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  1. 1. Use this sheet to help you in remembering the key studies. Applications of studies and concepts isvital in the examination. What you are most likely to find in the examination is that the questionswill get you to be applying material from more than one sub topic; so don’t fall into the trap of justreferring to studies / concepts from one sub topic (Sociologists do not want you to pigeon hole).The secret behind being a good Sociology student can be summed up in the below illustration; Knowing and challenging your concepts Applying to the questionKnowing and challengingyour studies (so important!) Knowing and challenging the theoriesTHEORY – se. Important advice. Don’t generalise about feminism – the best students will be usingthe term ‘feminisms’ in recognising that feminism is composed of many types; including Radical,Marxist, Liberal and Black Feminism.DEMOGRAPHYChanges in the birth rateStudy Concept / fact / argumentBrass and Kabir (1978) Argue that the trend in smaller families began in urban areas not rural areas.Changes in the death rateStudy Concept / fact / argumentTranter Over 3/4s of the decline in the death rate was attributable (linked with) to a fall in the number of deaths from infectious diseases.McKeown (1972) Believes improved nutrition accounted for
  2. 2. up to half the reduction in death rates.An ageing populationStudy Concept / fact / argumentTownsend Believes that the statutory retirement age has created a period of dependency as people are expected to stop working then.Hirsh (2005) Believes we should focus more resources on retraining older people so they continue earning.Important advice with demography;When revising give a lot of attention to; 1. The statistics – build this into your revision cards. 2. Link to what theory argues what (regarding the consequences) – your essay on this will help a lot. 3. Consider, what implications such changes will have on the family – including in terms of conjugal roles and childhood.FAMILY DIVERSITYStudy Concept / fact / argumentRhona and Robert Rapoport (1982) Argue that there are five types of diversity; organisational, cultural, economic, life course and cohort.Diversity and LocationStudy Concept / fact / argumentEversley and Bonnerjea Suggest diversity varies across location with 6 different areas of Britain offering different types of family organisation; the affluent sun belt, the ‘geriatic wards’, older industrial areas, declining industrial areas, rural areas and inner cities.Class diversityStudy Concept / fact / argumentYoung and Willmott ‘Stratified diffusion’Edgell Gendered approach to decision makingO’Brien and Jones Found little change in kinship patterns. Found dual income families becoming more common in the study originally studied by Young and Willmott
  3. 3. Kinship diversityStudy Concept / fact / argumentPhilipson and Downs (1999) and 0’Brien and Found that children and grandchildren sawJones (1996) their elderly relatives on a frequent basis whereas.....ONS Survey data (2003) Found that 61% of grandparents saw their grandchildren once a week and also used new technology like e mail to keep in contact.Finch and Mason 90% had received or given financial help to extended family.Ethnicity and family diversityStudy Concept / fact / argumentModood (1997) Found that White’s and Caribbean’s had higher rates of divorce and cohabitation than other groups. 90% of South Asian families with children had married parents, compared to 75% of white and 50% of Caribbean families.South Asian familiesStudy Concept / fact / argumentWestwood and Bhachu (1988) Most Asian families are now based on the nuclear family but strong kinship ties and respect for the elderly.Ballard (1990) Many children conformed to wider culture part of the time but at home conformed to their ethnic subculture.Berthoud and Beishon (1997) British South Asians are more likely to marry and earlier than whites. Separation and divorce rare.Bhatti (1999) Study of Pakistani and Bangladeshi Muslims found more loyalty to the family.West Indian familiesStudy Concept / fact / argumentBarrow (1982) West Indian families are more likely than any other ethnic group to be single-parent families.Berthoud and Beishon (1997) Found a low emphasis on long term
  4. 4. partnerships, especially marriageDallos and Sapsford (1995) Warn about ethnocentricity (seeing your culture as superior)Cypriot familiesStudy Concept / fact / argumentOakley (1992) `Found extended kin important in Cypriot families.Chinese familiesStudy Concept / fact / argumentChan and Chan (1997) Argued that the family is very important in Chinese culture with all working to support the business economically.Important points of evaluation with regard to ethnicity and family diversity – avoidgeneralisations and do not fall into the trap of using the term ‘ethnics’ which students havedone in the past.Life Course and Family Diversity(*this is an important issue and a new part of the syllabus.)Sociologists such as Tamara Haraven uses the term life course diversity in describing howfamily circumstances change over time.Study Concept / fact / argumentDavid Cheal (a post modernist) Argues that the directions we take are now unpredictable.Ulrick Beck ‘Risk society’Jorgenson Argues that the term family is no longer appropriate (can’t generalise by it).Gittins There is no single definition of the family.Stacey Because of the uniqueness of the family, every family is an alternative family!Bauman Liquid moderns / liquid love.Giddens Confluent loveThose that talk about life course diversity are most likely to be post modernists andinteractionists. Remember the term ‘fractured tranisitions’ as well.Marriage
  5. 5. Know the facts here. This essential. Pay particular attention to contemporary trends(Consider what Functionalists, Feminists, the New Right, Interactionists and Post Modernistssay about such changing positions of marriage).Useful advice for you – consider how such changing positions of marriage may affect; a)conjugal roles, b) childhood.DivorceKnow the facts here. This is essential. Note, especially, contemporary trends. Know as wellthe legislation that has been put in place – especially the 1969 divorce act.(Consider what Functionalists, Feminists, the New Right, Interactionists and Post Modernistssay about such changing positions of divorce).Useful advice for you – consider how such changing positions of divorce may affect; a)conjugal roles, b) childhood.Study Concept / fact / argumentHetherington (2002) Divorce has had little long term damage to children.CohabitationKnow the facts here. This is essential.(Consider what Functionalists, Feminists, the New Right, Interactionists and Post Modernistssay about such changing positions of cohabitation).Useful advice for you – consider how such changing positions of cohabitation may affect; a)conjugal roles, b) childhood.SinglehoodKnow the facts here.(Consider what Functionalists, Feminists, the New Right, Interactionists and Post Modernistssay about the rise of singlehood in relation to a) society and b) the family).Lone parent familiesStudy Concept/ fact / argumentJohn Redwood – (New Right) Teenage mums should put their children up for adoption.Linda Lee Porter (on single mums on council estates) – they
  6. 6. are ‘ idle sluts who aren’t fit to look after a dog let alone a child’Patricia Morgan (1999), Dennis and Erdos, Strong link between divorce and highFarrington patterns of crime.Civitas (Institute for the study of civil society) Parents brought up by lone parents are not as well supported educationally.Nona Dawson Highlights how we should be more empathetic to single parents.Polly Toynbee 3% of unmarried mothers are teenagers and the figure is decreasing.Beresford (1999) We should not judge lone parent families (i.e. we should avoid being ethnocentric).Riley and Shaw There is no link with lone parent families and criminalityBurghes and Roberts It is right that we are concerned but one is seriously wrong in how they express such concern. (Should avoid creating a moral panic)Key points - Know the facts here. This is essential.(Consider what Functionalists, Feminists, the New Right, Interactionists and Post Modernistssay about such a change.).Useful advice for you – consider how such a family may affect childhood.Reconstituted familiesKnow the facts here. This is essential.(Consider what Functionalists, Feminists, the New Right, Interactionists and Post Modernistssay about the rise of reconstituted families).Useful advice for you – consider how such changes may affect; a) conjugal roles, b)childhood.Sexual diversity –Study Concept / fact / argument
  7. 7. Weeks et al Many gay and lesbians are developing new ways of understanding the family. Also found that same sex partnerships tend to be more democratic and egalitarian.Study Concept / fact / argumentsFitzgerald Most studies show that children raised by gay and lesbian parents are no different than those raised by heterosexuals.Key advice –Know the facts here. This is essential.(Consider what Functionalists, Feminists, the New Right, Interactionists and Post Modernistssay about the rise of gay and lesbian families).Useful advice for you – consider how such changes may affect; a) conjugal roles, b)childhood.Finally, with this sub topic, pay particular attention to page 59 – 62 in your booklet onFamilies and Households – provides a very good summary. See Moodle to test yourself onsome of the key statistics.CONJUGAL ROLESHousehold Chores – (showing equality)Study Concepts / facts / argumentsAnne Oakley (to a degree) (1975) Found greater equality in domestic chores among the middle classesWillmott and Young (1975) ‘Symmetrical family’British Social Attitudes Surveys Some evidence of equality – me doing more than beforeShowing inequality –
  8. 8. Study Concepts / facts / argumentsAlan Warde and Kevin Hetherington (1999) Sex typing of tasks remains strongBonke (1999) Children made a small contribution to domestic labour, peaking with 2 ½ hours a week.Speakman and Marchington (1999) Some men used ‘learned helplessness’ when trying to avoid domestic tasks.Equal Opportunities Commission ‘Chores gap’ is worsening.Important points of juxtaposition – Oakley’s study is somewhat dated. She also used asmall, unrepresentative sample. Young and Willmott’s study challenged because they madebig assumptions about what was meant by ‘equality’.One could also argue what about children who do domestic chores – none of the studiesreally look into this. With regard to Speakman and Marchington, how do you investigate‘learned helplessness’?The big problem with researching domestic chores is that you can’t study first hand what ishappening and so are reliant on diaries, questionnaires etc – open to getting invalid results.Finance – (showing equality)Study Concepts / facts / argumentsVogler Pooling of income (sharing) of income more common among couples where both worked full time.Pahl (1993) Some trend towards equalityShowing inequalityStudy Concepts / facts / argumentsPahl (1993) In most cases, men had more power. Men also spent more on themselvesAllan and Crowe (2001) Many women gain satisfaction from their self sacrifice.Charles (1990) Found women often put their partners and
  9. 9. children’s preferences first.Vogler Men still made all the important financial decisions.Important points of juxtaposition – To what extent can such patterns be changed? Womenmay naturally want to spend on their children / partners.Furthermore, many of these studies are outdated and more contemporary evidence showsa trend towards equality.Such studies also ignore how financial decisions may be affected by changing economiccircumstances. One student also made the comment that by men making the importantfinancial decisions that may help women not hinder them.Finally, there is the problem of accessibility in investigating financial spending – it’s a veryprivate matter.ChildcareShowing equality;Study Concepts / arguments / factsJonathan Gershuny Found women and men spend 4 times longer on childcare than they used to.Showing inequality;Study Concepts / arguments / factsGershuny (again!) Women spend 4 times longer on childcare than they used to – hardly evidence of equality! (Not Gershuny’s argument though!)Boulton (1983) Men often helped but never took primary responsibility for childcare.Elsi Ferri and Kate Smith (1996) Little evidence of more equal sharing – women’s employment seems to have had little impact on the sharing of tasks.Tunaley at al (1999) Grandparents getting more involved as more mothers working late.
  10. 10. Equal Opportunities Commission (Now Mothers spend 12% more time looking afterEquality and Human Rights Commission) their children than fathers do.Kilkey (2005) There is a ‘time famine’ with men.Important points of juxtaposition – Among some couples the notion of increased paternalinvolvement may cause tensions between mothers and fathers. In some cases, it’s becausewomen feel more protective of the traditional maternal role, which they do not want toconcede to fathers. This is juxt to those studies that suggest their needs to be moreequality.Many of the studies (e.g. Gershuny’s) use diary entries to record who does what withchildcare – such diary entries can be invalid because women may underestimate the timethat they spend on childcare and men may overestimate.Furthermore, the notion of ‘childcare’ is open to interpretation.Decision makingShowing equality;Study Concepts / arguments / factsAbbey National (2002) Found that couples quite happily share big decisions.Showing inequalityStudy Concepts / arguments / factsEdgell (1980) Gendered approach to decision making evident.Hardhill (1997) In 2/3rds of all cases the dual income couples she studied, the male’s career took precedence.Juxtaposition to the studies – Edgell’s study over 20 years old and very small andunrepresentative (only 38 middle class couples studied).Davis argues that non decision making should be examined (which is what all studies fail toexamine).
  11. 11. Decision making is very subjective too.Effects of work outside the homeShowing equalityStudy Concepts / facts / argumentsMartin and Roberts (1984) Found that men are more likely to be involved in housework and childcare if the wife works full time.Jonathan Gershuny (1992) Lagged adaptation – men are catching up with the housework when women stay in full time work.Crompton (1997) Believes that men are doing more because of women’s increased earning power and pressure rather than changing values.Man Yee Kan (2001) If both partners had university degrees there was more equality.Ramos (2003) Where the man was unemployed and his partner worked full time there was equality in domestic labour.Showing inequalityMartin and Roberts (1984) Still, 54% of full time and 77% of part time women still did all or most of the housework.Lydia Morris (1990) Even where the woman works and the husband doesn’t men still did little housework as their masculinity has been threatened.Gershuny (1992) Note the use of the term lagged adaptation – it’s very gradual!Juliet Schor (1993) Middle class women are relying on working class women to do cleaning etc rather than making use of their man!Sullivan (1996) Men spend more time in paid work and more time socialising, sleeping etc but
  12. 12. women spend more of their time on housework and childcare.Juxtaposition of the studies – One could argue that we should look at total workload andnot just work done in the home or outside the home. America’s National Bureau ofEconomic Research (2007) did this and found that there is equality with the total workloaddone by men and women.Note, again, how many of the studies are dated and may just provide a snapshot of any onepoint in time.Emotion work and violenceShowing equalityStudy Concepts / facts / arguments Modern man / new man / millennium man!Showing inequalityStudy Concepts / facts / argumentsDuncombe and Marsden ‘Triple shift’ – housework, paid work and emotion workDobash and Dobash Interviewed 118 battered women in a women’s refuge and found that domestic violence begins early in relationships. For further information see domestic violence section.Juxtaposition to the studies – Researching emotion work and domestic violence is verydifficult because of problems of accessibility and ethical issues. The other problem ofresearching domestic violence is that one relies on memory – memory is not the mostreliable of things!With regards to Dobash and Dobash’s study, what about male victims of domestic violence?Some really important points of evaluation to remember regarding revising conjugalroles–
  13. 13. Remember that interactionists would argue that we cannot generalise about patternswithin the family (so a good source of juxtaposition to use)While Functionalists and the New Right talk of the naturalistic fallacy (i.e. such roles arenatural) – this really challenges those studies that highlight the importance of achievingequality.Note that looking at inequalities in conjugal roles is the forte of feminism – though do bearin mind that feminism is a combination of various types and so it’s argument is hardly clear.Finally, remember the argument that ‘equality’ is inherently difficult to measure (i.e. it’sdifficult to operationalise). ‘Equality’ itself is somewhat of a moving goal.Finally, really really important advice from the Examiner – don’t just criticise the studiesfor being dated – good students will criticise how one did their research. Page 19 andpage 20 in the Families and Households book (part 2) will help you a lot with this.THE NEW MANStudies Concepts / facts / argumentsYoung and Willmott ‘Symmetrical family’Thompson (2005) Found that 8/10 dads said that they’d be happy to be at home to care for their child and invest more time in them.Gray (2006) Found that dads spent more quality time with their kids and that this was done out of choice.Hannah Betts Must not generalise with masculinity and see them as a similar (homogeneous) group – many types of masculinity – including poster boys, supergeeks, toxic batchelors and poster boys!When revising the new man, consider, a) what would each theory say and b) how does itaffect 1) conjugal roles and 2) Childhood?THE DARK SIDE OF THE FAMILY
  14. 14. Studies Concepts / facts / argumentsDobash and Dobash (1979) Concluded that only 2% of assaults in the U.K are reported to the police. Found that women experience at least 2 attacks a week. Also discovered that for 70% of the women interviewed arguments with their husbands nearly always ended in an attack.Hammer and Saunders & Radford (1987) Found that women’s behaviour is very much restricted by fear of men.Pahl (1985) 62% of women suffered violence for 3 or more years.Wilkinson (1996) Suggests that domestic violence is the result of stress on family members caused by povertyAbbott and Wallace Believe that the main trigger for domestic violence is the perception that the woman is failing in her duties.Millett and Firestone (both Radical Believe that men dominate women throughFeminists) violence or the threat of it.Faith Robertson Elliot Reminds us that not all men are aggressive.Cheal (1991) Reminds us that domestic violence remains hidden because we tend to uphold the nuclear family view of family life.Critical Psychiatry –Studies Concepts / facts / argumentsLeach ‘Runaway world’, ‘emotional overload’,Laing Family more capable of causing schizophrenia than it is in socialising children.Cooper ‘ideological conditioning device’, ‘break and mould’, ‘chronic murder of the self’.
  15. 15. When looking at the dark side of the family consider; a) what impact it has on conjugal roles,b) childhood.CHILD ABUSEStudies Concepts / facts / argumentsRusssell Says that child abuse cases have quadrupled between 1900 to 1970.Gittins Says that as most abusers are men we should create male free environments.Elliot Argues that child abuse is used by the middle class to control working class families.Consider, when revising the dark side of the family, what the different theories would say.It’s also important to consider a) the key facts b) the problems of researching the dark sideof the family.CHILDHOODThe history of childhoodStudy Concepts / facts / argumentsPhilipe Aries Childhood is a ‘social construct’. Industrialisation changed childhood.Cunningham (2006) Saw the c19th view of childhood as promoting the welfare view of the child.Pollack Argues childhood always existed (juxt to Aries)Remember the problems of using diaries and photos / pictures when researchingchildhood?Childhood and the stateStudy Concepts / facts / argumentsWendy Stainton Rogers Identifies 2 images of childhood in modern western society – either innocent and
  16. 16. needing protection or wicked and sinful and needing punishment.The overly positive view of childhoodStudies Concepts / facts / argumentsAries and Shorter Argue that today children are more valued, better prepared for and educated, enjoy better health care and have more rights than before.Talcott Parsons and George Peter Murdock ‘March of progress’Opie and Opie Children still have their own unique, independent cultureThe conventional approach to childhood (believe that childhood is special and needs to beprotected but is under threat)Studies Concepts / facts / argumentsNorbert Elias The increasing privatisation of the family may be putting more pressure on the child.Postman (1994) Childhood under threat because of TV! (playing the role of a surrogate parent!)Melanie Philips (1997) Innocence of childhood has been undermined by two trends – too many rights given to children, 2) Media and peer groups.Sue Palmer (2007) Toxic Childhood – technology corrupting childhood – making children more impulsive and self obsessed.Pugh (2002) ‘consumption as compensation’ – children are cash rich but time poor.Key theory to the above – the New Right (although they would see privatisation of thefamily as a good thing).
  17. 17. The alternative approach to childhood (believes that the above see children as passiveand unaware if what’s happening to them when in fact children are very self aware. Thisapproach also argues that we must not generalise with childhood).Studies Concepts / facts / argumentsMorrow Found children are very self aware.Townsend et al (2003) 1/3rd of children globally suffer from absolute poverty. 375m use unsafe water resources.Jefferies et al (2002) Found that children who had experienced poverty had significantly fallen behind children from middle class backgrounds in terms of maths and reading by age 7.Caroline Woodruffe (1993) Children of unskilled manual workers are over 3 times more likely to suffer from hyperactivity and 4 times more likely to experience conduct disorders.Howard (2001) Found that children born to poor families were more likely to die in infancy, be ill more frequently, be shorter, fall behind in school and more likely to be put on the child protection register.NOTE – THE THEORY OF LIBERTARIANISM – It is good that children grow up and that theyare exposed to the adult world!NOTE TOO MARXISTS AND FEMINISTS agree with the above theory but for different reasons(Marxism – so that children see how unfair society is, feminism – so that children seebeyond patriarchy).Important study when evaluating;Study Concepts / facts / argumentsNick Lee Childhood, like adulthood, is becoming more unstable and uncertain but this does not mean childhood is dying; just adapting.FAMILY POLICY
  18. 18. Important – do note that this is largely New Labour v New Right but when revising this subtopic, consider; a) What the sociological theories say about family policy, b) What links New Right and New Labour policies have on a) conjugal roles, b) childhood. c) I’d also give attention to the new coalitions policies on the family. ____________________________________________________________