Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Shared Resource


Published on

Published in: News & Politics, Business Shared Resource

  1. 1. 3987800-274320-533400-257175<br />SOCIOLOGY UNIT 2<br />PAST PAPER SAMPLE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS<br />Mass MEDIA<br />CRIME & Deviance<br />POWER<br />125730097155<br />Mass Media QUestions<br />5 mark questions<br />Describe one way in which the mass media might influence the outcome of a general election and explain why this might be a problem in a democracy.<br />Mark 1 – The media, especially the news may talk positively or negatively about 1 political party<br />Mark 2 – This may change public opinion on the parties<br />Mark 3 – This will effect how people vote<br />Mark 4 – This could mean the media supports the party which in turn offers them support<br />Mark 5 – Or the political party in charge of the country could make use of the media to make sure they stayed in power for ever<br />Describe one way in which the internet could be used by interest groups in a democracy and explain why it might empower those who are able to use it.<br />Mark 1 – An interest group could set up a website to publicise a cause which they cared about<br />Mark 2 – This would increase awareness of the problem<br />Mark 3 – More people may join the pressure group showing that more people cared about it<br />Mark 4 – This would mean any action they carried out like marches or protests would include more people<br />Mark 5 – This would make the government more likely to listen to the pressure group and its members<br />Describe one way in which recent governments have attempted to regulate the mass media and explain how successful the policy has been<br />Mark 1 – The government has created ofcom which is supposed to make sure that TV follows certain guidelines<br />Mark 2 – One of these is that TV should not be offensive to viewers<br />Mark 3 – One success of this is that violent, and sexual images have to be limited and only shown after 9pm<br />Mark 4 – This means viewers, especially youngsters will be less exposed to such things<br />Mark 5 – However with the development of the internet and computer games many people are frequently able to view violent and sexual imagery even if they don’t want to<br />Describe one way in which the mass media may present stereotyped images of some ethnic groups and explain why this stereotyping can be seen as a problem<br />Mark 1 – The news, particularly tabloid newspapers, may exaggerate the activities of certain ethnic minorities<br />Mark 2 – For example suggesting that many Muslims are terrorists<br />Mark 3 – This may then mean that people label all Muslims as terrorists<br />Mark 4 – They may then be prejudice towards them and discriminate against all Muslims because of what they have seen or read in the news<br />Mark 5 – Many innocent Muslims may then become victim and it may lead to further conflict and violence<br />Describe one way in which the mass media may contribute to the process of gender socialisation and explain why the media’s role in this process can be criticised.<br />Mark 1 – Media, especially advertising, may present very stereotypical views of men and women<br />Mark 2 – E.g. In a washing powder advert it will always be a woman doing the washing<br />Mark 3 – This can be criticized because this may encourage women to think that they should grow up to be good housewives<br />Mark 4 – Men may also grow up expecting women to do their washing for them because of what they have seen<br />Mark 5 – This will create expectations in boys and girls which are unrealistic<br />12 mark questions<br />Remember <br />Marxists think that the media is a bad thing and is controlled by a few very rich people. They use it to keep control and make people accept what they say is right. They also use the power of the media to make sure that governments are helpful towards them. They support the government as well sometimes because the government supports them<br />Pluralists think that the media is a good thing and that many people have an influence on what is shown in the media. They think it helps educate people and teach them about political issues. They also think that modern developments in technology have given the general public more power.<br />Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the mass media is a more powerful agent of socialisation than the education system.<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeThe media is all around us and socializes us our whole lifeShows us desirable and undesirable behavior in news and fictional tv programmesMany positive and negative role models are shownMedia is more exciting and interesting than school so gets people’s attention betterSocialises us with wider society – not just the school systemThere is a link between the amount of violence in the media and in real lifeThe education system socializes us from a very early agePeople may choose not to watch TV or read newsAt school we are socialized by teachers and by peersHidden curriculum helps socialize us</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the image of women presented by the mass media tends to be stereotypical rather than realistic.<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeSexist adverts, tabloid newspapersWomen presented as housewives or sex objects in the mediaMost women in the media are pretty. The images are unrealisticMen are more dominant in the media and presented better because most media companies are owned by menIf people thought the images of women were unrealistic they wouldn’t buy or watch the media products – but they doNot all women are presented in a stereotypical way. There are many strong independent women in soaps and dramas</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that our fear of crime is amplified by the mass media<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeThe media creates moral panics.It exaggerates problems to help sell papers or attract viewers. It needs these to get more money from advertisersThere are many examples of moral panics. E.g. hoodies, knife crime, terrorism, drugs, binge drinkingIf it weren’t for the media we wouldn’t know about many instances of crimeThe media simply reports what happensIt also tries to make us realize how bad and unacceptable certain behaviour isPeople know that the media exaggerate things and don’t believe everything they see in the newsThe media also normally shows the consequences for those who commit crimes. It reassures us that criminals are always punished</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the mass media can influence the outcome of a general election<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeMany newspapers are owned by people who want a particular party to win an electionPolitical parties have “spin doctors”. People who are employed to make sure the party looks good in the mediaMedia can have a big influence on public opinion. They could easily influence what people think about a political issueParties use party political broadcasts on the TV to influence how people voteFor many people the only way they can find out anything about politics and the election is through the mediaAny public service broadcaster (BBC1,2 and Channel 4) have to be unbiased and show due impartiality (They cant take sides on political debates)Many people will always vote for the same party no matter what the media says about themDifferent newspapers may put forward different views and cancel each other out</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the press owners in Britain control the content of newspapers<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeDifferent papers clearly have different political views which always match the views of their ownersIf a writer tries to write something which the owner disagrees with, the writer might get the sackThe content of newspapers is restricted by rules and regulations from the governmentThe owners don’t have time to get involved in the day to day running of the newspaperThe owners have to make sure their newspapers include what people want to readThey also have to make sure that the stories and writing in the newspaper matches up with what the advertisers want to see in the papers they advertise in</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that exposure to violence in the media can encourage violence in everyday life<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeThere is more violence in the media than there used to be and there is also more violence in real life. The violence in the media may have caused thisBandura proved that seeing violent video would cause children to be more likely to be violentThere are many real life examples of “copycat” violence. Where people are inspired to do violent things by what they have seen e.g. killers of Jamie BulgerHypodermic syringe theory – Says that the media has a strong and direct impact on how we behaveThe media includes more violence nowadays because there is more violence in the real world. Not the other way roundPeople see the negative effects of violence and this should put them offPeople are not just brainwashed by the media – They can watch it and make up their own minds about how to behaveSeeing violent media or playing violent games may be cathartic (a way of releasing aggression in a non-harmful way) and so actually reduce violence in real lifePeople are not stupid – They know that the violence is not real most of the time and is just a TV programme/film. They know that is not how to behave in real lifeBanduras experiment was not a real life situation – People may not actually behave like that in real life</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that technological developments such as the internet help to spread power more widely among individuals and groups in modern Britain.<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeThe internet lets people contribute to the media themselves, not just watch it. They can be producers as well as consumersPressure groups and campaigns can make use of the internet to help publicise or organize a campaign or raise awareness of an issueSites like youtube and blogging sites can be usedNot everyone actually has access to the internet. Poorer people may not gain power from itBig companies are taking over sites like facebook, youtube, ebay etc.People don’t actually use the internet for campaigns much, most of the time they just go shopping on it or use it for social networking.People may have a bit more power but the media owners still have a lot of influenceDevelopments have just helped the media to create new products like online newspapers and digital TV</li></ul>Crime<br />5 mark questions<br />Describe the way in which a victim survey is carried out and explain why it might show more accurately than police statistics the number of crimes actually committed.<br />Mark 1 – A victim survey is an anonymous questionnaire<br />Mark 2 – It asks people to say what crimes they have been a victim of in the last year<br />Mark 3 – It may be more accurate than police statistics because people may be willing to mention something anonymously that they weren’t willing to do with the police<br />Mark 4 – This could be because they might be scared of what will happen if they tell the police<br />Mark 5 – Also the police might not always record the crime that is reported so it wont be counted but on a victim survey it will<br />Describe one kind of problem behaviour believed to be associated with teenagers in recent years and explain why members of the public have considered it a problem.<br />Mark 1 –Knife crime has been associated with teenagers in recent years<br />Mark 2 – This is because of some high profile stabbings involving teenagers or teenage gangs<br />Mark 3 – People are concerned about this because they think if teenagers are commiting these crimes now what will they be doing in the future when they grow up<br />Mark 4 – But some people might say that people are only concerned because the media are exaggerating the problem and creating a moral panic<br />Mark 5 – and that by doing so they are making folk devils of young people to blame them for all of societies problems.<br />Describe one way in which recent governments have attempted to reduce the level of crime in society and explain how successful the policy has been<br />Mark 1 – One way of reducing crime has been the use of CCTV cameras<br />Mark 2 – This stops crime because people know they are being watched so will be scared of getting caught<br />Mark 3 – Also the CCTV footage can and has been used in many cases to catch a criminal<br />Mark 4 – Some people say though that there is still just as much crime but now people just do it where they know there is no CCTV<br />Mark 5 – Others say that CCTV is very expensive and they should use the money to employ more police officers instead<br />Describe one agency of informal social control and explain how it can influence people’s behaviour<br />Mark 1 – The media is an example of an agency of informal social control<br />Mark 2 – The media shows us images of people who are famous and liked <br />Mark 3 – And this teaches people that if they behave like these celebrities that they too will be liked<br />Mark 4 – Also it shows on the news examples of people who have broken rules or laws and what happens to those people<br />Mark 5 – This teaches people not to break those rules as they know what will happen to them if they do the same<br />Describe one way in which informal rules may operate within a social group and explain why the group’s members may conform to these rules<br />Mark 1 – A social group may have many informal rules or norms which its members must follow<br />Mark 2 – If someone does not follow them then the other people may say or do negative things towards them like laugh or make fun of them<br />Mark 3 – This would make the person realize that they had broken the rule and would try to put things straight and not break the rules again<br />Mark 4 – People will not want these negative reactions, especially if it is from their friends<br />Mark 5 – People may also just want to feel that they are part of a group and will do what they can to make sure they stay in the group<br />12 mark questions<br />Discuss how far sociologists would agree that teenage criminal and deviant behaviour results from parents failing to socialise their children correctly.<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeParents should be the main way children learn right from wrong. If children don’t learn this the parents must be to blameFunctionalists say the main job of the family is to socialize children, if this doesn’t happen children wont know norms and valuesMany anti-social or criminal adults then have children who are the same, non-criminal parents have non-criminal childrenParents are a big role modern for most children. Children learn the norms and values from their parents whether they are good or bad.Children don’t commit as much crime as it seems. Most of it is exaggerated by the mediaInteractionists say - Children get labeled by the media and police. This creates a self fulfilling prophecy which is why youngsters commit crimeYoung people commit crime because of status frustration. They don’t have any power or influence in society and think that by committing crimes they can get some sort of sense of powerThey may be badly influenced by peer groupViolent images in the media influence children to behave violently</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that working class males are more likely to commit crimes than other sections of society.<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeStatistics show men commit more crimes than womenFeminists say this is because men have more opportunities to commit crimes than women (women have to stay in and look after kids)It may be because men are more violent and aggressive than womenIt may be because men are often the main breadwinners and feel pressure to provide for the family. As a result they often turn to crimeStatistics show that working class people commit more crimes than other social classesThis is because they are poorer and sometimes need to commit crimes to surviveRelative deprivation is when people feel poorer than others around them. This leads some people to commit crimes because they are jealous of people who are better offStatistics are innacurate – Women commit crimes but get away with them more often because of the chivalry factorWomen get away with crimes because they commit crimes which are non-violent and they are more likely to get away with e.g fraudStatistics are innacurate because many middle class people commit white collar crime but get away with it.Companies aren’t bothered about reporting white collar crime because it may give them negative publicityMarxists say that rich company owners commit corporate crime but get away with it because they can afford good lawyers.Governments are more bothered about dealing with individual crimes</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that an act some people would see as deviant might not be seen as deviant by other people<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeYour idea of deviance depends how you have been brought upDifferent countries have different lawsWhat is considered deviant changes depending on who commits the act, where they are, who they are withIn a country the laws and ideas of what are right and wrong change over time e.g. smoking in publicMost people have the same ideas of deviance. That is where laws come from.We can only have norms and laws if most people agree with them</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that official statistics of police recorded crime exaggerate crime levels among young people<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeYoung people are negatively labeled by the police who target them. It seems they commit more crimes than they actually doYoung people do commit more crimes than other groups. This is because of peer pressure from their friends which older people don’t give in toThey are more likely to commit crimes because they are more likely to be involved in a subculture (a group in society with different norms and values from most people)</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that official statistics of police recorded crime exaggerate crime levels among some ethnic groups<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeThe police have being accused of being “institutionally racist”The criminal justice system (police, judges, lawyers etc.) are mostly white people and may discriminate against ethnic minoritiesPolice may label black people in particular as being troublemakers, criminals, and violent and aggressiveEthnic minorities are more likely to be criminal because of unemployment and deprivationThere are a disproportionately large number of black people in prison</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that deprivation is the main cause of most crime in modern Britain<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeDeprivation means some people may need to commit crime just to surviveRelative deprivation means some people feel much poorer than those around them so commit crime because of jealousy of othersWorking class people commit more crimes than other social classes, this is probably because they are more likely to be deprived and in need of extra money.Different crimes take place because of different reasonsCorporate crime and some white collar crime happen because people are greedyMany people commit crimes because they are greedy. Marxists say this is because we live in a consumer society where people are obsessed with how much they earn and ownSome crime could be because of status frustration, peer pressure, poor socialization, </li></ul>Power<br />5 mark questions<br />Describe one way in which the relationship between parents and their children has changed during the last 50 years and explain why that relationship has become more democratic.<br />Mark 1 – Nowadays children have more rights and more protection than they used to<br />Mark 2 – This means that parents treat children better and listen to their views and ideas<br />Mark 3 – In a family this might mean that children get a say in how certain things get done in the house<br />Mark 4 – Also in the media children are being targeted as consumers who will then pester parents to buy them specific games or toys<br />Mark 5 – These changes mean that children have more power and so the family is more democratic<br />Describe one way in which young people and the police interact and explain why this interaction may be difficult.<br />Mark 1 – The police may need to interact with young people when they are in a large group out and about in a village or town<br />Mark 2 – The police may need to talk to the group but might have a negative stereotype of the youngsters<br />Mark 3 – They may label the youngsters and expect them to behave badly and be confrontational<br />Mark 4 – The young people may also feel they are been victimized by the police<br />Mark 5 – They may then react and cause trouble because they think the police are being unfair<br />Describe one way in which the police may exercise power over members of the public and explain the basis of their power.<br />Mark 1 – The police can exercise power because they are able to stop people from committing illegal acts<br />Mark 2 – Their power comes from legal rational authority<br />Mark 3 – This is given to them because of their job as the law gives them the right to do this<br />Mark 4 – But most criminals will not want to be arrested so the police will have to use force<br />Mark 5 – This means some of their power comes from coercion by threatening to punish the criminal more severely if they resist arrest<br />Describe one way in which participation in the political process in Britain has declined over the last 50 years and explain why this could be seen as a problem<br />Mark 1 – Nowadays less people vote than they used to, especially young people<br />Mark 2 – This is firstly a problem because if a certain group of people don’t vote then no one is likely to stick up for their point of view<br />Mark 3 – Also if not many people vote then the results of an election may not really represent what the people of that country want<br />Mark 4 – This may then mean that the government makes decisions that don’t really reflect what the general public wants<br />Mark 5 – This may lead to problems like protests and violence because people think the government don’t represent the people of the country<br />Describe one way in which parents may exercise authority over their children and explain the basis of their authority<br />Mark 1 – Parents may exercise authority by setting rules for children to follow<br />Mark 2 – Children will know that if they don’t follow them then they will be punished<br />Mark 3 – Parents are able to do this because of legal rational authority<br />Mark 4 – This means that parents have a legal responsibility and are allowed to treat their own children like this<br />Mark 5 – Also some children will follow their parents rules because even though they don’t like them they know that they are for the best<br />Describe one factor that could increase the chances of pressure group activity being successful and explain how this factor could increase a pressure group’s chances of success<br />Mark 1 – One factor is whether or not the group is an insider or an outsider group<br />Mark 2 – An insider group is much more likely to be successful<br />Mark 3 – This is because they are listened to and respected by people including MPs<br />Mark 4 – They are also more likely to be able to get in touch with MPs and other influential people<br />Mark 5 – Their forms of action are normally also legal so will be more acceptable to the government and the general public<br />12 mark questions<br />Discuss how far sociologists would agree that social class remains the most powerful influence on the voting behaviour and political beliefs of a British citizen.<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeWorking class vote for Labour and middle and upper class vote for conservativesLabour traditionally tax rich people a lot and help people out with many benefits and free healthcare and educationConservatives don’t tax the rich much and think the rich should be allowed to pay for better education and healthcareWorking class people are much less likely to vote than richer people, probably because they aren’t as well educated and don’t think they have as much to gain from votingMany ethnic minorities vote labour because they are working class not because of their ethnicity.Labour and conservatives aren’t as different as they used to be (No longer very left and right wing. Both near the “Third way” somewhere near the middle)People may vote for parties because of other reasons. eg. Environment or EuropeGender may influence who people vote for. Women are more likely to vote conservative because it is traditionally seen as the party of the family.Men vote Labour because they stick up for workers’ rights, many women in the past weren’t interested in workers’ rightsEthnicity may influence who people vote for. Labour are seen as more friendly towards ethnic minorities, conservatives had some strong anti-immigration policies in the past.</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that pressure groups and political parties<br />help to spread power evenly throughout British society.<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreePluralists say that because many groups compete for power it helps a healthy balance between them allPressure groups help inform the government of what people want and care about in between election campaignsElections take place every five years. Parties and politicians need to make sure they are doing what the general public wantsDifferent parties have different views and help protect and stick up for different groups of people in societyThe party in power will always represent the views of one group of people more than another e.g. conservatives – rich people, Labour- poor peopleMarxists say that a few powerful and wealthy people have most of the power in societyRich companies can put pressure on governments because they give them lots of money in taxes. If the government don’t help the companies they will move to another country and the government will miss out on taxesPressure groups and campaigns are often ignored by the government. People don’t really have an influence on decisions e.g. student fees marchAll politicians are from the same background and stick up for the same people (white, middle class, male)</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that relationships between employers and employees have changed since the 1960s<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeMore machines involved in work so less people are needed, this gives the employers more powerGlobal companies can employ people abroad instead of UK, this gives employers more powerLess people are members of trade unions nowadaysPeople aren’t interested in being in trade unions because they have good working conditionsEmployers still need their workers and have to respect their rights and wishesThe government has introduced many laws to make sure that workers don’t lose power and influence</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that all individuals and groups have opportunities to participate fully in the political process in Britain today.<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeEveryone over 18 can vote, join a political party, write to an MP, protest, campaign, join a trade union, boycott something etc.The internet has made it easier for all people to join a pressure group, or join campaignsLess educated people may not understand the political arguments that are being explained to themOlder people may not be physically able to go and vote or be involved in political activityIt is much more difficult for certain groups (working class, ethnic minorities) to join political partiesMost MPs are white, middle class men</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that British governments have been successful in reducing discrimination based on age, gender and ethnicity over the last 30 years<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeGender equality act – Men and women now must get paid the same for doing the same job, in the past men often got paid more.Government pay maternity pay to pregnant/new mothers so that they can keep their jobs. Employers can’t discriminate against someone because they are pregnantAnti racism laws – More harsher punishments for people being racist, there is now much less discrimination based on race. Institutional racism in the police force has been tackledEmployers cannot make someone redundant because of their ageMen still earn much more than women and often have more powerful jobs, even though girls now get better exam results at schoolThere is still a lot of racism and racist groups in societyMany old people earn less than younger peopleMany old people struggle to get work because companies would rather employ younger people</li></ul>Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the welfare state has been successful in significantly reducing poverty in Britain over the last 50 years<br /><ul><li>AgreeDisagreeThere are far less people in absolute poverty. Benefits stop many people from ending up homeless or starving.Many slums and bad houses have been knocked down and many new council houses have been built for poor familiesJob seekers allowance provides a help for those who lose their jobsThere is much less unemployment than there used to beNowadays the government provides free education and healthcare but in the past only rich people could afford to pay for these things.Means tested benefits ensure that those who need the benefits most receive the most.There are still many people who are homeless or in homeless sheltersMany people live on benefits their whole life and end up in a poverty trap (They earn more from benefits than they would from a job so stay on benefits for ever)Many council houses estates have become rough slums