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Contributor model for career management of professional workers


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This article is a report of case study on the design of job/work for professional workers.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Contributor model for career management of professional workers

  1. 1. Career Management for Professional Workers A Case Study: Improvement on Job Designs for Professionals at PT. Bukit Batubara Tbk, 2012
  2. 2. The aim of study is to answer the following research problems: What make a company or firm competitive, specifically related to the needs to enhance the competitiveness of employee performances? How does career management as called "contributor model " work well for professional workers, especially in enhancing their productivity, works quality, and works commitment? 16 March 2013 2
  3. 3. Background of needs assessment at PTBB Case Study: • Mostly professional workers at PTBB have suggested the company management to undertake the improvement on the quality of their working life (QWL), especially in respects and recognition to professionalism and daily hard-working of non-managerial workers. • Specifically, they have requested kind of appreciations, which would provide increases of remuneration for professional workers at least as similar with financial rewards as being applied for managerial workers. • Most importantly, employees in general have been wandering to look for better employment opportunity with assurances of better future career as realized in the establishment of career path and career development. 16 March 2013 3
  4. 4. Literatures Review 1  Houston, 1999 explained: New changes in relationship between company management and employees (professional workers) should provide “exchange relationship for mutual benefit of both parties.”  The initial findings of case study at PT. Bukit Batubara Tbk explained that “the policy to improve the design of jobs/works for professional workers” has been coming out from the philosophy of changes in the relationship between management and employees as “mutually shared responsibility.” Such discretion reflects the similar findings of DeSimone (1998: pp 343-344). 16 March 2013 4
  5. 5. Literatures Review 2  The findings of needs assessment at PTBB Case Study explained that most importantly employees have also requested the management of PT. Bukit Batubara Tbk to provide professional workers with improvement of their job-designs which give more assurances on career paths and career development.  It means that PTBB findings (2011/2012) also reflect the similarity as the notes of Mathis et al (2004) which explained new outlook of how the changes of career understanding and its development have influenced today human resources management. 16 March 2013 5
  6. 6. Literatures Review 3 Mathis (2004: 247) noted further explanations about the changes of today career management with the following understanding:  “Career ladder” in middle-management has been associated with horizontal movement of career changes rather than vertical/structural movement in many companies;  Many companies prefer to hire employees who support more on the accomplishment of business objectives, and give more priorities on recruiting human resources who are professionals and excellent in their core competencies;  The growth of many different jobs and occupations in today’s world reflects more on the kinds of jobs with project bases; and, such this growth provides career choices for employees with more on a series of project, not just steps upward in a given organization.” 16 March 2013 6
  7. 7. Literatures Review 4 The best learning experiences from PTBB Case Study concluded that any similar project of improvement on the design of jobs/works for professional workers must pay attention to varying ways to set up career management for professional workers (Giovanni, 2010). 16 March 2013 7
  8. 8. Literatures Review 5 – Critical Issues It is important, therefore, to consider the following critical issues of career management: 1. Before a company start setting up the new system-design of career management, it is important to redefine the concept of career which must satisfy the expectation of employees, including such a complex problem as relationship between employees’ career and any activities outside of daily works (Giovanni, 2010). 2. Career paths and career ladder for professional workers must be agreeable for both employees and company management, because that kind of establishment will reflect new philosophy of “mutually shared responsibility in employing people.” 16 March 2013 8
  9. 9. Literatures Review 5 – Critical Issues, continued 3. Career planning with organizational-based approach and/or individual employees-based approach must be synergistic; it is necessarily important that all those approaches will give greater respects and appreciation to the principles of “mutual benefits and exchanges” between employees and company management (Walker, 1980). 4. The company must also provide employees with Career Development Program and Job Matching Program, which support the process of career management, especially when the new system-design being implemented is indicating the needs to improve employees’ work commitment (Sandra, 2008) 16 March 2013 9
  10. 10. Literatures Review 6: The Synergy of Organization and Individual Perspectives Organizational Perspective Individual Perspective • Identify future organizational staffing needs • Plan career ladders • Assess individual potential and training needs • Match organizational needs with individual abilities • Audit and develop a career system for the organization 16 March 2013 A Person’s Career • Identify personal abilities and interests • Plan life and work goals • Assess alternative paths inside and outside the organization • Note changes in interests and goals as career and life stage changes 10
  11. 11. Methodology and Steps of Case Study • Triangulation approaches have guided the case study through: Interview, Survey or Field Observation (Consulting Sessions and/or Forum Group Discussion), and Documents Review. • A method of disclosure models from Ian T. Ramsey (Philosophy of Language Analysis, 1971) has supported the analysis of qualitative data to make the best judgment on the meaning of data interpretation. • Four steps of case study focused on PTBB Business Process and Engineering System: (1) Needs Assessment, (2) Verification of Initial Findings, (3) Justification of Company Priorities, (4) Development of System Design in Career Management. 16 March 2013 11
  12. 12. Four Steps of Case Study in Details 1. Needs Assessment: (a) Identify the specific designs of jobs/works for professional workers, (b) The arrangement of characteristics related to the design of jobs/works, and (c) The List on the design of jobs/works for professional workers. 2. Verification of Initial Findings in the Implementation of Job Evaluation. 3. Justification of Company Priorities through Validation of Job Descriptions for professional workers. 4. Development of System Design in Career Management: Assurances in the implementation of new model of career management with recommendation for future enhancement. 16 March 2013 12
  13. 13. Steps of Case Study according to the Context of PTBB Business Process & Engineering System 16 March 2013 13
  14. 14. Results of Case Study – The initial findings • The case study have indicated that the project of improvements have complied with the current human resources development program that puts employees as a strategic partner. Based on such this strategic partnership, the results of improvement have supported the development level of awareness and commitment of employees to the organization's Vision-Mission and Business Strategy prevailing in today’s business operation. • Therefore, the company management of PT. Bukit Batubara Tbk had the opportunity to use the Vision-Mission formulation, Business Strategy, and organization structure as standard measurements towards improvement results on the design of jobs/works for professional workers. 16 March 2013 14
  15. 15. Results of Case Study – Further Findings The standards of business policy play important roles in guiding and giving references to the governance of PT. Bukit Batubara Tbk as it is valid as operational policy. Some business policy at PT Bukit Batubara, being considered important for reviewing the strategy of human resource management as follows: 1. Functional job title expected to be carried out as activities of employees with the level of good independence and critically accountable. 2. Functional task/jobs should support good corporate governance. 3. Each employees may work with synergy, that is a spirit to join forces in achieving company goals. 16 March 2013 15
  16. 16. Results of Case Study – Further Findings 4. The elaboration of functional job titles must meet integrity of the business, satisfying the relationships with stakeholders, support efficiency in every line of business, giving good impacts to the work culture synergy, and give guidance to employees in acting as a professional with good moral conduct. 5. Each professional worker shall have an attitude and a culture of love, appreciate, promote and develop the skills to be able to deliver the best work. 6. Every individual employee must have attitude of preparedness and readiness in every opportunity to communicate the ideas, suggestions, always being updated, and eager to learn technologies that have been developed outside. 16 March 2013 16
  17. 17. Results of Case Study – Team Accomplishments 1. The list of job-designs for professional workers at PT. Bukit Batubara Tbk has been re-arranged completely, including the specifications within job families. 2. The new arrangement of those job-designs was verified with job-grading system using Hay-Methodology to calculate the match between compensable factors and job values within each job titles. 3. There are 388 individual job titles covered by 128 Job Families, which include 48 JD for Professional Generalists, 30 JD for Professional Specialist, and 325 JD for Operational Workers. 16 March 2013 17
  18. 18. Results of Case Study – Company Accomplishments 1. Before the project, there was no Job Family system. All jobs were distributed into 218 job titles without job classes. Some 600 job titles were in job classes, but with no structured or systematic job family. 2. After the project, there are more simplified arrangement of all job titles within better structured and well-systematic job family. 3. After the project: the improvement of total 403 Individual Job Titles has been done, however there have been only 388 job titles being identified completely, the rest of job titles have not been verified yet. 16 March 2013 18
  19. 19. ANALYSIS ON THE RESULTS OF CASE STUDY Key Issues of Today’s design of jobs for professional workers: 1. The company management may retain functional positions as specific design of jobs/works for professional workers in the organization with clear purposes as follows: a) in order to maintain the presence of employees’ loyalty, b) to motivate employees based quality, performance, and competence, and on c) encourage employee commitment to achieve the success of the organization according to the vision, mission and strategy of the organization by always taking into account the most efficient cost . 16 March 2013 19
  20. 20. ANALYSIS …………………….. Key Issues of Today’s design of jobs for professionals 2. PT. Bukit Batubara Tbk has been in a situation of unsafe performance when the number of functional positions in existing condition have grown up uncontrollable and out of reasonable proportion. 3. Therefore, the project of improvement is expected to effectively and efficiently support the business needs in the future with reducing the number of job positions into proporsional level. Upon completion of the project, it is expected that PTBB to be able to provide opportunities for employees with better promotion in future career, which should be better appreciated with similar rewards as employees in managerial positions. 16 March 2013 20
  21. 21. ANALYSIS …………………….. Key Issues of Today’s design of jobs for professionals 4. Current situation has been very urgent for PTBB within which the company management should start reviewing and balancing all design of job according to good proportion between the size of job content or job load and the proportion of job values. The needs for balancing such these proportion should also bring improvement for all different jobs, by which each one job may differ among other jobs. 5. Rearrangement of functional job positions must promote the grouping into two different job family: a) functional job positions with professional characteristics and b) functional job positions for operational works. 16 March 2013 21
  22. 22. ANALYSIS …………………… Rearrangement of functional job positions Specialist Professional Generalist Functional Job Titles Operational Group of Jobs Simplify similar group of jobs Operator, mekanics, electrician, surveyor , quality control Managerial 16 March 2013 Structural 22
  23. 23. ANALYSIS ……………………….. Rearrangement of functional job positions Initial Titles and Job Level Functional Professional Job Level Executive I Senior Senior II III ………. Junior Functional Operational IV ……… V Junior VI 16 March 2013 23
  24. 24. Traditional career path for scientists and managers: Assistant Director Assistant Director Principal Research Scientist Research Scientist Manager Scientist Assistant Manager Individual Contributor Career Path 16 March 2013 Department Manager Management Career Path 24
  25. 25. Examples of a Dual Career Path-System Executives Fellow Functional Management Senior Technical Staff Member Senior Senior Development Advisory Project Staff MANAGEMENT LADDER TECHNICAL LADDER Senior Associate Associate Engineers, Programmers, S cientists 16 March 2013 25
  26. 26. Recommendation: Implementation of Career Management A Contributor Model 16 March 2013 26
  27. 27. Recommendation: Implementation of Career Management A Contributor Model A dual-career-path system enables employees to remain in a technical career path or move into a management career path. 16 March 2013 27
  28. 28. Recommendation: Implementation of Career Management A Contributor Model Characteristics of Effective Career Paths  Salary, status, and incentives for technical employees compare favorably with those of managers.  Individual contributors’ base salary may be lower than managers’, but they are given opportunities to increase their total compensation through bonuses.  The individual contributor career path is not used to satisfy poor performers who have no managerial potential. 16 March 2013 28
  29. 29. Recommendation: Implementation of Career Management A Contributor Model Characteristics of Effective Career Paths  The career path is for employees with outstanding technical skills.  Individual contributors are given the opportunity to choose their career path.  The company provides assessment resources.  Assessment information enables employees to make comparisons between their interests and abilities with those of employees in technical and managerial positions. 16 March 2013 29