Neo marxist perspectives


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Neo-Marxist perspective of crime to be used in conjunction with text book

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Neo marxist perspectives

  1. 1. Neo-Marxist perspectives of crime <ul><li>By Chris Thompson </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  2. 2. Neo-Marxist perspectives <ul><li>Neo-Marxist approaches are otherwise known as Radical Criminology </li></ul><ul><li>This approach starts with Marxist ideas but says it’s far too simplistic as there are wider cultural factors which lead to recidivism </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, Walton and Young (1973) merged Marxism with interactionism and labelling (these latter two areas in effect cultural) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Neo-Marxist- ‘full social theory of deviance’ <ul><li>Taylor, Walton and Young (1973) created a new model of crime which they termed a ‘fully social theory of deviance’ </li></ul><ul><li>This model locates crime as being a product of the social system the person is immersed in </li></ul><ul><li>They identified 7 characteristics evident in their ‘full social theory of deviance’, which are evident in Stuart Hall’s work </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stuart Hall – Policing the crisis <ul><li>Stuart Hall’s ‘Policing the Crisis’ is a study of a moral panic over ‘mugging’ in the 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1970s a moral panic over mugging happened in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Mugging is a concept which was imported from the US in the 1970s and tended to refer to being robbed by black men </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1970s several newspapers repeatedly reported incidents of mugging </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hall –’a crisis of capitalism’ <ul><li>This moral panic was built upon the idea of a collective fear of an ‘enemy within’ </li></ul><ul><li>Stuart Hall’s ‘full social theory of deviance’ looked at the idea of the Black mugger as a scapegoat for other social ills of the period </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1945 and the late 1960s Britain had prospered with full employment and improved living standards. </li></ul><ul><li>However the 1970s brought about an economic decline – a ‘crisis of capitalism’ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Black Muggers <ul><li>During this period rapidly rising global oil prices brought high unemployment and a fall in living standards </li></ul><ul><li>Wave after wave of strike action brought about civil unrest and the subsequent challenge to social order and the power of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Stuart Hall’s point is by making the Black mugger someone to fear, it solidified a fractured UK society around the state </li></ul>
  7. 7. Societal reaction <ul><li>Subsequently society allowed the state to randomly stop and search Black youths </li></ul><ul><li>This labelling of Black youths led to a process of deviancy amplification </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore Hall’s idea are more comprehensive as they merge labelling, societal reaction, moral panics and deviancy amplification into a complete ‘social theory of deviance’ </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Another example is Paul Gilroy’s: ‘There Ain’t no Black in the Union Jack’ </li></ul><ul><li>Gilroy rejected the view that Blacks’ resorted to crime due to poor socialisation, he said it was a result of ethnic minorities defending themselves against an unjust society </li></ul><ul><li>Gilroy saw the resultant riots in Toxteth and Southall in 1981 as political acts </li></ul><ul><li>The riots did remove of the ‘sus’ laws brought in by 1970s ‘muggings’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Synoptic <ul><li>Hall & Gilroy’s perspective is a neo-Marxist one because it examines the influence of culture on law & order policies </li></ul><ul><li>Remember neo-Marxists cut the superstructure into two </li></ul><ul><li>Gilroy & Hall’s approach emphasises a crisis of capitalism and how political society used civil society (particularly the media) to get its own way </li></ul>
  10. 10. Critics <ul><li>Some critics point out that some laws like traffic laws cannot be seen as being created by a capitalist class </li></ul><ul><li>Lea & Young – Left Realists say Hall’s ideas say nothing about the victims of crime </li></ul>
  11. 11. Neo-Marxist perspectives <ul><li>By Chris Thompson </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>