THE OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE (TUJUAN INSTRUKSIONAL UMUM) Is to give the student a clear under-standing of the means available for improving the hereditary of farm animals, more specially of the reproductive and productive efficiency through a breeding management (planning, organizing, controlling; directing / leading, resourcing, activiting, representing, coordinating, communi cating, motivating, and very important is decision making ).
Men --> Invention --> knife fire oars bow and arrow Cooking Warm Herbivora Omnivora Hunter Domestication developed a symbiotic relationship between man and animals; village agriculture LOW TECHNOLOGY AGRICULTURE THE SCIENTIFIC STATE (1750- PRESENT)
STEP IN ANIMAL BREEDING PROGRAM 1 . To decide what is ideal 2. Finding which animals most nearly have genes he wants System analysis 1. the objectives be clearly defined, 2 . it provides a frame-work for consideration of breeding decisions 3. it puts breeding decision into perspective with other management decisions BREEDING OBJECTIVE
For all kind of breeder 1. Decide what kind or type of animal and what level of production would be ideal for the breeder's own individual circumstances and local conditions . 2. Find what living animals most nearly have the genes needed to produce that ideal animal . 3. Obtain, as far as can be done at reasonable prices , those animals which come nearest to having the ideal genes and let each have offspring in numbers proportional to the closeness with which its hereditary approach's the ideal.
1. Man developed methods for the systematic exploitation of plants. 2. Man developed methods for the cultivation of plants for the production of grain- wheat, barley, millet, and rice (Heiser, 1978) 3. Man domesticated animals , dog, cow, sheep, goat and the horse. 4. Man developed systems of irrigation . 5. Man developed some degrees of mechanization the digging stick, the plow, the ox-drawn plow the wheel and others. Such improvements over time LOW TECHNOLOGY AGRICULTURE
Some of the basic advancements that are characteristic of this stage are as follows. 1. Classification of soils , along with estimates of their fertilities. 2. Improved plants by gene manipulations ( genetic engineering ) 3. lmproved animals by gene manipulations. 4. Scientific utilisation of fertilisers . 5. Proper use of irrigation. 6. Proper use of fermentation and other means of food preservation 7. Use of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, vaccine etc. 8. Use of modern techniques in farm management. THE SCIENTIFIC STATE (1750- PRESENT)
<ul><li>ACHIEVEMENTS (BREEDING </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAMMES) IN TEMPERATE </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVEMENT BY BREED REPLACEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>(GRADING UP) </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVEMENT WITHIN BREEDS </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY TO </li></ul><ul><li>TROPIC ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRAINS ON PRODUCTION IN THE TROPICS </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT AND BREEDING </li></ul><ul><li>POLICY </li></ul><ul><li>CONSERVATION </li></ul>
ACHIEVEMENTS ( BREEDING PROGRAMMES ) IN TEMPERATE Green revolution --> enough forage Selection- ---> specialised and high producing breeds of dairy and beef cattle have been formed .
ACHIEVEMENTS ( BREEDING PROGRAMMES ) IN TEMPERATE Green revolution --> enough forage Selection- ---> improve reproduction and production
ACHIEVEMENTS ( BREEDING PROGRAMMES ) IN TEMPERATE IMPROVEMENT BY BREED REPLACEMENT (GRADING UP) IMPROVEMENT WITHIN BREEDS
ACHIEVEMENTS ( BREEDING PROGRAMMES ) IN TEMPERATE Change breed Improve management Simultaneously- changebreed-improve management ? TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY TO TROPIC ENVIRONMENT
ACHIEVEMENTS ( BREEDING PROGRAMMES ) IN TEMPERATE Change breed IMPROVEMENT BY BREED REPLACEMENT (GRADING UP) IMPROVEMENT WITHIN BREEDS
CONSTRAINS ON PRODUCTION IN THE TROPICS lack of feed resources ~ lack of veterinary services to control the endemic diseases .
ENVIRONMENT AND BREEDING POLICY Each country must decide what is the best breeding policy according to ecological conditions (climate, altitude, vegetation) , feed resources (pastures and available by products), management systems and possibilities of disease control.
CONSERVATION <ul><li>loss of local generalised breeds </li></ul><ul><li>unique genes which cannot easily </li></ul><ul><li>be replaced </li></ul><ul><li>to continue to use it commer-cially </li></ul><ul><li>local breeds should be demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>by comparing them with </li></ul><ul><li>temperate breeds </li></ul>
SYSTEMS, MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURE Introduction of System (Analysis) An organizational framework for systems Agriculture and the System Concept Model and Planing Methods
INTRODUCTION OF SYSTEM THE SYSTEMS VIEW The system view is a template for describing, analysing, and designing all aspects of any system . We will describe this view in organisational terms here because this is the viewpoint of a business manager. Reporting structures , sequences of work steps , information and material flows between work steps , and the organisation of data are modelled using the systems view .
What is a System? A system is a set of interrelated components that must work together to achieve some common purpose. Even when each component is well-designed, efficient, and simple, the system will malfunction if the components do not work together . Further, a change in one component may affect other components..
An example of what happens when sys-tem components do not work together appears in Figure 1. This house has all the components ne-cessary for a func-tioning home, but the rooms, plumbing, electrical wiring, and other compo-nents just do not fit together. The functional relationships among these components are simply not right. For example, front steps exist, but not where needed.
The process to develop a good system is called systems analysis and design ( SA & D). SA & D process are based on a systems approach to problem solving that is driven by several fundamental principles: 1) You must know what a system is to do before you can specify how a system is to operate. 2) Choosing an appropriate scope for the situation you will analyse greatly influences what you can and cannot do to solve a problem.
2) Choosing an appropriate scope for the situation you will analyze greatly influences what you can and cannot do to solve a problem. 3) A problem (or system) is actually a set of problems ; thus, an appropriate strategy is to recursively break a problem down into smaller and smaller problems, which are more manageable than the whole problem.
4) The solution of a problem is not usually obvious to all interested parties, so alternative solutions representing different perspectives should be generated and compared before a final solution is selected. 5) The problem and your understanding of it continues to change while you are analyzing the problem, so you should take a staged approach to problem-solving in which you reassess the problem and your approach to solving it at each stage ; this allows an incremental commitment to a particular solution, with a go or no go decision after each stage.
Function Before Form in Systems System are describe in various, and necessarily separate ways. These different ways concentrate on separate aspects of systems (for example, what the system does versus how it operates) or represent systems in different levels of detail. Consider a good example of system - a house .
As any architect knows, function precedes form with the design of a new house. Before the house is designed, we must determine how many people will live in it, how each room will be used, the lifestyle of the family, and so on. These requirements comprise a functional, or logical, specification for the house .
It would be premature to choose the type of materials, color of plumbing fixtures, and other physical characteristics before we determine the purpose of these aspects.
We are often anxious to hurry into building (form) before we determine needs (functions) , but the penalty for violating the function before form principle is increased costs– the cost to fix a function specification error grows exponentially as you progress through the systems analysis and design process.
Thus, the requirements of the house (or systems) must be well defined and clearly understood . Architects use blueprints and other drawings to depict and communicate the design specifications for these requirements. A blueprint is an abstract representation of the house , which mask many detailed and physical feature of the house.
Scope of Systems Often the fatal flaw in conceiving and designing a system centers on choosing an inappropriate system scope , apparently the designer of the house outlined each component separately, keeping the boundaries narrow and manageable; he did not see all the necessary interrelationships among the components.
Turning to a business situation (animal breeding is a business) , when a sales person sells a cheaper version of a product to underbid a competitor, that sales person has defined the limits of the system to be this one sale.
However, the cost of handling customer complaints about inadequacy of the product, repeated trips to install upgrades , and other possible problems make this narrow definition of scope inadequate.
The system boundary indicate the system scope. Defining the boundary is crucial to designing any system or solving any problem .
Fore example, we could install more efficient computer equipment that can process recording much faster, but if the staffs (recorders) of the recording center are confused by the equipment or if the human factors of using the equipment are not also considered as part of the system, any benefit from the new equipment may be lost.
Therefore, recorders and their capabilities should be included within the boundaries of the system being considered. Too narrow a scope may cause you to miss a really good solution to a problem. To wide a scope may be too complex to handle. Choosing an appropriate scope is difficult but crucial in viewing an organization as a system.
AN ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SYSTEMS Several useful frameworks exist to view how a system fit into the whole organization, and one such framework is illustrated in Figure 3.1
People Organization Structure Technology Task/ Procedure Figure 31. Fundamental Component of an Organisation
AN ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SYSTEMS This figure indicates four general key components of the organization that must work in concert of the whole organization to be effective , people, technology, task/ procedure, and organization structure .
The important point is that each time was change characteristics of one or more of these four components, we must consider compensating changes in the other. Fore example, when technology - such computer hardware and soft ware- changes , people may have to be trained , method of works may have to be redesigned, and old reporting relationships may have to be modified.
These change must be considered together, or we may find that the compenseting changes are infeasible or enacting them will take too long.
The framework raises as interesting question concerning making changes to organizations . In which of the four components to start ?
There is no universal answer to this. Issues of organizational politics can play a role in answering this question. When technology changes, we must consider compensating changes in the other components, we can use the technology change to make possible other innovation in organization.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SYSTEMS There are seven general system elements. Boundary ; the delineation of which elements (such as components and storages) are within the system being studied and which are outside; it is assumed that elements within the boundary are more easily changed and controlled than those outside . 1
Environment ; everything outside the system; the environment provide assumption, constrain, and inputs to the system. Inputs ; the resources ( data, materials, supplies, energy ) from the environment that are consumed and manipulated within the system. 2 3
Outputs ; the resources or products ( information, reports, documents, screen displays, materials) ~ provided to the environment by the activities within the system. Components : the activities or processes within the system that transform inputs into intermediate forms or that generate system outputs, recursively, components may be considered as the system themselves, in which case they are called subsystems. 4 5
Interface : the place where two components or the system and its environment meet or interact; system need special sub-components at interface to filtered, translate, store, and correct whatever flow through the interface. 6
Storage : holding areas used for the temporary and permanent storage of information, energy, materials, and so on; storage provides a buffer between system components to allow them to work at different rates or at different times and to allow different components to share the same data. 7