Explanations of Crime and Deviance THE NEW RIGHT
Origins  <ul><li>Roots can be found in traditional Functionalist ideas about value consensus, community, solidarity, confo...
Early 1980s Britain <ul><li>High youth unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing drug problem in urban areas </li></ul><ul...
The ‘Conservative’ solution <ul><li>Reduce ‘dependency culture’ </li></ul><ul><li>Promote community – obligation & respons...
Key ideas of the New Right People ‘weigh up’ the pros/cons of their actions. Man is rational and therefore does not need m...
People need to feel secure and not be disturbed by others. Individual freedom needs to be enhanced in the context of commu...
James Q Wilson – ‘Broken Windows’ <ul><li>Major influence on policing in New York in the 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>He argue...
<ul><li>The state cannot tackle the so-called ‘causes’ of crime – but they must ensure that the costs/benefits of crime ar...
Cost-benefit analysis <ul><li>Wilson believes that the key to reducing  </li></ul><ul><li>crime is in : </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Role of the Police (Wilson & Kelling) <ul><li>Public Service   </li></ul><ul><li>traffic control/helping old ladies et...
2.  Order Maintenance & Law  Enforcement   <ul><li>Disorder ruins a community – breeds fear and distrust.  </li></ul><ul><...
Van  Den Haag – ‘sour grapes’ <ul><li>Capitalism = risk taking and competition </li></ul><ul><li>These are good for societ...
<ul><li>Law should be CO-ERCIVE against the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Law breaking is inevitable under capitalism because of...
Milton Friedman/Hayek <ul><li>Focused on economics of ‘welfare’ </li></ul><ul><li>People do not respect law….this is to en...
criticisms <ul><li>Marxists feel that the right have used this idea to justify inequality. </li></ul><ul><li>Contradiction...
The New Right & Social Policy
Key thinking… <ul><li>Individual responsibility was undermined by well-meaning left-wing policies..welfare state. </li></u...
ADMINISTRATIVE CRIMINOLOGY <ul><li>Causes of crime = multi-causal. </li></ul><ul><li>Different causes – socialisation </li...
<ul><li>New Right have focused more on……. </li></ul><ul><li>CRIME PREVENTION </li></ul>
Features of administrative criminology <ul><li>Types of policing  : </li></ul><ul><li>(a)  consensus – low profile/public ...
<ul><li>Situational prevention : </li></ul><ul><li>This involves making it more difficult for  </li></ul><ul><li>criminals...
<ul><li>Neighbourhood Watch Schemes: </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage ‘good neighbours’ – keep an eye on each other’s homes/loc...
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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. Explanations of Crime and Deviance THE NEW RIGHT
  2. 2. Origins <ul><li>Roots can be found in traditional Functionalist ideas about value consensus, community, solidarity, conformity and social order </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of other ideas such as ecological and subcultural theories are prominent here also – especially regarding communal space and cultural identity </li></ul><ul><li>The New Right gained prominence in the 1980s with the Thatcherite and Reagan governments in the UK and USA </li></ul>
  3. 3. Early 1980s Britain <ul><li>High youth unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing drug problem in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Rising levels of benefit recipients </li></ul><ul><li>Rising numbers of single parent families </li></ul><ul><li>Housing estates becoming tired and ‘run down’ </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of ‘traditional values’ and constraints of earlier generations (the rise of the ‘dishonourable working class’ = the underclass) </li></ul>
  4. 4. The ‘Conservative’ solution <ul><li>Reduce ‘dependency culture’ </li></ul><ul><li>Promote community – obligation & responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>promoting a ‘cost-benefit’ analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Increased surveillance and ‘social control’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key ideas of the New Right People ‘weigh up’ the pros/cons of their actions. Man is rational and therefore does not need much government regulation. Individual freedoms need to be strengthened. If a person ‘chooses’ to commit a crime – they have made a personal decision – the punishment should be high. Rationality People are naturally selfish and must be regulated by law. Human nature Society based on common set of values. These are ‘moral guides to action’. Laws are based on these. Those who break consensus should be punished. Consensus Details Idea
  6. 6. People need to feel secure and not be disturbed by others. Individual freedom needs to be enhanced in the context of community. The importance of social order This is a a source of ‘informal’ social control. The community needs to be strong and constrain people’s actions. Family values and community obligations are essential. Community The state must ‘contain’ crime. It is not the role of government to spend millions on welfare to help the poor and tackle the ‘conditions’ leading to crime. People should get ‘themselves’ out of poverty and not depend on others. The role of government Details Idea
  7. 7. James Q Wilson – ‘Broken Windows’ <ul><li>Major influence on policing in New York in the 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>He argued that most criminals have a low chance of being caught. Rational ‘economic’ Man will only consider punishment as a deterrent, when the chance of being caught is high . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The state cannot tackle the so-called ‘causes’ of crime – but they must ensure that the costs/benefits of crime are strengthened by increasing the chances of detection. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cost-benefit analysis <ul><li>Wilson believes that the key to reducing </li></ul><ul><li>crime is in : </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the chances of a person being caught (surveillance) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the level of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>People should not be given the crime option </li></ul><ul><li>and the incentives can be lessened. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Role of the Police (Wilson & Kelling) <ul><li>Public Service </li></ul><ul><li>traffic control/helping old ladies etc – This should be taken on by other agencies. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Order Maintenance & Law Enforcement <ul><li>Disorder ruins a community – breeds fear and distrust. </li></ul><ul><li>Good citizens move out and crime thrives = chaos/anomie. </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder weakens community bonds and informal social control. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much attention has been given to the role of the police. </li></ul><ul><li>The solution – police disorder – ‘on the beat’ – keep streets clear of gangs – reduce the ‘potential’ for crime – strengthen community </li></ul><ul><li>CRIME PREVENTION ! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Van Den Haag – ‘sour grapes’ <ul><li>Capitalism = risk taking and competition </li></ul><ul><li>These are good for society = dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>But the losers will cheat and try and take from the successful. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor are most likely to commit crime as they are most jealous and bitter about the successful. </li></ul><ul><li>The law should aim to PREVENT the poor from taking from the rich. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Law should be CO-ERCIVE against the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Law breaking is inevitable under capitalism because of ‘sour grapes’. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be reduced with society strengthening ‘moral rules’ and ‘family discipline’ </li></ul><ul><li>Social policies = punishment should fit the crime/take into account the social position of the criminal </li></ul><ul><li>The main aim of law = deterrence. High publicity. Severe penalties </li></ul>
  14. 14. Milton Friedman/Hayek <ul><li>Focused on economics of ‘welfare’ </li></ul><ul><li>People do not respect law….this is to ensure we have equality & justice..people do not respect the ‘push for equality’. </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare state taxes some responsible citizens to support others ….WRONG ….as it encourages dependency and laziness…weakens community bonds..no informal control. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution – strengthen family </li></ul>
  15. 15. criticisms <ul><li>Marxists feel that the right have used this idea to justify inequality. </li></ul><ul><li>Contradiction – the right admire greed/selfishness…..but desire community that is strong/supportive. </li></ul><ul><li>Merton – if money is a worthy goal – but not everyone can get there legitimately. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The New Right & Social Policy
  17. 17. Key thinking… <ul><li>Individual responsibility was undermined by well-meaning left-wing policies..welfare state. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to promote more individual responsibility (open economy, low taxes, privatised. </li></ul><ul><li>Need more effective policing. </li></ul><ul><li>Need a ‘war on crime’. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced ‘administrative criminology’. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ADMINISTRATIVE CRIMINOLOGY <ul><li>Causes of crime = multi-causal. </li></ul><ul><li>Different causes – socialisation </li></ul><ul><li>- peer group </li></ul><ul><li>- neighbourhood </li></ul><ul><li>…… the state cannot deal with these! </li></ul><ul><li>…… increased police numbers have no </li></ul><ul><li>effect. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>New Right have focused more on……. </li></ul><ul><li>CRIME PREVENTION </li></ul>
  20. 20. Features of administrative criminology <ul><li>Types of policing : </li></ul><ul><li>(a) consensus – low profile/public support </li></ul><ul><li>(b) military - high profile/public fear </li></ul><ul><li>Both are used… </li></ul><ul><li>High risk areas – military (inner city) </li></ul><ul><li>Low risk areas – consensus (suburbia) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Situational prevention : </li></ul><ul><li>This involves making it more difficult for </li></ul><ul><li>criminals to steal. </li></ul><ul><li>- locks </li></ul><ul><li>- alarms </li></ul><ul><li>- post codes on devices </li></ul><ul><li>- vandal proof buildings </li></ul><ul><li>- car theft prevention </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Neighbourhood Watch Schemes: </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage ‘good neighbours’ – keep an eye on each other’s homes/local area. </li></ul><ul><li>More success in middle-class areas. </li></ul>

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