SCLY 4 – June 19th 20121. Functions of crime & Deviance Functionalism - manifest versus latent functions, safety valve, boundary maintenance, reassurance, causes social change – all indicate strain = Merton and possible policy Neo Marxism - scapegoating benefits capitalism Poststructuralism - surveillance Postmodernism - transgression2. Official crime Statistics Functionalists + NRR = valid and comparable and suitable for hypothesis testing Feminists – ignore dark figure of domestic violence being unreported (FRAIDS) Marxists – ignore other dark figures eg crimes of powerful Artefacts – materialism increases crime, new laws increase crime, moral panics increase crime Interpretivists – PO studies of stereotyping and differential police / court treatment; institutional racism and sexism Neo-Marxism - OCS as an ISA creating false consciousness NLR – young, male A-C’s living in urban areas really do commit more crime 3.Why do individuals commit crime? Merton - strain causes IRRR Feminist & Ma rxist criticisms of Merton New Right - rational choice theory Postmodernism - transgression4. Why do working class youth (Age) commit crime – subcultural theory A Cohen - status frustration resulting in inversion of m/c values and different types of non-utilitarian deviance Cloward & Ohlin - access to illegitimate opportunity structure resulting in different types of crime & deviance Sutherland - differential association = not jus t w/c youth but m/c white collar workers Miller – 6 focal concerns of socialised w/c hegemonic masculinity Matza – only a minority become delinquents, techniques of neutralisation prove drift not frustration and subterranean not subcultural values Murray - lone parent underclass culture of welfare dependency Young - relative deprivation & marginalisation Hall - youth as convenient scapegoats Young – role of police targeting of youth S Cohen - social construction of youth folk devils & moral panics Katz – thrill seeking, Lyng – edgework 5. Why is there a relationship between social class and crime?
Marxism - crimogenic capitalism (Gordon) & white collar and corporate crime (Croall) Marxism – ideology of consumerism / materialism forces w/c to commit crime Marxism – law is part of the ISA thus OCS are invalid...(Althusser) Functionalism - Sutherland - differential association & white collar crime Chambliss - biased law creation Cicoural - biased law enforcement Neo Marxism - Hall -w/c as scapegoats for hegemonic crisis in capitalism New Left Realism – relative deprivation (bulimic society) and political/economic / social / educational (unmeritocratic) marginalisation (exclusive society) causes subcultural responses – eg Summer 2011 riots (Young) New Right - Murray - lone parent underclass culture of welfare dependency6. Is there a relationship between region and crime – Ecological theories? Positivists: Tonnies / Durkheim – rural social control (gemeinshaft) versus lack of urban social control (geselleschaft) Shaw & McKay - social disorganisation in zone 2 Bottoms - social housing policy of dumping causing tipping Cognitive awareness zones (eg Oxford Crime Survey, & Cohen -prostitution) Hobbs et al – nightime economy of edgework (link to Oxford Crime Survey) Wilson & Kelling (broken windows) Marxists (police targeting) Realist solutions & criticisms: Victim precipitation (BCS) & Situational crime prevention (eg street lighting – Stoke on Trent study) Different types of displacement Surveillance & the panopticon (Foucault) Individualisation & victim precipitation (New Right) Victim precipitation (New Left Realism and Feminisms) Communitarianism (Etzioni, Young, Giddens)7. The relationship between ethnicity and crime Dysfunctional socialisation (family, media) – New Right Political, social, educational, economic marginalisation (racial discrimination) in an exclusive society - NLR Relative deprivation caused by racial discrimination and marginalisation – NLR Subcultural responses because of status frustration and linked to hegemonic masculinity- eg gang membership Different masculinities = different crimes (Messerschmidt) Counter hegemonic fightback – Neo Marxists Hall - Socially constructed scapegoats – Neo-Marxists Invalid OCS because of institutional racism in police, CPS, Courts and Probation –NLR v NRR (OCS are real)8. The relationships between genders and crime Statistical trends proving crime is gendered (Heidensohn) Chivalry thesis (Pollack) + criticisms
Malestream bias Women Differential socialisation Differential opportunity / social control Rational choice – class gender deal (Carlen) Feminisation of poverty Feminist liberation theory (Adler) Gender transgression theory (postmodernism ) Men Socialised hegemonic masculinity especially in youth facing status frustration (Messerschmidt & Winlow) Thrill seeking (Katz) or edgework (Lyng) 9. The relationship between the mass media and crime/deviance Psychological - social learning theory & desenstization (bobo doll, rap, violent movies/X-box) – Morrison, Sparks, Cumberbatch Marxism - Cultivation theory (class and racist hegemony) NLR – bulimic society of conspicuous consumption (Reiner) Radical feminism (rape, misogyny) Labelling (folk devils and moral panics – Cohen) Interactionism - Deviancy amplification spiral and social control Interactionism – biased media CAGER, police, dramatic fallacies = social constructionism Criticisms (determinism, length of moral panics, bias in media methods)10. Victimisation and crime Victimology as a paradigm shift by Realists Proneness versus precipitation (fault) Realisms BCS aims, methods, findings, strengths and limitations Realist alternatives to BCS (Local victim Surveys and Feminist victim surveys – Dobash’s, Walklate) 11. Can social policy reduce crime? NRR – situational crime prevention and broken windows (environmental crime prevention) Criticisms (displacement, ignores crimes of powerful, malestream, ignores structural causes...) NLR – communitarianism & institutional racism Functionalism – effectiveness of public punishment / retributive justice Interactionists – criticisms of prisons Marxists – depends on definition of crime, mass incarceration Foucault – panopticon of surveillance and socially controlling carceral archipelago (Cohen)
12. The relationship between globalisation and crime (Zemiology) Examples, paradigm shift to zemiology or transgressive criminology New opportunities (eg transport, cyber crime) – Hobbs & Dunningham Global networks – living local acting global Problems of policing Crimogenic capitalism and transnational corporations (Taylor) Risk (Beck)13. Green crime Definitions - primary versus secondary green crime Beck – manufactured risk Marxists – crimogenic capitalism Interactionists – invalid OCS – can’t police green crime NLR / postmodernists – paradigm shift from anthrocentrism to eco-centrism 14. State crime Types + examples Marxism – Chomsky- paradigm shift Marxism = media ignore it (ISA) Interactionists – invalid OCS + techniques of neutralisation15. How is deviance socially constructed? Interactionists – criticisms of OCS & BCS and SRS Lemert - primary versus secondary deviance Becker - role of moral entrepreneurs Young - police response amplifying deviance S Cohen - media construction of folk devils & moral panics Fawbert - hoodies Criticisms of moral panic thesis Criticisms of interactionist topics, values and methods 16. Suicide as a form of deviance Positivism - Durkheim – scientific method using OSS – 4 types of suicide caused int/reg 9*-+Internal criticisms of Positivism - Halbwachs and Gibbs & Martin Interpretivism – critical of OSS, using qual methods – 4 types of suicide (Douglas) Phenomenology –socially constructed OSS & deviant lab el (Firth, Stengel) Realists – qual data can prove suicide causes (Baechler – 4 types and Taylor – 4 types linked to degree of certainty in relation to symphonic and ectopic experiences
17. Sociology and science Characteristics of science CUDOs (Merton) Links with positivism eg Durkheim on suicide / New Right on RCT & SCP Popper’s criticism - falsification Kuhn criticism - paradigm bias in science, sociology is pre-paradigm Keat & Urry criticisms - sociology has open not closed science systems Interpretivist criticisms Science isn’t a science criticism Marxist criticisms Postmodernist criticisms – Sociological modernist paradigm as a failed metanarrative18. Sociology and values Values don’t influence: Positivism – sociology as a science Values do influence: interactionism, feminism, Marxism, NLR & NRR, postmodernism19. Social policy Does influence: measurement, advice, analysis skills eg Positivism & NRR & NLR Should influence: interactionism, feminism Doesn’t influence: Marxism Shouldn’t influence: postmodernism 20. The relationships between epistemology and methodology Positivist / structuralism = quantitative (empiricism) Interactionism = qualitative Feminist Standpoint Epistemology = IDI’s Phenomenology / relativism = IDI’s Realism = qualitative, analysed scientifically Postmodernism = personal documents = truths21. Consensus theories Functionalism - GAIL needs met by subsystem institutions + criticisms Liberal Feminism Criticisms (reification, tautology, ignores conflict, malestream, trusts official statistics) 22. Conflict theories Orthodox Structural– Althusser Humanistic - Gramsci Radical, Marxist, Dual Systems, Black Feminisms
23. Feminists theories Consensus theory Liberal Conflict theories Radical Marxist Dual Systems (Feminist-Marxist) Black Postmodernist feminism Structuration theory – Poststructuralist feminism24. Interactionist / interpretivist / Social Actiontheories Social order and social change based on meanings & social context I versus me (similar to functionalism) – Mead Action not reactive determinism Society based on categorisation / stereotyping Criticisms (individual, micro, trivial, no real choice, ignores power, relativism, can’t explain change 25.Structuration theory (Giddens) Duality of structure Action reproduces structure Action causes change Giddens + New Labour policy Criticisms26. Modernist theories Enlightenment Scientific rationality (CUDOs) & Positivism Social engineering Values shouldn’t / should influence research Positive relationship with social policy27. Postmodernist theory (Foucault, Baudrillard, Lytard) Paradigm shift: Globalisation causes need for a new theory Science as a failed metanarrative Positivism / malestream sociology as a language game Need for subjective truth claims (validities) Hypereality and construction of self (action over structure) Criticisms
28. Late Modernity (Beck, Habermas) Paradigm shift: Risk society Individualism Post Fordism Commodification of identify Fragmentation of proletariat? Criticisms29. Modernism versus Post & Late modernism30. Methodology Practical (Time, Resources, Access, Money, Personal characteristics of researcher) Ethics (deception, informed consent, choice of topic – underdog, harm/illegal, omelette-eggs) Reliability (piloting, change in operationalizing concepts/definitions, systematic = training) Validity (biased operationalizing concepts, loaded/leading questions, going native, Hawthorne effect, double fitting data to theory?) Enough (methodological pluralism/cosmopolitanism between methods and within a method, more than researcher) = aim is triangulation (Hammersley) Representativeness (availability of sampling frame dictates random – simple, systematic, stratified, cluster/quota = positivism ; non-random – opportunity, volunteer, snowball case studies = interactionism, FSE) Theoretical bias (Positivism, Interactionism, FSE, Structuration, Postmodernism)31. Methods Experiments: Laboratory: Bobo doll – unreliable, small sample, Hawthorne Effect, harm, meanings Experiments: Field: Rosenthal & Jacobson (spurter study), Rosenhan (Schizophrenia), Elliott (blue eyes / brown eyes) – unreliable, small sample, deception, meanings, omelette-egg praxis Surveys – BCS, victimisation surveys, poverty (Townsend), National child Development Study = sample attrition Questionnaires – Farrington & West on SRS, Jackson & Sunshine – attitudes to police = pilot study, operationalizing concepts, lg sample, less time consuming, face to face lacks reliability, postal low response rate, cannot include all criminal acts, unrep- distributed to young people & lower response rate from those who had a criminal record (Junger-Tas) Interviews – Venkatesh (gang leader for a day), Patrick (Glasgow gang), Laurie Taylor (John McVicar), Dobash’s (domestic violence), Barker (unificiation church –PIA questions), Douglas (suicide), Baechler (suicide), Steve Taylor (parasuicide), Adams (interviewing police) Observation (PO/NPO, covert/overt)- Venkatesh (gang leader for a day), Patrick (Glasgow gang),Bourgois – crack dealers, Dobash’s (domestic violence), Barker (Unificiation church), Goffman (asylums), S Cohen (mods & rockers), Cicoural (police bias), Smith & Grey (institutional racism by police), Humphries (homosexual encounters in public toiliets) Official Statistics – Durkheim (suicide), Shaw & McKay (social disorganisation), Murray (welfare dependency & crime) Mass media texts- content analysis (Fawbert – hoodies); thematic /discourse analysis (S Cohen – mods and rockers)
Personal documents – Jacobs (suicide notes), S Taylor (medical docs – suicide) = authenticity / credibility/ unrepresentativeness