Interactionist Approach To Education


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Interactionist Approach To Education

  1. 1. Interactionist Approach to Education <ul><li>Functionalist, Marxist and Feminist approaches to understanding the purpose of education are said to be deterministic </li></ul><ul><li>Determinism means a person’s behaviour is controlled by an external force or forces </li></ul><ul><li>The external force for Marxists is capitalism and the external force for Feminism is patriarchy </li></ul>
  2. 2. Interactionist Approach to Education <ul><li>However not all sociologists believe that human behaviour is determined or controlled by external forces and these sociologists are known as interactionists </li></ul><ul><li>Interactionism is where individuals choose how they want to behave (think of the puppet controlling the strings) because of the way they perceive themselves from the interaction with other people </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hargreaves and interactionism <ul><li>One of the most important aspects of the interactionsist theory of education concerns the ways in which teachers make sense and respond to the behaviour of their pupils </li></ul><ul><li>In his research called ‘Deviance in Classrooms’ David Hargreaves researched how teachers classified pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Hargreaves and the other researchers in this presentation used interpretivist research methods </li></ul>
  4. 4. Activity <ul><li>Identify several categories that teachers’ might place their pupils as </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hargreaves’ research found teachers initially categorized students by: <ul><li>Their appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Their ability and enthusiasm for work </li></ul><ul><li>How likeable they were </li></ul><ul><li>Their personality </li></ul><ul><li>Their relationship with other students </li></ul><ul><li>Whether they deviant </li></ul><ul><li>How far they conformed to discipline </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Halo Effect <ul><li>Hargreaves found that from this initial phase of categorizing teachers’ eventually end up categorising their pupils </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to note that these categories are non-academic </li></ul><ul><li>These categories stereotyping a pupil </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as the halo effect, where pupils are stereotyped on earlier non-academic impressions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Activity <ul><li>Can you think of any incidents in your school career whereby a teacher or teachers have labelled a student/pupil in someway? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know of any instances where teachers’ have regularly labelled a student as being thick or deviant? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Labelling and the self-fulfilling prophecy <ul><li>Cicourel & Kitsuse research found that labelling is a real phenomenon in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling is where teachers attach a ‘label’ to their pupils as being, thick or bright, hardworking or lazy </li></ul><ul><li>This classification by the teacher affects the way a pupil perceives themselves and consequently behaves </li></ul><ul><li>They found social class played a significant role in classification </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rosenthal & Jacobson <ul><li>Research by Rosenthal & Jacobson found that when teachers labelled students as bright and praised them, the pupil reacts in a positive way and the original prediction is fulfilled – a self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely they found that when teachers labelled students as thick and ignored them, the pupil reacts in a negative way and the original prediction is fulfilled – a self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul>