define motivation. Explain how two approaches used by Work with passion Sleepwalk through Are unhappy Enterprise Rent-A-Car to motivate employees fit with the day either Herzberg’s or Maslow’s theories of motivation. Have a strong bond Only show minimum Undermine what their 2. What is the ‘culture’ of an organisation? Explain, giving QUESTIONS with their business engagement with colleagues examples, the Enterprise culture. their work accomplish 3. Analyse ways in which ‘The Vote’ could encourage Introduce new ideas Put in their time Add costs to Enterprise employees to create high levels of customer and move the without energy or business activity service. company forward passion 4. How effective do you think the motivational techniques used by Enterprise are in overcoming barriers to highEnterprise managers look for employees showing signs of performance? Explain why you think particulardisengagement so they can take immediate action. For example, techniques would or would not be effective.they may remind employees why they are valuable. EDITION40 Enterprise Rent-A-Car | Motivation in action 15