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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. SCLY 4 – June 19th 20121. Functions of crime & Deviance  Functionalism - manifest versus latent functions, safety valve, boundary maintenance, reassurance, causes social change – all indicate strain = Merton and possible policy  Neo Marxism - scapegoating benefits capitalism  Poststructuralism - surveillance  Postmodernism - transgression2. Official crime Statistics  Functionalists + NRR = valid and comparable and suitable for hypothesis testing  Feminists – ignore dark figure of domestic violence being unreported (FRAIDS)  Marxists – ignore other dark figures eg crimes of powerful  Artefacts – materialism increases crime, new laws increase crime, moral panics increase crime  Interpretivists – PO studies of stereotyping and differential police / court treatment; institutional racism and sexism  Neo-Marxism - OCS as an ISA creating false consciousness  NLR – young, male A-C’s living in urban areas really do commit more crime 3.Why do individuals commit crime?  Merton - strain causes IRRR  Feminist & Ma rxist criticisms of Merton  New Right - rational choice theory  Postmodernism - transgression4. Why do working class youth (Age) commit crime – subcultural theory  A Cohen - status frustration resulting in inversion of m/c values and different types of non-utilitarian deviance  Cloward & Ohlin - access to illegitimate opportunity structure resulting in different types of crime & deviance  Sutherland - differential association = not jus t w/c youth but m/c white collar workers  Miller – 6 focal concerns of socialised w/c hegemonic masculinity  Matza – only a minority become delinquents, techniques of neutralisation prove drift not frustration and subterranean not subcultural values  Murray - lone parent underclass culture of welfare dependency  Young - relative deprivation & marginalisation  Hall - youth as convenient scapegoats  Young – role of police targeting of youth  S Cohen - social construction of youth folk devils & moral panics  Katz – thrill seeking, Lyng – edgework 5. Why is there a relationship between social class and crime?
  2. 2. Marxism - crimogenic capitalism (Gordon) & white collar and corporate crime (Croall) Marxism – ideology of consumerism / materialism forces w/c to commit crime Marxism – law is part of the ISA thus OCS are invalid...(Althusser) Functionalism - Sutherland - differential association & white collar crime Chambliss - biased law creation Cicoural - biased law enforcement Neo Marxism - Hall -w/c as scapegoats for hegemonic crisis in capitalism New Left Realism – relative deprivation (bulimic society) and political/economic / social / educational (unmeritocratic) marginalisation (exclusive society) causes subcultural responses – eg Summer 2011 riots (Young)  New Right - Murray - lone parent underclass culture of welfare dependency6. Is there a relationship between region and crime – Ecological theories? Positivists:  Tonnies / Durkheim – rural social control (gemeinshaft) versus lack of urban social control (geselleschaft)  Shaw & McKay - social disorganisation in zone 2  Bottoms - social housing policy of dumping causing tipping  Cognitive awareness zones (eg Oxford Crime Survey, & Cohen -prostitution)  Hobbs et al – nightime economy of edgework (link to Oxford Crime Survey)  Wilson & Kelling (broken windows)  Marxists (police targeting) Realist solutions & criticisms:  Victim precipitation (BCS) & Situational crime prevention (eg street lighting – Stoke on Trent study)  Different types of displacement  Surveillance & the panopticon (Foucault)  Individualisation & victim precipitation (New Right)  Victim precipitation (New Left Realism and Feminisms)  Communitarianism (Etzioni, Young, Giddens)7. The relationship between ethnicity and crime  Dysfunctional socialisation (family, media) – New Right  Political, social, educational, economic marginalisation (racial discrimination) in an exclusive society - NLR  Relative deprivation caused by racial discrimination and marginalisation – NLR  Subcultural responses because of status frustration and linked to hegemonic masculinity- eg gang membership  Different masculinities = different crimes (Messerschmidt)  Counter hegemonic fightback – Neo Marxists  Hall - Socially constructed scapegoats – Neo-Marxists  Invalid OCS because of institutional racism in police, CPS, Courts and Probation –NLR v NRR (OCS are real)8. The relationships between genders and crime  Statistical trends proving crime is gendered (Heidensohn)  Chivalry thesis (Pollack) + criticisms
  3. 3.  Malestream bias Women  Differential socialisation  Differential opportunity / social control  Rational choice – class gender deal (Carlen)  Feminisation of poverty  Feminist liberation theory (Adler)  Gender transgression theory (postmodernism ) Men  Socialised hegemonic masculinity especially in youth facing status frustration (Messerschmidt & Winlow)  Thrill seeking (Katz) or edgework (Lyng) 9. The relationship between the mass media and crime/deviance  Psychological - social learning theory & desenstization (bobo doll, rap, violent movies/X-box) – Morrison, Sparks, Cumberbatch  Marxism - Cultivation theory (class and racist hegemony)  NLR – bulimic society of conspicuous consumption (Reiner)  Radical feminism (rape, misogyny)  Labelling (folk devils and moral panics – Cohen)  Interactionism - Deviancy amplification spiral and social control  Interactionism – biased media CAGER, police, dramatic fallacies = social constructionism  Criticisms (determinism, length of moral panics, bias in media methods)10. Victimisation and crime  Victimology as a paradigm shift by Realists  Proneness versus precipitation (fault) Realisms  BCS aims, methods, findings, strengths and limitations  Realist alternatives to BCS (Local victim Surveys and Feminist victim surveys – Dobash’s, Walklate) 11. Can social policy reduce crime?  NRR – situational crime prevention and broken windows (environmental crime prevention)  Criticisms (displacement, ignores crimes of powerful, malestream, ignores structural causes...)  NLR – communitarianism & institutional racism  Functionalism – effectiveness of public punishment / retributive justice  Interactionists – criticisms of prisons  Marxists – depends on definition of crime, mass incarceration  Foucault – panopticon of surveillance and socially controlling carceral archipelago (Cohen)
  4. 4. 12. The relationship between globalisation and crime (Zemiology)  Examples, paradigm shift to zemiology or transgressive criminology  New opportunities (eg transport, cyber crime) – Hobbs & Dunningham  Global networks – living local acting global  Problems of policing  Crimogenic capitalism and transnational corporations (Taylor)  Risk (Beck)13. Green crime  Definitions - primary versus secondary green crime  Beck – manufactured risk  Marxists – crimogenic capitalism  Interactionists – invalid OCS – can’t police green crime  NLR / postmodernists – paradigm shift from anthrocentrism to eco-centrism 14. State crime  Types + examples  Marxism – Chomsky- paradigm shift  Marxism = media ignore it (ISA)  Interactionists – invalid OCS + techniques of neutralisation15. How is deviance socially constructed?  Interactionists – criticisms of OCS & BCS and SRS  Lemert - primary versus secondary deviance  Becker - role of moral entrepreneurs  Young - police response amplifying deviance  S Cohen - media construction of folk devils & moral panics  Fawbert - hoodies  Criticisms of moral panic thesis  Criticisms of interactionist topics, values and methods 16. Suicide as a form of deviance  Positivism - Durkheim – scientific method using OSS – 4 types of suicide caused int/reg  9*-+Internal criticisms of Positivism - Halbwachs and Gibbs & Martin  Interpretivism – critical of OSS, using qual methods – 4 types of suicide (Douglas)  Phenomenology –socially constructed OSS & deviant lab el (Firth, Stengel)  Realists – qual data can prove suicide causes (Baechler – 4 types and Taylor – 4 types linked to degree of certainty in relation to symphonic and ectopic experiences
  5. 5. 17. Sociology and science  Characteristics of science CUDOs (Merton)  Links with positivism eg Durkheim on suicide / New Right on RCT & SCP  Popper’s criticism - falsification  Kuhn criticism - paradigm bias in science, sociology is pre-paradigm  Keat & Urry criticisms - sociology has open not closed science systems  Interpretivist criticisms  Science isn’t a science criticism  Marxist criticisms  Postmodernist criticisms – Sociological modernist paradigm as a failed metanarrative18. Sociology and values  Values don’t influence: Positivism – sociology as a science  Values do influence: interactionism, feminism, Marxism, NLR & NRR, postmodernism19. Social policy  Does influence: measurement, advice, analysis skills eg Positivism & NRR & NLR  Should influence: interactionism, feminism  Doesn’t influence: Marxism  Shouldn’t influence: postmodernism 20. The relationships between epistemology and methodology  Positivist / structuralism = quantitative (empiricism)  Interactionism = qualitative  Feminist Standpoint Epistemology = IDI’s  Phenomenology / relativism = IDI’s  Realism = qualitative, analysed scientifically  Postmodernism = personal documents = truths21. Consensus theories  Functionalism - GAIL needs met by subsystem institutions + criticisms  Liberal Feminism  Criticisms (reification, tautology, ignores conflict, malestream, trusts official statistics) 22. Conflict theories  Orthodox  Structural– Althusser  Humanistic - Gramsci  Radical, Marxist, Dual Systems, Black Feminisms
  6. 6. 23. Feminists theories Consensus theory  Liberal Conflict theories  Radical  Marxist  Dual Systems (Feminist-Marxist)  Black Postmodernist feminism Structuration theory – Poststructuralist feminism24. Interactionist / interpretivist / Social Actiontheories Social order and social change based on  meanings & social context  I versus me (similar to functionalism) – Mead  Action not reactive determinism  Society based on categorisation / stereotyping  Criticisms (individual, micro, trivial, no real choice, ignores power, relativism, can’t explain change 25.Structuration theory (Giddens)  Duality of structure  Action reproduces structure  Action causes change  Giddens + New Labour policy  Criticisms26. Modernist theories  Enlightenment  Scientific rationality (CUDOs) & Positivism  Social engineering  Values shouldn’t / should influence research  Positive relationship with social policy27. Postmodernist theory (Foucault, Baudrillard, Lytard) Paradigm shift:  Globalisation causes need for a new theory  Science as a failed metanarrative  Positivism / malestream sociology as a language game  Need for subjective truth claims (validities)  Hypereality and construction of self (action over structure)  Criticisms
  7. 7. 28. Late Modernity (Beck, Habermas) Paradigm shift:  Risk society  Individualism  Post Fordism  Commodification of identify  Fragmentation of proletariat?  Criticisms29. Modernism versus Post & Late modernism30. Methodology  Practical (Time, Resources, Access, Money, Personal characteristics of researcher)  Ethics (deception, informed consent, choice of topic – underdog, harm/illegal, omelette-eggs)  Reliability (piloting, change in operationalizing concepts/definitions, systematic = training)  Validity (biased operationalizing concepts, loaded/leading questions, going native, Hawthorne effect, double fitting data to theory?)  Enough (methodological pluralism/cosmopolitanism between methods and within a method, more than researcher) = aim is triangulation (Hammersley)  Representativeness (availability of sampling frame dictates random – simple, systematic, stratified, cluster/quota = positivism ; non-random – opportunity, volunteer, snowball case studies = interactionism, FSE)  Theoretical bias (Positivism, Interactionism, FSE, Structuration, Postmodernism)31. Methods  Experiments: Laboratory: Bobo doll – unreliable, small sample, Hawthorne Effect, harm, meanings  Experiments: Field: Rosenthal & Jacobson (spurter study), Rosenhan (Schizophrenia), Elliott (blue eyes / brown eyes) – unreliable, small sample, deception, meanings, omelette-egg praxis  Surveys – BCS, victimisation surveys, poverty (Townsend), National child Development Study = sample attrition  Questionnaires – Farrington & West on SRS, Jackson & Sunshine – attitudes to police = pilot study, operationalizing concepts, lg sample, less time consuming, face to face lacks reliability, postal low response rate, cannot include all criminal acts, unrep- distributed to young people & lower response rate from those who had a criminal record (Junger-Tas)  Interviews – Venkatesh (gang leader for a day), Patrick (Glasgow gang), Laurie Taylor (John McVicar), Dobash’s (domestic violence), Barker (unificiation church –PIA questions), Douglas (suicide), Baechler (suicide), Steve Taylor (parasuicide), Adams (interviewing police)  Observation (PO/NPO, covert/overt)- Venkatesh (gang leader for a day), Patrick (Glasgow gang),Bourgois – crack dealers, Dobash’s (domestic violence), Barker (Unificiation church), Goffman (asylums), S Cohen (mods & rockers), Cicoural (police bias), Smith & Grey (institutional racism by police), Humphries (homosexual encounters in public toiliets)  Official Statistics – Durkheim (suicide), Shaw & McKay (social disorganisation), Murray (welfare dependency & crime)  Mass media texts- content analysis (Fawbert – hoodies); thematic /discourse analysis (S Cohen – mods and rockers)
  8. 8.  Personal documents – Jacobs (suicide notes), S Taylor (medical docs – suicide) = authenticity / credibility/ unrepresentativeness

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