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  1. 1. Quiz <br />How does the ‘march in progress’ view childhood?<br />Improving, more child centred, <br />2. Give 3 examples of how children are valued and cared for in society<br />Better healthcare, higher standards of living, protected by laws, compulsory education, children’s rights!<br />
  2. 2. Quiz <br />3. How do conflict theorists view childhood?<br />Childhood is based on inequality, childhood not improving, children are oppressed by adults- conflict!<br />Outline 2 ways that inequalities can occur among children<br />Gender differences, ethnic differences, class!<br />
  3. 3. Quiz <br />5. Outline three ways that adults can oppress children<br />Neglect and abuse, children’s space, time, body and access to resources<br />
  4. 4. Childhood in different cultures<br />
  5. 5. Childhood differs between countries, especially between the Western world and developing countries. <br />
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  7. 7. Cross-cultural differences in childhood<br />Benedict (1934) suggests that children in developing countries are treated differently to modern westernised society in 3 ways..<br />Take responsibility at a young age- in Bolivia , children of 5 yrs old take responsibilities in the home and in community. <br />Less value is placed on children showing obedience to adult authority <br />Children’s sexual behaviour is often viewed differently- in South West Pacific adults took an attitude of tolerance to children’s sexual activity!<br />
  8. 8. In many ways children in developing countries are experiencing the same type of childhood as children in the UK did in the past- they are working on the land or in factories. <br />In many countries they are not protected by labour laws and experience long hours, low pay and exploitation as well as child poverty. <br />
  9. 9. Child poverty in the developing world<br />KEY STUDY: Townsend et al. 2003: data from 46 developing countries<br /><ul><li>Over one- third of the worlds children suffer from absolute poverty.
  10. 10. Over one- third of all children in the world have to live in a dwelling with more than five people per room or which have mud flooring
  11. 11. 134 million children aged between 7 – 18 have never been to school
  12. 12. Over 375 million children are using unsafe water sources or have more than a 15 minute walk to water</li></li></ul><li>Infectious Diseases<br />Children in the developing world are far more at risk of infectious diseases such as typhoid and malaria due to lack of clean water, waste disposal and lack of medical techniques such as immunisation. <br />In some countries one in five children die before their 5th birthday.<br />Everyday 3000 people die in the world of malaria, 3 out of 4 are children<br />In the time you read this sentence another child has died from infectious disease <br />
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  14. 14. CASE STUDY<br />RIO DE JANEIRO- BRAZIL.<br />
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  16. 16. Rio- the reality…………<br /><ul><li> 95% of the Brazil’s wealth is owned by 5% of the population
  17. 17. One third of Brazil’s population are under 14 years old
  18. 18. 25 million children are deprived and living in desperate poverty
  19. 19. 8 million children are abandoned, needy and walk the streets
  20. 20. 35 % of these die on the streets before the age of 18</li></li></ul><li>The street children………….<br /><ul><li> They are being killed
  21. 21. They are also destroying themselves with drugs and alcohol
  22. 22. Many of them turn to stealing and joining street gangs
  23. 23. Their childhood is being stolen</li></li></ul><li><br />
  24. 24. Child Soldiers<br />Worldwide, more than half a million children under 18 have been recruited as child soldiers. <br />It is probably impossible for children for the rich West to imagine the sights they witness and the physical and psychological damage it does to them. <br />
  25. 25. CASE STUDY:<br />SIERRA LEONE<br />
  26. 26. Civil War:<br />1991- 2001<br />Primary objective was for control over Sierra Leone’s diamond industry<br />Key feature of this war was the recruitment of child soldiers<br />
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  28. 28.<br />7 mins<br />Watch this.....<br /><br />