MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                       Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009          Int...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                        Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009with them la...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                               Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009retur...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                      Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Many radio ser...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                         Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009  Interview...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                      Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009"ethnocentrism...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                      Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009providing actu...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                       Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009(a) an electr...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                      Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009relative to on...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                      Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009converter soft...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                       Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009digital mater...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                      Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Kirkwood, A. (...
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MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                         Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009How Stuff W...
MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                             Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Onion N...
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MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                      Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Listen Up! htt...
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MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                     Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009         Positi...
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MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching                                    Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009         The Spl...
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Miller  - Integrating Online Multimedia into Course and Classroom
Miller  - Integrating Online Multimedia into Course and Classroom
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Miller - Integrating Online Multimedia into Course and Classroom

  1. 1. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 Integrating Online Multimedia into College Course and Classroom: With Application to the Social Sciences Michael V. Miller Department of Sociology The University of Texas at San Antonio San Antonio, TX 78249 USA Abstract Description centers on an approach for efficiently incorporating online media resources into course and classroom. Consideration is given to pedagogical rationale, types of media, locating programs and clips, content retrieval and delivery, copyright issues, and typical problems experienced by instructors and students using online resources. In addition, selected media-relevant websites appropriate to the social sciences along with samples of digital materials gleaned from these sites are listed and discussed. Keywords: video, audio, media, syllabus, documentaries, Internet, YouTube, PBSIntroductionMultimedia resources can markedly augment learning content by virtue of generating vivid and complexmental imagery. Indeed, instruction dependent on voice lecture and reading assignments alone oftenproduces an overly abstract treatment of subject matter, making course concepts difficult to understand,especially for those most inclined toward concrete thinking. Multimedia can provide compelling, tangibleapplications that help breakdown classroom walls and expose students to the external world. It can alsoenhance learning comprehension by employing mixes of sights and sounds that appeal to variablelearning styles and preferences. Quality materials, in all, can help enliven a class by making subjectmatter more relevant, experiential, and ultimately, more intellectually accessible.Until recently, nonetheless, film and other forms of media were difficult to exploit. They had to be located,ordered, and physically procured well in advance either through purchase, library loan, or broadcastdubbing. In-class exhibition of full-length programs probably was not the best use of class time, andtended to be clumsy, given reliance on assorted operating devices. The alternative, placing them onreserve in the library, required foresight, time, and effort, and involved students going there and oftencompeting for scarce copies of assigned materials. In short, the employment of media resources incollege courses was frequently costly, sometimes criminal (re copyright violation), and certainlyburdensome and time-consuming.Instructors today, however, face much different circumstances in light of the recent explosion in theproduction and distribution of online media, coupled with rapidly expanding bandwith capacity(Jacobson, 2008). They now can have immediate access to a wide assortment of quality materials,which in turn, can be efficiently delivered to students. Media clips can be easily integrated into classpresentations, while lengthy programs can be examined by students on their own time and at their ownpace. Instructionally-rich digital resources, available at no cost to faculty or students, also areemployable at virtually no risk of copyright infringement.Course-relevant media range from drawings, graphs, animations, photo images, and interactiveresources, to music recordings, audio, and video, but treatment in this article will center on those whichthe author most recently began integrating into his sociology courses a few years ago—online audio andvideo. Unable to find much help in the literature when starting this process, he discovered how to work 395
  2. 2. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009with them largely through trial and error. This article draws from that experience and provides informationand advice intended to assist those interested in using online multimedia in their courses, but who haveyet to go down that learning pathway.A viable Web-based approach requires the existence of a critical mass of quality online resources fromwhich relevant programs and clips can be selected. About a year ago, the author began to list websitesthat allowed direct access to either video or audio materials appearing appropriate to course offerings inthe social sciences, and new or just-discovered websites have since been added on a continual basis(see Appendix E). Most on this list produce their own media, while the balance allows subscribers toupload copies of their own media or that from other sites. Suffice it to say that the reservoir of freelyavailable digital resources appropriate to instruction in sociology and related disciplines is already vast,expanding at a rapid rate, and heterogeneous in composition.Pedagogical FunctionsQuality online multimedia can help to promote any number of pedagogical objectives, ranging fromsparking student interest in subject matter to possibly encouraging intergroup respect and appreciation.However, their most critical function in terms of cognitive learning appears to lie in their capacity to serveas representational applications for key course ideas. Whether in the form of news story, movie clip,interview, or documentary, information and illustrations afforded by media are particularly valuable inhelping students acquire the initial mental imagery essential for conceptual understanding. Suchresources are therefore likely to have greatest teaching value in those courses providing first exposure toa discipline. (Consider, e.g., how the following CNN clip might enhance introductory sociology studentsunderstanding of "role conflict": socioconcepts (2009, March 5).Although concept illustration has seen the most common use in the authors courses, media resourceshave also proven of value for analysis and criticism. Analysis can range from the simple to complex.Instructors might merely ask students for an interpretation of what they have seen or heard, or to ponderrelevant implications. Video and audio can also be examined through complex, intensive strategies forpurposes of establishing patterns, relationships, and trends. Moreover, analysis can be extended andelaborated by requiring students to approach materials as the subject of criticism. While instructorsshould repeatedly remind students that media must always be regarded with skepticism, explicitly criticalexamination of such truth-asserting productions as news reports and documentaries can serve toencourage intellectual depth and aggressiveness, in addition to improving subject mattercomprehension. No doubt, this function will grow in prominence as academics become increasinglyinterested in heightening media literacy among students (Daley, 2003).In addition to facilitating concept illustration, analysis, and criticism, media clips can also have quitepractical value in initiating classes. Their employment as “icebreakers” can be especially effective inlarge sections where students are reluctant to relate to each other, much less instructors. Used regularly,they can serve as an ongoing ritual, notifying students that the class is beginning, as well as serving todraw them into the topic at hand. Icebreakers appear to work best when they are brief and employhumor or irony (for clips used recently to good effect, see Yard Fitness (2001) and Onion News Network(2009).Online digital media can be productively employed outside the classroom, as well as inside it. Indeed, inall likelihood, most instructors will prefer that their students examine longer clips and full-length programsonline on their own time, although in given circumstances they might want the class to collectively watchor listen to particular materials regardless of length. The author has adopted the electronic coursesyllabus for the out-of-class delivery of multimedia. Online video and audio are simply linked to thesyllabus via hypertext in order to substantially augment text readings and classroom presentations.A week of assignments from the author’s introductory sociology course is outlined in Figure 1.Supplementing the required text chapter assignment on socialization for February 9 is a "for yourinformation" video segment on personality differences between liberals and conservatives. (Note thisresource is treated as optional, given that it came to the instructors attention after the semester beganand the publication of the initial syllabus.) For February 11, two videos are assigned which requirestudents to address issues related to quite different types of socialization. The first relates to the Internetand social media such as Facebook, and asks students various questions about their involvement withthem. The second looks at African boys abducted and forced to kill as soldiers and their problematic 396
  3. 3. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009return to families and communities. Finally, two video assignments and an audio assignment forFebruary 13 ask students to consider how otherwise decent people can violate important cultural norms,despite previous socialization to the contrary. Feb 9 Topic: Socialization: Self and Society Text Assignment: Thompson & Hickey - Chapter 4 For Your Information: “Jonathan Haidt: The Real Difference between Liberals and Conservatives” Feb 11 Topic: Developmental Socialization / Resocialization Video Assignments: “Growing Up Online” To what extent and in what ways is the Internet important in the lives of youth today? Is participation in social networking websites sites such as MySpace and Facebook problematical for youth and their parents? How does it possibly shape and confound identity? Do you have a page or pages on a website? To what extent do they reflect the “real” you? Have/has your parents/parent seen your site? If so, what was their reaction? If not, why haven’t you shown it to them? “Lords Children” Who are the “lords children”—i.e., where are they from, how do they come to be, what are they forced to do, what impact does becoming one have on them? How are they commonly treated by family members when they escape? Describe efforts to resocialize them. Generally, how effective are such efforts? Feb 13 Topic: Socialization, Role, and Identity Video Assignments: “U.S. Interrogator Talks Openly About Abu Ghraib 25 Oct 2006” ”Good, Bad, and Ugly” ugly.html?scp=1&sq=zimbardo&st=cse Why do decent people sometimes do bad things? Compare and contrast Zimbardos experiment with the case of Abu Ghraib. Consider the extent to which we "become" our roles. How likely are we to identify with the roles we play, no matter how disagreeable they might personally seem to us at first glance? In watching these videos, consider the following questions: 1. How did those (soldiers and students) who served as guards generally come to behave? 2. For what purposes were prisoners subjected to abusive treatment by guards? 3. Why did the guards engage in such behavior? 4. Do you think that you could have personally resisted becoming fully absorbed in either role? 5. What lessons about human behavior can we learn from these two video clips? Audio Assignment: “RadioLab: Morality” What makes some of us more "moral" than others? From where does our sense of morality originate? Are humans the only species concerned with moral issues?Figure 1. Week Four Assignments for SOC 1013 ClassThe point of displaying this page is to show how a body of media can be efficiently transmitted andproposed to students. Such resources in turn should help them better understand important course ideasby stimulating learning at both cognitive and emotional levels. Moreover, the electronic syllabus asdelivery vehicle allows students to examine linked course content on their own, thus allowing them toview and review at their leisure and preserving scarce class time for other forms of instruction (seeSnelson, 2008, for additional online video applications beyond those discussed here).Types of Media ContentDiverse video and audio resources are currently accessible through the Internet (see Table 1.). While thebenefits of video are obvious, audio is also a very instructive, although underused, learning resource. 397
  4. 4. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Many radio series provide excellent content which could be productively employed in courses (e.g.,American RadioWorks, The Diane Rehm Show, and This American Life). Quality audio programs andclips evoke rich mental imagery, and are more portable than video in light of the widespread ownershipof iPods and mp3 players. They are also easier to locate, given their large concentration at a single site,NPR, and the relatively small universe of audio-programming producers and distributors.Although media content can be arbitrarily categorized as “informational” or “entertainment," many are notclearly one or the other, and this is no more apparent than in such “edutainment” programs as ABCs20/20 and NBCs 60 Minutes. However, the point of this distinction is not only to suggest a difference incontent based on relative emphasis, but also to underline the fact that media considered to beentertainment can also have significant educational value. Popular movies and television programs, forexample, may themselves be the focus of study, serving as data for analysis and critical evaluation.Likewise, clips from these productions may be helpful for illustrating key course ideas.In outlining the many different types of video and audio content that could be applied to a given coursetopic, consider how social issues, either contemporary or historical, might be approached. First, issuetreatment obviously would be enhanced by news footage, and such evidence is likely availablesomewhere on the Web if relevant events occurred within the past 80 to 100 years. Issue-relatedspeeches by historically relevant figures and recorded interviews with them, their biographers, or otherhistorians could likewise heighten understanding. Current news stories could be effectively used todemonstrate and reinforce the relevance of course learning to the outside world and present or pastsocial issues. Likewise, documentaries should have great value for deriving a broader understanding ofissues since they often provide substantial background and tend to consider issues within the context oflinked events, rather than as isolated news stories. Instruction about given issues could also beimportantly supplemented through lectures and courses provided by professors located in cyberspace.Finally, point-of-view media authored by advocacy organizations could be of great value. Treatment ofan issue such as animal rights, for example, certainly would be enhanced by observing PETA messages,just as any study of the U.S. political economy would be profitably informed by media from left, right, andlibertarian perspectives (see Democracy Now!, CNS News, and, respectively).Table 1. Types of Online Video and Audio Content with Examples Content Type Video Audio Event Footage September 11 television archive Army/McCarthy hearings News Stories Brief Obama blasts bankers for bonuses Battle for Iwo Jima Long Obamas pick...linked to abuse... Laid-off men... family dynamics News Magazines Brief Stories Severed in half by train Focus on the border fence Compilations What Would You Do? Diagnosis Documentaries Brief Skateistan Whyman Richards: Iceberg wrangler Long The released Witness to an execution Clips Black/white infant health Segregation study questions Collections Learn how to be a teen in 1950 Deception Point-of-View Stolen for fashion Limbaugh: "…wants…to fail…" Speeches Martin Luther King: I have a dream R.F. Kennedy on the death of MLK 398
  5. 5. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 Interviews George Carlin by Charlie Rose Singer: Robotics revolutionizes war Panels Hate groups in the U.S. Gays in the military Presentations Brief Jordan pictures shocking facts White: Food, diet, & sustainability Long Venkatesh: Gang leader for day Vinson: Caste in Mexico Courses Lectures Evolution, emotion, and reason: Love Lecture 6: Eddie Zheng - Thoughts... Classes Introduction to psychology Geography 20: Globalization Comedy Pragues Franz Kafka International... Lenny Bruce comes clean Commercials Boston Bruins: Date Alka Seltzer: plop, plop... Web Programs Full-Length Star trek: The original series Amos and Andy Clips The office: 2 minute replays The Shadow: Who knows...? Webisodes Web therapy: Psycho analysis Man of the people Movies Full-Length Atanarjuat: The fast runner Clips Five easy pieces diner scene “Who’s on first?” Books Where’s Jamela? Ten days in a mad houseSources for VideoCourse-relevant video materials, unlike audio, are not altogether simple to locate on the Internet.Directories can be helpful for identifying sources (see e.g., Anderson, 2009, and Appendix E at the endof this article), but there is no primary distribution website nor encyclopedic indexing / annotation servicethat would enable instructors to easily find and assess the relevance of programs and clips. Rather, thetask of locating quality video requires considerable instructor initiative and effort. In fact, even searchesat specific Web locations do not always bring materials actually there to the surface, given thelabyrinthian nature of some website structures.To begin locating usable video, consider the employment of a search engine / aggregator (see AppendixA), of which OVGuide, VideoSurf, and CastTV are the more serviceable. The major strength of OVGuideis its ability to find programming and clips across media-producer websites, which it also categorizes bytheme and then rates by user preference (see OVGuide documentaries). VideoSurf is particularly helpfulfor turning up videos from user-generated sites, such as YouTube, and also has the unique feature ofbreaking clips down into segments. CastTV, like VideoSurf, finds videos from user-generated sites, butits singular strength is that it also aggregates virtually all online available television programming (for aninformative discussion about various video search engines, see De Avila, 2008).User-generated / sharing sites should next be searched as this will provide more focused lists ofmaterials located within those sites (see Appendix B). Most videos at these sites are either made byusers themselves or copied by users from various media production sources. YouTube is of course themost comprehensive and popular of this genre. Video identification hinges primarily on contributorscreating key-word descriptors or "tags" for their submissions (see Carvin, 2008), and currently, YouTubehas about 8,000 videos tagged with the term "sociology" and over 30,000 with "psychology."Nonetheless, videos on topics relevant to a discipline may be unevenly available. For example, 399
  6. 6. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009"ethnocentrism" and "role conflict" are both central concepts in sociology, but if one wanted to link a clipto a treatment of the former, over 130 would appear from which to select, but for the latter only onewould surface (searched May 27, 2009).Importantly, instructors should identify, visit, and then revisit those websites which consistently provideserviceable materials for their teaching areas. Noteworthy for most instructors in social sciencedisciplines will likely be those offering quality documentary films (e.g., Babelgum, FactualTV, Joost,National Geographic, Sprword, and PBS). PBS contains an especially rich lode of documentary serieswith many having large archives amassed over time (e.g., Frontline and NOW). Also, despite the factthat many of its films remain limited to DVD purchase, PBS often provides clips taken from them alongwith additional clips that do not appear in marketed titles (e.g., see Unnatural Causes). Instructors shouldmoreover note that visits to sites of specific PBS affiliates can be worthwhile since local stations maypromote access to programming (e.g., Torturing Democracy featured at WNET) which the mothernetwork has not broadcast (see Jensen, 2008) nor posted on its website.Instructors interested in conveying historical information or engaging in criticism of historical media mustbecome familiar with the Internet Archive, the major website holding public domain multimedia. Materialsavailable there, generally recent non-copyrighted or Creative Commons works, and older audios andvideos for which copyright has expired, are diverse, and include sizeable collections of animatedcartoons (N=1,000+), cultural and academic films (800+), and news and public affairs videos (9,000+),among others.Supplemental instruction on course topics may be found at various sites offering online presentations,lectures, and courses (for a discussion on the background of this development, see Edmonds, 2008).Although online lectures and courses have been offered for some time by various individual universities,(e.g., webcasts.berkeley), they have been recently brought together under a single website umbrella(see Academic Earth). A wealth of podcasts for courses, lectures, and other educational materials madeavailable through subscribing universities also can be accessed via iTunes University. More recently,YouTube has created YouTube EDU, a channel comprised largely of course lecture videos listed byproducing university. Many instructors, as well, will find several websites valuable as sources of thought-provoking presentations and expert commentary on timely topics: Big Think,, TED Talks, andWGBH Forum. Among these, the latter in particular stands out in light of repository size, breadth ofcoverage, and navigable structure.Periodic browsing through the multimedia sections of news websites (e.g., ABC News, CBS News, PBSOnline NewsHour, New York Times, and U.S. News and World Report) can also turn up usableresources. In addition to posting standard news stories, ABC News has been prominent among suchsites by also offering programs that address a number of intriguing questions about culture and behavior(see, e.g., Primetime’s What Would You Do?), although not always conforming to the canons of scientificresearch in doing so. Instructors should as well note that as an alternative to mainstream news, they canfind competing world views represented in stories provided at such sites as Al Jazeera, CNS News,Democracy Now!, Real News Network, and significant amount of television entertainment is available on the Internet, and some of it can be put togood instructional use. Virtually every network television site now includes online viewing for many of itsmore popular programs and classics (see Appendix E). Some networks also have begun to segmentshows into clips, capturing noteworthy scenes, which in turn may be easily linked to lectures (e.g., seeNBCs "two minute replays" from The Office). The Internet, as well, has fostered the rapid growth of shorttelevision-like serials of various kinds made specifically for online distribution. These “webisodes” couldno doubt have wide course application in light of their common appeal to college youth and theirrelatively brief, self-contained presentation (see, e.g., Quarterlife). Some offer an independent source ofproduction aimed at niche audiences (e.g., Bitter Lawyer), while others are spin-offs from populartelevision series (e.g., Blackmail).Television-site browsing is also advised for instructors interested in incorporating icebreakers into theirclasses. Staples for political satire include Comedy Centrals Colbert Report and Daily Show. SaturdayNight Live likewise should be monitored, as should its racier "Digital Shorts" collection. The Web-basedOnion News Network includes humorous clips about current issues that also will likely resonate withstudents. Good icebreaker material furthermore can be found at various television ad sites, whether 400
  7. 7. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009providing actual advertisements (e.g., Ads of the World) or parodies (e.g., Saturday Night Live).Commercial movies have become increasingly available on the Internet, and many of these haveinstructional utility. While students should be warned about downloading pirated resources from peer-to-peer (P2P) sites, legitimate websites have recently emerged offering significant inventories of freestreamed blockbuster-type films (see, e.g., Hulu and Joost). Of note, as well, is the growing number ofsites serving as portals for the delivery of quality full-length videos or shorts produced by independentfilmmakers (e.g., see, specializing in works produced by and about indigenous people, andMedia That Matters, showcasing award-winning shorts on significant social issues).Rather than accessing entire commercial movies, however, most instructors will probably be moreinterested in employing brief movie segments. Integrated into class presentations, clips can beparticularly effective for illustrating course concepts and principles. Web locations for clips from givenfilms can be easily identified through search engines such as VideoSurf, although many instructors mayprefer to simply first visit YouTube, the preeminent site hosting clips from virtually every movie that hasenjoyed popularity.In recent years, media producers have made much more of their own programming available at theirwebsites, and they are also trying to reach viewers in novel ways. One vehicle has been the creation ofsites offering several different video genre. For example, Hulu, an NBC/FOX collaboration, provideswebisodes and regular television programming, along with movies and clips. The employment of user-generated video for network content is still another innovation. For example, CNNs iReport asksamateur videographers to contribute their own news footage to the website with the understanding thatsome will be selected to air on CNN newscasts. Perhaps the most significant development among mediaproducing companies, however, is the growing practice of directly contributing programs to video-sharingsites, particularly to YouTube (e.g., see channels for the Associated Press, Journeyman Pictures, andMedia Education Foundation). Providing a centralized body of media resources, such channels makesearch activity less time consuming and also give certain options to users not available at mother sites(see later discussion about the altered-link technique for YouTube videos).Finally, instructors should become familiar with services that give notification of upcoming programs andrecently posted clips. At many media-producing and video-sharing websites, links to such technologiesas RSS feeds can be established on users personalized homepages provided by services such asGoogle, which will then announce when new materials become available. Many websites, including mostnews sites and PBS, also provide free subscriptions to daily or weekly e-mails that preview or post-viewrelevant programming (see, e.g., New York Times Focus (click on "see sample") and PBS Newsletter).More efficient systems of finding materials, going well beyond simple tag referencing, will no doubtevolve as the demand for online multimedia grows. The question of how to collect and catalog Web-resources has indeed been of interest to academic librarians for some time (see Pitschmann, 2001), andtheir universities would seem to be relevant candidates to enlist in this process (see Stewart, 2009).Such assistance is not likely to be soon in coming, however, as librarians still appear to be in the talkingstages of identification and retrieval system development. More immediately, those knowledgeable aboutmedia should be encouraged to engage in videoblogging, i.e., communicating online about relevantresources, and offering as well embedded videos and hyperlinked bibliographies to readers (for a list ofcurrent media-relevant videoblogs, see Appendix C; for excellent blogs covering multiple disciplines, seeOpen Culture and Web-Based Video in Education; for one devoted to a significant sociology subfield,see Racism Review). Furthermore, Google announced in January, 2009, that it is no longer uploadinguser-contributed videos, but is building what it says will amount to the ultimate video search engine, onepresumably able “…to find any video, at any time, from any site” (Paunikar, 2009). Short of this and otherpossible innovations being realized, nevertheless, interested instructors are advised to continue tobrowse websites proven to be fruitful (e.g., see Appendix E), sign-up for RSS feeds and newslettersubscriptions, and frequently communicate with media-savvy colleagues about new resources and howthey might be employed.Content Retrieval and DeliveryOnce relevant materials are located, multimedia may be accessed from the Internet by means of eitherstreaming or downloading. Although audio and video resources could be delivered to students in anynumber of conceivable ways, the author, as previously mentioned, has settled on two as most efficient: 401
  8. 8. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009(a) an electronic syllabus, and (b) presentation software either employed in the classroom or online byway of a course management system.Streaming entails the playing of digital materials from the resource website, and therefore, requires acontinuous Internet connection. Instructors provide students access to such multimedia by the use ofhypertext links. (Linking involves copying the URL of the desired video or audio, and then pasting it tothe syllabus page typed on Microsoft Word or the PowerPoint slide by way of hypertext. When thehypertext URL is clicked, the Internet page on which the media is located will replace the syllabus orPowerPoint slide on the screen, and then operation of the video or audio must be initiated by the user.)Most sites encourage linking by making video URLs especially easy to copy, and many also encourageembedding by providing HTML code that allows videos to be displayed directly within user Web pages(note: embedding is not possible in Word or Powerpoint).Distinct advantages of streaming are its ease and simplicity (only requiring that a URL be linked viahypertext), and the avoidance of possible copyright infringement, given that no copy of the resource hasbeen made. However, streaming affords little control over the media: it leaves exhibition to students, andoften means that extraneous content, such as commercial messages, will be displayed along with theresource. Even more problematical perhaps is the fact that the video or audio will no longer be availableshould it disappear from the Web.Downloading involves making a copy of the audio or video from its Internet source, and then saving it tocomputer drive. Relative to audio resources, listeners are often invited by website hosts to download byvirtue of offering podcasts. Although most video websites do not discourage downloading by placingblocks on relevant software such as RealPlayer, neither do they commonly provide explicit indication thatdownloading is acceptable. No doubt, academic users will be sensitive to the prospect of copyrightinfringement by virtue of downloading. Yet, they should also be aware that the law does not precludedownloading and use under given circumstances (see next section).Video materials that have been downloaded by either instructors or students do not require themaintenance of an Internet connection for display purposes. Instructors interested in integratingdownloaded video to in-class or online presentations should note, however, that PowerPoint will acceptonly a few video formats, and thus, downloaded files may need to be converted to usable form (a taskeasily accomplished through video converter software). Converted videos then may be edited anddisplayed seamlessly within such presentations.Presentation of video clips in class lectures can be effectively handled through streaming, throughdownloading, or through an altered link to PowerPoint if the clips are of YouTube origin. This altered linktechnique allows videos to directly appear within presentation slides (for instructions, see maniactive(2007, August 9)). Altering YouTube URLs can be done on the fly, and may be advisable in certainsituations as it sidesteps the necessity of file conversion if original clips (i.e., pre-YouTube version) arenot of compatible file format, minimizes total hard-drive or flash-drive memory requirements, and reducespotential risks of copyright violation. The primary downside is that clips will no longer appear inpresentations should they disappear from YouTube.Copyright IssuesAbundant online resources are in the public domain, but virtually all made in recent years by media-producing organizations are copyrighted. Employment of these materials should therefore be consistentwith the law (see U.S. Code, 2007). If instructors are particularly anxious about the prospect of violatingcopyright, they should avoid downloading altogether by only linking media URLs to syllabus and coursepresentations via hypertext as this technique does not generally constitute infringement (AmericanLibrary Association, 2006).However, restriction to simple linking is not entirely necessary as instructors are afforded considerableleeway under the “fair use” clause of copyright law (Section 107 (U.S. Code, 2007)). That is, certainexceptions are granted to individuals who are involved in non-profit instruction by allowing them to copyor download and exhibit copyrighted materials under given conditions. On a practical basis, “fair use”hinges on the particular character, nature, extent, and purpose of use, and instructors who wish todownload and employ copyrighted resources under it should consult relevant stipulations to determine iftheir use qualifies (see UT System, n.d.; see Center for Social Media, 2008, for discussion of “fair use” 402
  9. 9. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009relative to online video producers and users; also see MediaEdLab (2009, February 23), for an exampleof efforts to clarify “fair use” rights for media users via music video).While determination of legitimate use may be ambiguous in certain circumstances, “fair use” does notappear to allow instructors or their colleges to display on password-protected class managementsystems, physically duplicated, digitized, or even purchased, full-length videos without authorization.However, many distributors are now offering digital licenses or closed-system streaming rights for suchpurposes along with sale of their videos, and these may be purchased for fairly nominal fee (e.g., MediaEducation Foundation, grants rights for typically $100 to $200 per video for three years to the entireuniversity). As another alternative to displaying resources in violation of copyright, instructors shouldalso be mindful of the possibility that some copyright holders will grant free use upon request.Issues and Problems in Employing Online MultimediaStandards of Taste and ProprietyObviously, employed media resources should be consistent with course subject matter and goals, andshould be thoroughly previewed before displaying in class or through online syllabus. Common sense,coupled with college policy, community standards, and perceived student maturity, should informjudgments about exhibition suitability. Some media, otherwise instructionally valuable, may be regardedby some instructors as objectionable, and simply not worth the risk of student or third-party fall-out.Conversely, others might be favorably inclined to use the same edgy materials in light of overridingdidactic value, particularly if they are teaching in more tolerant environments. Such instructors,nevertheless, might yet consider including a statement in their syllabus which would advise studentsabout media content, and possibly serve to steer those who might be offended to sanitized courseequivalents.Student ResistanceMuch has been made about the "millennials" and their strong attachment to digital technology and theInternet, and in fact, students do tend to be positive about the employment of multimedia both in and outof class. However, resistance does surface at times, most often centering on lack of access totechnology and/or discomfort with using such technology. Adjustments to requirements about out-of-class media assignments may be needed in light of limited student access to PCs with high-speed onlineservice, although these resources are generally available to students on most campuses today. Also,while many older students do feel threatened by technology, some younger ones as well lack relevantexposure and training. Therefore, in communicating with students, instructors should be sure toemphasize that being unfamiliar or uncomfortable with technology is not unusual, and that help will beextended to anyone encountering problems (for a good overview of the problematic nature of studentuse of these technologies, see Hawkins & Oblinger, 2006).While technology may impose problems, experience has nonetheless shown that resistance to onlinemedia assignments is more likely to reflect low student motivation. Left alone, students are often notinclined to examine materials. To be sure, instructors should avoid media overload, being judicious intheir selection of quality videos and audios, and mindful of the time required to address them. Butinstructors also will find students motivated to the extent that references to assigned media are explicitlytied into class lectures and exams (see Kirkwood, 2008, for discussion of problems in getting students touse digital technologies without employment of testing).Technical IssuesA number of technical challenges will arise with the initiation of a Web-based approach. However, mostcan be quickly resolved, especially if colleagues and technicians familiar with multimedia and technologyare accessible and willing to help. Some of the more common problems, glitches, and hassles, likely tobe encountered are outlined below, along with suggested remedies.1. Media files will not play in PowerPoint. In terms of using video clips in presentations, be aware thatPowerPoint does not play all file formats. To determine those formats that are directly usable, therefore,consult relevant tutorials for 2003 and 2007 PowerPoint editions (see TCLT, 2004, and Microsoft, 2009,respectively). Note: video clips not standard to PowerPoint can be converted to playable form via a video 403
  10. 10. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009converter software program, which can be purchased online for about $50.2. Given digital resources disappear between linking or downloading and exhibition. In light of thatpossibility, remember that the Web is a work-in-progress. Therefore, do not be surprised if media contentlinked to syllabus or PowerPoint presentation is no longer available when exhibition date arrives.Reasonable online substitutes can usually be found with relatively little search effort. Note: if relevantmaterials are deemed important and irreplaceable, consider downloading a copy for possible laterdisplay.Downloaded video and audio files may also disappear when moving PowerPoint slides from one PC toanother. Such media files do not automatically accompany presentation software files unless they arealso moved between PCs. Therefore always remember to copy all files possibly relevant to thepresentation (i.e., PowerPoint slides, vide and audio files, and nonstandard fonts, if used) to the samefolder before moving.3. Poor image quality. Video materials on the Web come with variable image quality, and resolutioninvariably suffers as display size increases. Students seated at a distance from classroom projectorscreens may not be able to comfortably view videos streamed directly from website pages, given theirusually small size. Clips can be expanded to full-screen, but will often then be quite pixelated (i.e.,blurred). Instructors may therefore want to vary clip size from somewhere between the extremes of smallimage / webpage display to full-screen display. However, this can only be accomplished for YouTubevideos, and only after they have been integrated directly to PowerPoint slides via the previously notedaltered-link technique (see maniactive (2007, August 9)).4. Classroom technical malfunction. Instructors may find from time to time that given classroompresentation components (PC, Internet, multimedia projector, speakers, etc) will not function. There islikely a simple solution, and students can be very helpful in this regard. Of course, if the problem cannotbe quickly resolved, those responsible for maintaining classroom technology on campus should be calledin. Note: technical malfunctions are not necessarily fixable on the spot. Therefore, always have a back-up plan for teaching the class that is not technology dependent.5. Students cannot get assigned multimedia resources to play. Participation in a Web-based multimediacourse requires all user computers to have relevant software plug-ins in order to run video and audio.Instructors should check with campus technicians to determine which plug-ins will be necessary, andthen request that all campus PCs are appropriately equipped. Plug-ins that students will need to havedownloaded to their own units should also be specified in the course syllabus (and linked to relevantdownload sources). Nonetheless, some students will encounter problems in accessing linked digitalmaterials even with relevant software in place. The most common by far is that the “pop-up blocker” hasnot been disabled on their web browser, and therefore, pages with streamed media cannot appear. Ofcourse, students having technical problems that defy quick remedy should be directed to help-deskpersonnel.Conclusions: Getting Started and Going BeyondAlthough university leaders generally favor using technology to foster instructional goals as shown bytheir significant investment in infrastructure and equipment, as well as supportive public statements (e.g.,Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009), the adoption of online multimedia ultimately restswith faculty. No doubt, some instructors do not make use of it in their classes because they are entirelyopposed to the idea. For them, media use translates to mean student entertainment, and is therefore afrivolous diversion. Real learning, they argue, occurs as it has traditionally, with students readingauthoritative works and listening attentively to lectures. Nevertheless, most faculty not employingmultimedia are not inclined toward such opposition. Rather, they may well concede the merits ofintegration and even report they would like to do it, but say they simply do not have the time in light ofpressing professional demands. Many seem also uncomfortable with technology itself, and so integratingonline media may present two learning curves to master (see Hawkins & Oblinger, 2006; Mills, Yanes, &Casebeer, 2009).These instructors should nonetheless understand that multimedia integration is not a daunting task. Itcan be done gradually and without involving much time or pain. Several small practical steps can betaken to ease into the process. First, begin talking to colleagues about media-relevant websites and how 404
  11. 11. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009digital materials can be used in classes. Join an organization devoted to online learning such asMERLOT, particularly if other faculty members do not seem interested. Second, get to know someone oncampus with technical expertise who can easily be called on for advice and assistance. Questionsinvariably will emerge at the beginning, and having someone to turn to for quick answers is invaluable.Third, start actual integration by doing the easiest. Link a few videos and audios to syllabus, and developassignments for them. In terms of in-class integration, prefacing a lecture or two with icebreaker clips is agood initial move. Finally, enlist students in the process, perhaps first by requiring class or onlinepresentations which centrally involve media analysis. Students, for example, could be assigned popularfilms to determine their relevance to important course concepts and principles, and they could beencouraged to integrate clips from such films for purposes of illustration.Of course, this article only suggests a beginning. Think about eventually moving beyond what has beendiscussed here, possibly with students, to involvement in more complex, creative activities. Existingmedia resources on the Web might be significantly edited and reconfigured for inclusion in class oronline presentations. Better yet, consider creating materials from scratch by shooting video or recordingaudio. Equipment can be cheaply purchased, and instructive media can be produced with little training.Such custom-built resources, in turn, should well-fit course concepts, deepen instructor / student masteryof subject matter, and contribute to the greater learning enterprise as they are uploaded and shared withothers involved in instruction facilitated through online media.References(All URLs in references and appendices were active as of June 1, 2009)American Library Association. (2006). Hypertext linking and copyright issues. American Library Association. October 11., M. (2009). Audio, video, multimedia. Digital Librarian: A Librarians Choice of the Best of the Web., A. (2008). It’s all about the tags. September 12. for Social Media. (2008). Code of best practices in fair use for online video. American University Center for Social Media., E. (2003). Expanding the concept of literacy. EDUCAUSE. (March/April). Avila, J. (2008). Beyond YouTube: New ways to find video on the Web. The Wall Street Journal. October 30., V. (2008). Video visions. EDUCAUSE Review, 43 (5) (September/October)., B. & Oblinger, D. (2006). The myth about the digital divide: We have overcome the digital divide. EDUCAUSE Review, 41 (4) (July/August)., R. (2008). Visual learning: How the rise of digital video is transforming education. eSchool News, January 2. articles/index.cfm?i=51368&page=1Jensen, E. (2008). PBS slow to embrace a program on torture. New York Times, October 15. acy&st=cse&oref=slogin 405
  12. 12. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Kirkwood, A. (2008). Getting it from the Web: Why and how online resources are used by independent undergraduate learners. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 24 (5) (October). (2007, August 9). Embed YouTube Video Into PowerPoint 2007 [Video file]. (2009, February 23). User Rights, Section 107 Music Video [Video File]. (2009). Compatible multimedia file formats. Microsoft Office Online., S., Yanes, M., & Casebeer, C. (2009). Perceptions of distance learning among faculty of a college of education. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(1) (March). News Network (2009). Nations Girlfriends Unveil New Economic Plan: "Lets Move In Together" [Video file]., A. (2009). Calling video publishers. Google Video Blog. January 20., L. (2001). Building sustainable collections of free third-party Web resources. 107 (U.S. Code (2007)). Limitations on Exclusive Rights: Fair Use., C. (2008). Web-based video in education: Possibilities and pitfalls. TCC Worldwide Online Conference. (2009, March 5). Role Conflict - Police Officer [Video file]., C. (2009). Not your father’s electronic reserve: Online media delivery for courses.” Library Issues, 29 (3), January.Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Designing Texas undergraduate education in the 21st century. (2004). Video clips in Powerpoint: Powerpoint 2003 (Windows XP) and Powerpoint X (MacIntosh). TCLT, Indiana University. Code. (2007). Copyright law of the United States and related laws contained in Tıtle17 of the United States Code. Circular 92. October. System. (n.d.). Fair use of copyrighted materials. University of Texas System. Fitness. (2001). Feel Comfortable In Your Own Skin [Video file]. A. Selected Media Search and/or Aggregator Sites 406
  13. 13. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June Video B. Selected User-Generated / Upload iReport C. Selected Media-Relevant Blogs38minutes of the World Blog Ed Academic Audio and Video Blog Out Loud and Media Institute Blog for Social Media the Planet Centrals Indecision Podcasts Commons Ethnography Documentary Blog Sociology Science Technology for Teachers Video Blog Blog The Social Media Guide New Media Education Lab Research Center Culture Blog Review the Media Therapy Images: Seeing Is Believing 407
  14. 14. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009SPARC Blog Blogging the Field of Digital Media and Learning Part Blog also teachingwithTed Utube Blog Love Crowds Video in Education Angle YouTube Bibliography Project D. Selected Media-Relevant Archives and ProjectsAcademic Earth Memory (Library of Congress) Public Media Media Film Institute and Media Institute Rights Digital Library Video Education Trust Media and Learning Storytelling Multimedia Archive Archive http://www.archive.orgLearn Out Loud Education Lab Research Institute Film Board of Canada Community Project Internet and American Life Project. Digital Public Television Project New Media Literacies Domain WNET video States Holocaust Historical Museum Forum Network E. Selected Websites for Multimedia MaterialsMovies & Television Full EpisodesA&E Television Free Episodes (requires downloading of full-episode player) Free Documentaries On Line Documentaries Shows (see current and classics) Central Network Channel 408
  15. 15. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Hulu That Matters News Film Board of Canada Geographic Full Episodes WNET Movies TV Shows Clips / Shorts & Sample Media38minutes The Twitter/Teasmaid ChroniclesABC News 20/20 Trusting Instincts: Surviving a Tsunami Good Morning America Psych Hospitals under Microscope Nightline Sin City Primetime What Would You Do? We Dont Speak Mexican Here World News Lady Bulldogs Are Beautiful LosersAdbusters Let’s Go Spend Some MoneyAds of the World Sonntags Zeitung: US Election Campaign: BushAfter Ed Democratic Action Breaking the SilenceAl Jazeera - English Al Jazeera - English - Live StreamsAll Things Digital When the Lights Go Out in Circui...American Memory (Library of Congress) Fifty Years of Coca Cola Television Advertisements Polar Bear - Northern LightsAmerican News Project Lincoln and RaceAmnesty International The Women of Kibera in KenyaAnimal Planet Treadwell vs. PoachersAsian Tsunami Videos Select and download videosAtom Father Embarrasses Son on TVBabelgum The Power of ChilliesBBC US Afghan Attack Phone FootageBestsBest Pressure Washer – Southwest Airlines 409
  16. 16. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June Bruce Lee: Mini BioBNET;video Emotions at WorkBoingBoing tv Xeni Flies in Zero Millionaire Matchmaker After the Date: Kevin and Randy Real Housewives of New Jersey Shop GirlsBusiness and Media Institute The Media’s Top 10 Worst Economic Myths of 2008BusinessWeek Americas Wealthiest TownsCBC Digital Archives Seeking Sanctuary: Draft Dodgers Human Body TourCBS News 48 Hours Life on the Run 60 Minutes The Millennials Are Coming! Caught on Tape Caught on Tape in 08 CNET TV How to Understand Digital Audio Formats Evening News Desperately Seeking a Job Face the Nation Cheney Looks Back at Iraq War Only on the Web Veteran Recounts Killing His Wife Sunday Morning 30 Years of Change Up to the Minute Kids and Life on the Rez (search and select)Chicago Tribune The Aftermath of HomicideChristian Science Monitor International Design SummitChronicle of Higher Education You Tube vs. Your Good NameClip Syndicate Divorce Battle Over Kidney Heads to CourtCNBC CEO Salary CapCNN Anderson Cooper 360 How Viruses Spread iReport College Students Oppose Homeless Encampment on Seattle Campus Larry King Live Free After 22 Years Lou Dobbs Broken Borders Cartels Hit Mexican TV Station Nancy Grace Family Sues Alleged Killer Political Ticker (select assorted video clips) Specials 410
  17. 17. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 Black In AmericaComedy Central Daily Show with Jon Stewart Gay Marriage Is Bad for Small Business Colbert Nation Yahweh or No Way - The Super Bowl Comedy Centrals Indecision The Epic Battle for Your Soul: Gay Marriage Anti-Gay Propagandists Make Kids Say the Darndest Things! Important Things Games – Emotional Escape Artist South Park The Importance of Saving MoneyCurrent Schedule Rough Guide to the Paternity Leave in SwedenDemocracy Now! "This Shouldnt Have Been Ignored"Discovery Channel Dirty Jobs Meet the Maggot FarmersDiscovery Health Physiology of Sexual Health: PriapismEchoes of War See webisodesEconomist Jazz Tricks of the Trade: Quieting the ClassroomEncyclomedia Armenian GenocideESPN Nenes Battle with Episode 2-59, May 12, Womans Instinctual Ability to Read a RoomForbes College Sex 2.0Fox News "Judging Sonia Fox and Friends Evolution vs. Creationism Hannity Lost Boy Huckabee Hucks Word OReilly Factor Unbelievable (Mom Allows Friend to Blow Pot Smoke ...)Funny Web Commercials Snicker’s Super Bowl AdGlumbert The Ladies RoomGuardian "Its Like Being Buried Alive."HBO The Wire Street History of Labor DayHometown Baghdad Mentally Fed Up 411
  18. 18. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009How Stuff Works How to Buy a LaptopHuman Rights Watch Testing Justice: Rape Kit Backlog in Los Angeles City and CountyHurricane Archive Katrina VideoID Investigation See among others / select within category: JFK Assassination OJ Simpson Trial Real InterrogationsInternet Archive News and Public Affairs September 11 Television ArchiveJourneyman Pictures Sebrenica: Autopsy of a Massacre > view clipL / Studio See among others: Lines The High Heel Web Therapy Psycho AnalysisLibrary of Congress Veterans History ProjectThe Link The DiscoveryLos Angeles Times Invisible TattoosMSNBC Doc Block Lock-Up Raw: Time To KillMSNBC News Study: Less Pollution - Live LongerMSNBC Zeitgeist Woman Auctions Her VirginityMedia Matters for America Employee Free Choice Act: “Fox Facts” vs. Actual FactsMediascrape Mexican Crime Syndicate ArrestedMilitary Channel Secrets of the AlamoMother Jones Coca Stompers of BoliviaMTV Real World: How Real Is It?NBC Online Video Library See among others: Dateline Between a Rock and a Hard PlaceNational Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum Satchel PaigeNational Geographic Apache Girl’s Initiation Rite Final Report: CIA ExperimentsNew Media Literacies Henry Jenkins on MappingThe New Republic Juan CrowNew York Times Salvia: A Virtual Drug CrazeOnBeing Select from posted videosOneWorldTV Desertification Erodes Mongolian Livelihoods 412
  19. 19. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Onion News Network More American Workers Outsourcing Own Jobs OverseasOpen Society Institute Gasping for The Many Uses of Skype VideoOprah Winfrey Show Taboo Topic: What Social Class Are You Now? Perceptions of Class in History of the InternetPBS Human Spark (see also Humaniqueness Independent Lens (Community Classroom) Hip Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes (see video modules) Homophobia Online Hews Hour Art Exhibit Tackles Stereotypes of Suburban Life P.O.V. Soldiers of Conscience (clips & lesson plan) Religion and Ethics Newsweekly (see also Atheist Baby Naming Unnatural Causes Unraveling the Mystery of Black-White Differences in Infant MortalityThe People History See module on cars (Note: car-relevant video clips on right side of page)Philadelphia Inquirer Hammer Attack on SEPTAPlanet Green Battleground Earth Bowling For SoupReal News Network The Ugly of War: Dying Children in a Slumdog ThousandaireRepublic Broadcasting Network Woman Arrested for Trespassing in Her Own HomeReuters Loincloths Hot Among Japanese WomenRolling Stone Five Ways Bush Sank the Republican PartyRussia Today Who Was Involved in 9/11? Documentary Reveals Shocking FactsSalon See among others: Big Think Psychologist Carl Hart on Drug Abuse and Policies Current TV Paying for Abstinence Red State Update Legalize Drugs, Save MexicoScholarSpot Prisoners Dilemma in Action: Split or Steal?Science Channel Time: Life The Directors Process - CapricaSeedmagazine.Com Are We Beyond the Two Cultures? Lazslo BarabasiSlate How to Photoshop 413
  20. 20. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 Portland: Bike Rush Hour on the Hawthorne BridgeTake Part How the Flu Virus MutatesThirteen: WNET video Human Spark (see also Humaniqueness Reel 13 Telling Jokes in Auschwitz Curious Survival New York Voices Lessons of September A Permanent Mark Uncertain Industry: The Decline of Manufacturing in New York City Angels Bakery Worldfocus "Narco" Culture in MexicoTime A Gay Marriage Wedding Vow VideoTLC Little People, Big World Dwarf VolleyballtruTV See among others: Dominick Dunnes, Power, Privilege, and Justice Defending Claus Von Bulow Inside American Jail This Isnt Cougar Town – pilot, clip 2 (Jules flashes)United States Holocaust Historical Museum Witnessing Darfur (various shorts)U.S. News and World Report Tech Gadgets in 2009Very Funny Ads Comfort Fabric Softener: NaturistVery Spatial Cemetery GeographyVH1 Movie Clips Angels & Demons: Church vs. ScienceVideoJug,com How to Behave After SexThe Weather Channel Teen Struck By Lightning While on BikeWGBH WGBH Lab FirewomenWired Mystery Spots (select)WomenCo. Career Women: Past, Present, and FutureWorld Politics Review Marketing the Afghanistan PoliceYeah, THAT Commercial Go Daddy: Sexy CarwashVideo, Longer Length & Sample Media ( * denotes major documentary collection)ABC News Inside the Dead Bodies Exhibit*Annenberg Media (free registration required) Discovering Psychology (series)Archaeology Channel 414
  21. 21. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 Hopi Fires*Babelgum American Waitress: New Mexico*Best Free Documentaries Virtual Adultery and Cyberspace Love*Best On Line Documentaries See e.g., Life Style/Society > Subcultures > World of SkinheadBrave New Foundation Rethink AfghanistanCBS News Video 48 Hours Catch Her If You CanCNN Reliable Sources Podcasts (slow to start)C-SPAN Oval Office Tour*Conspiracy Reality TV The Business Behind Getting High: Marijuana Suppression in the U.S. and CanadaColbert Report May 19, 2009 Episode – Walter KirnDaily Show with Jon Stewart May 19, 2009 Episode - Newt Gingrich*DeepDishTV Shocking and Awful: A Grassroots Response to War and OccupationDemocracy Now! Tiller Killing Spurs Renewed Calls for US to Reverse Longstanding Passivity on Anti-Abortion Extremists*Documentary Wire Earthlings*FactualTV See among other channels: Disasters Disasters of the Century – Cocoanut Grove Fire Society Dicing With Death: Mexico*Folkstreams Pilebutts: Working Under the HammerFood Network Diners, Drive-Ins, and Dives Route 66 Throwdown with Bobby Flay GumboFox 24* Why We FightFree Speech TV Before You Enlist: The Real Deal on Joining the MilitaryGendervision Being Transgender… Myths and Youth IssuesHistory Channel Life After PeopleI Believe Evangelical*Internet Archive: Movie Archive The Disappearing Male* Atanarjuat: The Fast The History of the Devil*Joost The Armenian Child Trafficking: India 415
  22. 22. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009Listen Up! Babies, Bottles, & Diapers: Reality of Teen PregnancyMassachusetts School of Law Media Books of Our Time Al Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel…Media That Matters CopwatchMTV See among others: 16 and Pregnant (airing June, 2009) Beavis and Butthead College Life*National Film Board of Canada Burning Times*National Geographic See among others: NGC Presents Honor Killings Seconds From Disaster Meltdown in Chernobyl Worlds Apart St. Louis Meets MongoliaNBC Online Video Library See among others: Alfred Hitchcock Hour The Long SilenceNew Jersey Network The Lessons of 9/11Open Society: Resource Center Not as Seen on TV*PBS Ascent of Money (see also Full-Length Film American Experience (see also A Class Apart Expose (see also Poverty, Inc. Frontline (see also Sick Around America Frontline/World Mexico: Crimes at the Border, The Business of Human Smuggling Make Em Laugh (see also Teh Internets NOVA (see also Storm that Drowned a City NOW Middle Class Insecurity Online News Hour Generation Next P.O.V. 9 Star Motel Scientific American Frontiers Hidden Motives Secrets of the Dead (see also Escape From Auschwitz Wide Angle (see also Brazil in Black and White*Snagfilms The American Ruling Class*Sprword Reel Bad School Matters: Bullying at Work 416
  23. 23. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009*Thirteen: WNET video (see also Ascent of Money (see also Full-Length Film Curious Survival New York Voices Lessons of September Secrets of the Dead (see also Escape From Auschwitz Worldfocus Full Show - May 27, 2009*Top Documentary Films SickoVII Tough Love: What Men Really ThinkWall Street Journal (Classroom Edition) End of Wall Street: What Happened? DocumentaryWithout Sanctuary Click on "movie"*YouTube (documetaries) Amos and Andy: Anatomy of a ControversyVideo Lectures, Speeches, & InterviewsAcademic Earth Introduction to Psychology Evolution, Emotion, and Reason: LoveAlcove with Mark Molaro Jonathon SchellAmerican Rhetoric Online Speech Bank Barack Obama - Inaugural Address Top 100 Speeches Martin Luther King: I Have A Dream Movie Speeches "Stella!" - Street Car Named DesireBig Think Michael Lewis on the Free Market and MoralityC-SPAN Jay Richards on Money, Greed, and GodCarnegie Corporation Oral History Interviews: Video Interviews Select interviewCNBC CEO Interviews GM CEO Discusses BankruptcyCommunity Video Education Trust "We are not allowed to see our dead..."Democracy Now! Douglas Blackmon on Slavery By Another NameFacing History and Ourselves A Problem from Hell: Samantha Power Talks About GenocideFast Company TV 10 Secrets of Highly Effective Neuroscience and Sociology: David BrooksFree Speech TV Helen CaldicottFree Thought Multimedia Richard Dawkins Multimedia John of GodFree 417
  24. 24. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 Positive Psychology: The Science of HappinessGRITtv More Mortgage Madness / The Lighter Side of Being Arab in AmericaL / Studio Break It Down Jon AndersonMacArthur Foundation Mizuko Ito on Why Time Spent Online Is Edward O. WilsonMIT OpenCourseWare Workshop on Deliberative Democracy and Dispute ResolutionOpen Yale Courses Death with Shelly KaganOxford Internet Institute: Webcast Manuel Castells on Communication Power in the Networked SocietyPro Football Hall of Fame Enshrinement SpeechesPublic Broadcasting System Bill Moyers Journal Interview with David Simon Charlie Rose Conversation with George Carlin Texas Legacy Video Project Select From List of Interviewees This Brave Nation Naomi Klein interview with Tom HaydenReith Lectures: Anthony Giddens GlobalisationResearch Channel Hate Groups in the United States: PanelTED TALKS Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi on FlowUniversity of California Television Jared Diamond on Societal CollapseWGBH Color Line: A Salon for Race and Public Media Basic Black Griot Hip Hop Is a Community Blog La Plaza Immigration Raids and Children Open Vault Alvin Poussant on the Rise of Black on Black Murders Project Dropout Live: Special BroadcastWGBH Forum Network See among others: African and African-American Culture Series Slavery and the Making of America Series Clinging to Mammy: Our Relationship with Slavery American Experience Series Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Movement on Film Asian and Asian-American Culture Series Chinese Americans: Compelled to Excel Evolution Series Evolution of Sex: Rethinking the Y Chromosome Eye on Education Series Project Dropout: Why Are Kids Leaving School? Beyond Black and White: Race in the Boston Public Schools Faith and Politics Series Measure of God: Can We Reconcile Science and Religion? GLBTQ Series GLBTQ General Series 418
  25. 25. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 Children of Gay Parents Tell It Like It Is Holocaust Remembrance Series Lessons from the Holocaust Indian Culture and Heritage Series Under Her Skin: How Girls Experience Race in America Islamic Culture and Heritage Series Voices from the Moderate Muslim Majority Latino Culture and Heritage Series Los Trabajadores: The Workers Our Democracy Series Who Are the American Fascists? War on Terror Series Operation Homecoming Witness: Human Rights Series Bystanders to GenocideWashington Post Voices on GreenAudio News StoriesAustralian Broadcasting Corporation Radio (ABC) Select listed news clipsBBC World Service Indian Sex Workers Get PoliticalFree Speech Radio News Homeless Female Vets (Specials podcast)National Public Radio (Most shows also include interviews & commentary) All Things Considered High Corn Prices Cast Shadow Over Ethanol Plants Marketplace Would You Like a Pay Cut or Layoff? Morning Edition How Merit Pay Played Out in a Colorado School District News and Notes How to Pay for College as Tuition Soars Tell Me More Study Raises Questions about Segregation Youth Radio Theres No Place Safe in the Gaza StripOnion Radio News Area Man Bores Pants Off DateTalk Radio News Service Ex-POW with McCain Shares the Inside StoryUnited Nations Radio 3 Million Face Malnutrition in Horn of Africa: UNICEFWorld Politics Review China in AfricaAudio Programs & DocumentariesAmerican Public Media A Prairie Home Companion Show 4/25/09 American RadioWorks Design of Desire Future Tense Why Women Leave Jobs in Science Marketplace How Credit Card Companies Track You The Next American Dream (program cutting across several APM programs) College Has Lesser Degree of Certainty Speaking of Faith Ethics of Eating 419
  26. 26. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 The Splendid Table Download Episodes The Story Teamwork in the Trailerpark Sustainability Consumed APM Podcasts also available through LearnOutLoud Americas Drug WarArchaeology Channel Human Experience More Than One HusbandAustralia Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) Book Show First Person: The Road Well Trodden by Dean Starnes ForaRadio Linking Food, Diet, and Sustainability Government and Politics The Mother of Mohammed Law, Crime, and Justice No Meat Week Religion and News What Made the Romans Laugh?BBC World Service Black in the USA Series Black Republicans The Changing World The Atrocity Archives The Interview Richard Thaler (on irrational behavior in crisis) Documentaries West African Journeys – Pt 1 (Killing Spirit Children)Chronicle of Higher Education A Race to Rescue Native TonguesDiscovery Channel Radio Select podcastEducasting The Meat We EatHBO The Wire (select podcast)Human Rights Watch Punished for Abortion in MexicoIndieFeed: Big Shed Audio In the Company of MenInternet Archive: Audio Archive Radio Programs GendertalkLearn Out Loud Great Speeches in History PodcastMemoryscape Drifting Motorboat ClubMercury Theatre on the Air The War of the Worlds Conversation between H.G. Welles & Orson Welles re WTWNational Public Radio Brian Lehrer Show The Border Day to Day Sexual Harassment on Rise in Egypt DNA Files DNA and Behavior: Is Our Fate In Our Genes? Engines of Our Ingenuity Development of Helicopter Justice Talking 420
  27. 27. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009 College Admissions: A Game of Privilege? Latino USA Hate Crimes Living on Earth The Secret Life of Lead Planet Money Why We Spend Coins Faster than Bills PRIs The World How Wars End Radio Diaries Prison Diaries Radio Expeditions On the Edge, Timbuktu RadioLab Deception Sound and Spirit Spiritual Resistance Studio 360 High Finance and Old Japan Texas Public Radio Focus on the Border Fence This American Life Switched at Birth To the Best of Our Knowledge Facing TimeOld Time Radio Network Cisco KidRadio Lovers Charlie Chan Telltale HandsSound Portraits Witness to an ExecutionA World of Possibilities The Unseen World of IslamAudio Interviews, Presentations, Lectures, Speeches, and ClipsAir America Ron Kuby on Why Dick Cheney Needs 9/11American Memory (Library of Congress) Voices from the Days of Slavery Voices from the Dustbowl Working in PatersonAmerican Rhetoric (Many also include video) Movie Speeches "Stella!" - Street Car Named Desire Online Speech Bank Barack Obama - Inaugural Address Top 100 Speeches Martin Luther King: I Have A DreamBBC Religion and Ethics Dorothy Rowe on What It Is To Be a Human BeingBoston University World of Ideas Auslander on Regeneration and Traumatic Memory in a Multiracial Lynching ReenactmentFree Audio Clips “…offer he can’t refuse”Freethought Multimedia James Randi Multimedia John of GodHardcore History - Dan Carlin Addicted to BondageHistory Place 421