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  1. 1. Year 11 SociologySocial Stratification
  2. 2.  By the end of these lessons you should: Know the difference between sex and gender Be able to explain how sociologists define gender Understand the inequalities based on gender
  3. 3. • Biological differences • If a person is considered to be male or female • Based on role in reproduction • Fixed and ascribed at birth • Usually fixed throughout your lifeDifferent social practices andexpectations that are linked tomasculinity or femininity.
  4. 4. • Does it start here? • How do we dress babies? • Do we use different language for girls and boys? • From birth we make girls and boys different. • We give them different types of names. • We dress them differently.Sociologists call this • As babies get older we give girls andprimary boys different toys and books.socialisation. • This is called socialisation and sociologists argue that it is highly gendered. • This means that girls and boys, even from a young age are prepared to do different things in society.
  5. 5. What contribution do theseagencies of secondary socialisationmake?
  6. 6. Sociologists argue that the differences between men andwomen are socially constructed – they are created by thesociety not by biology.This can change over…TimePlaceCultureComplete gender in everyday life and cross-cultural differencesin gender on page 289.Homework preparation:Bring in old magazines and newspapers for Friday.
  7. 7. Many changes have taken place over the past 40 years... This is due partly to the introduction of legislation.1970 – Equal Pay Act Men and women must be paid the same wage when doing the same work. 1975 – Sex discrimination Act This made it unlawful for men and women to be treated differently at work or school because of their sex.
  8. 8. Li (2008)Women are more likely to achievegood education, jobs and highersalaries. Holmes (2009) Society is still organised in a way that benefits men more than women. Because… Society is mainly controlled by men who have power – workplace and politics Men have a bigger share of rewards such as power and status.
  9. 9. Despite legislation there is stillinequality in the work place.
  10. 10. When men and women work in the same occupation , women aremore likely to be in the lower or middle level jobs.Men tend to be at a higher grade. The Glass Ceiling IT is argued that women are held back in their careers, the glass ceiling is like an invisible barrier to their promotion.
  11. 11. Many women are employed in low status and low paid jobs so theyearn significantly less than men.Women have worse pay than men with similar education levels andage. Li (2008)
  12. 12. Sex discrimination within the workplace.Women’s triple shift – many women bear the burden ofworking the triple shift – paid work, housework andemotional work. So women may be held back frompromotion at work. Dunscombe and Marsden (1995)Childcare provision – Britain has an inadequate andexpensive childcare system for the under 5s. This mayprevent women with young children from participating inpaid employment or staying in employment long enough toprogress their careers.
  13. 13. In pairs create a collage to show how both femininity andmasculinity are shown in the mass media.Describe one way in which the social position of women in Britainhas changed over the last 50 years and explain the consequences ofthis change. (5 marks)Explain what sociologists mean by life chances. (4 marks)Identify two barriers to social mobility that individuals might face.(2 marks)