GLOBALISATION,THE MEDIA AND CULTURE Globalisation: the process by which societies become increasingly interconnected
LEARNING OBJECTIVES• Outline the cultural and media imperialism theories of globalisation• Debate over the role and effects of the media in an international perspective
THE WORLD HAS SHRUNK• We have looked at the media mainly from a national perspective• We now live in a society within a global system and therefore affected by the processes – FROM THE COMFORT OF OUR SOFAS
WHAT ARE YOU WEARING?• Look at the labels on your clothes – Which countries did they originate from? Many of your favourite clothes are produced by people who work in sweatshops in Asia and Central America
‘Globalisation’ is one of the most significant changes that has taken place over the last 30yrs. • Events in one part of the world increasingly affect other parts, • Activities in one nation have a growing impact on other nations • Global interactions become more and more frequent (goods, capital, people, knowledge, culture, fashion, beliefs etc) • Time space compression means that time is speeding up and space appears to be getting smallerBut what are the consequences? Does it empower local communitiesto produce their own media products or does it exploit them?
Stock exchanges around The financial market is Growth in Transnational Increase in nation statesthe world means buying global companies that can move becoming members ofand selling 24/7 production from one international country to another organisations. (EU, NATO)World is increasingly The emergence of a The explosion at the Global warming,exposed to western global consumerists nuclear power station at pollution, deforestation,tastes, styles and culture. Sklair 2003 Chernobyl resulted in depletion of fish stocks,fashions, music and films radioactive material oil spills, Aids and blown westward reaching international terrorism 20 countries.International financial Ulrick Beck 1992 The ‘credit crunch’ in Global risks crossinstitutions such as the We live in a global risk 2008 began in the USA national boundariesWorld Bank and IMF society and has rapidly spread tohave steadily grown financial markets acrossprovides loans to its 185 the worldmembers The meaning of globalisation can be divided into 4 main categories
political cultural Globalisation: The process by which societies become increasingly interconnectedeconomic risk
Imperialism refers to domination by onenation over another. Eg British colonial rule of the Raj in India
MEDIA and CULTURAL IMPERIALISM• Globalisation is linked to technological change• Technology is the product of capitalist societies – We can watch a war from the comfort of our homes – Advertising sells an idealised western life style – We can experience world events simultaneously – We can connect to people over great distances
McDonaldisation• It is now possible to travel around the world without ever having to eat indigenous food.• The décor and the menu is immediately recognisable• It is reassuring and familiar but also evidence of decline in local cultures
THE DEBATEDoes it accentuate the unequal • Does it produce arelationships between nations, multicultural world throughenlarging the gulf between rich and a flow of ideas in multipoor through the domination of directions thus empoweringTransnational companies? developing countries to produce their own media products as well as being global players. (China) 1. Read pg 225 – 226 Jones & Jones and identify 4 points for each side of the debate 2. Write at least two paragraphs outlining the extent to which nation states are/are not helpless in the face of global media corporations.
Evaluation – cultural response• Different cultures respond to media put in different ways. Eg TV programmes (Big Brother, I’m a celebrity get me out of here) are sold to TV companies but local versions reflect local cultures.• Therefore challenging cultural imperialism
Evaluation – national and regional broadcasting• There is a steady increase in local broadcasting. In many countries home produced programmes are steadily replacing imports because they gel with the local cultures and 7/9 countries broadcast more locally produced programmes than imported ones.• Suggesting therefore that they are not being overwhelmed by western media products.
Evaluation – minority ethnic media• Local programmes from developing countries are exported to western society. In some cases producing their own media products that reflect their cultural origins. Eg Bollywood.• In USA minority ethnic groups such as Latinos have their own radio station, watch cable TV specifically designed for them.