Different evidence• Resacrilisation (linked to sects/NAMs etc)• Individuation• Rise of fundamentalism• Cultural defence
ResacrilisationTraditional religions maybe declining but otherreligions are growing.Resacrilisation is a ‘renewal or continuing vitalityof religious beliefs’ (Greeley, 1972).
ResacrilisationHeelas- People are shifting from traditional religion to a more individualistic spirituality centred on the self.- (see NAMs – self improvement)- People are blending ‘hybrids’ (postmodernity) of religions to suit their own needs.
Brierley (2005)• Sects have been rising from 2.4% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2010• Statistically that’s a healthy jump!
EvaluationGlendinning & Bruce Question Heelas’s data. Only 1 in 50 people in the Kendal area were engaged with NAMs in a typical week. Only half of that figure saw these activities as spiritual.
Wilson• Sees sects etc as ‘irrelevant’• Members are in their own little enclosed worlds• Mainly appeal to drop outs or damaged people.• These religions have very little impact on their everyday lives as religions proper would do, ie) moral guidanceBerger• Sects are ‘islands in a secular sea’
2. IndividuationDavie• Believing without belonging• Privatised worship• The rise of ‘vicarious religion’ – people experience second hand religion at baptisms etc
EvaluationVoas & Crockett• Use social trends data to show that since 1983 there has been a decline in attending and believing.Bruce• If people are not investing effort in attending then this represents a lack of commitment and a decline in strength of belief.
3. Growth of FundamentalismMany parts of the world have seen a revival of fundamentalistideas.They are committed to religious laws.AlmondRise of Fundamentalism amongst:• Jews in Israel.• Muslims in Pakistan/Palestine/Egypt/former Soviet Union• Sikhs and Hindus in India• Christians in USA• Buddhists in Sri Lanka
Roof & McKinney• New Right (USA) – conservative Protestants• High church attendance/strong morality
EvaluationBruce• Sees New Christian Right have only slowed down secularisation in USA.• These groups only appear significant because they are ‘unusual’ – they stand out in a secular world.
4. Cultural Defence & TransitionBruce• Identifies 2 trends that go against secularisation – these are linked to high levels of religiosity.• Cultural defence (religion is a focal point for the defence of identities against threats) eg) Catholicism in Poland/Islam in Iran 1979.• Cultural transition (religion provides support and sense of community) eg) immigration to new country(this can be linked to Herberg – Protestant, Catholic, Jew)
EvaluationBruce• Religion only survives in these situations because it as a focal point for IDENTITY..not spirituality.• Religion will survive where it performs this function..not because of a belief in faith (hence it does not really prove secularisation isn’t happening).
taskAssess the arguments for and against the claimthat contemporary societies are becomingmore secular (33 marks)• Use the material in this ppt to plan the case AGAINST secularisation.• How would you use it?