2 views of the media •The media is in the hands of aFree airing of social and political few powerful companies whoissues where opinions differ. Act impose their views on us. The as watchdogs, criticising role of the media is to distortpoliticians and the powerful when reality, justifying the deep they override the interests of inequalities of wealth that exist at ordinary people the same time keeping the masses happy with pictures of attractive women and stories of sex and sport
LEARNING OBJECTIVES• Discuss• the role of the mass media in the political process• Democracies and authoritarian regimes• State censorship
To what extent do the press promote democracy in Britain?• Democracy: a system of government that involves some form of election by the people p ect l as gica ed d eolo valu a n i t is a c ie t y has se i o lso ecau n our s A b i ure feat
Reporting styles• Axford identifies 3 broadcasting styles for political coverage – REACTIVE – party campaigners are reported in a mainly descriptive fashion. (Photo opportunities and leader profiles) – REBELLIOUS – broadcasters set their own agenda (not always as the parties would wish) – REFLECTIVE – analytical and thoughtful when looking at the issues and policies
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XTiI1e-wVc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B91Kwnpt7kk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-2h28 John Prescott former Labour Deputy Prime MinisterSuspend the Kyoto protocol
The media and the stateRegulation of the media serves to maintain the interests of thepowerful• After WW2 there was an assumption of the free press. (free from direct control of government)• Government control was ad hoc and more concerned with the structure and organisation of the media than their content• Journalists and broadcasters had autonomy and were self regulating• The main legal controls are – Official secrets act (1989) – The Prevention of Terrorism Act (1976) Pg 212 in Jones – Laws of Libel and contempt and Jones make – Privacy Laws (1997) brief notes outlining each
• Propaganda Literature: Desert Storm/Desert Shield 1990/1991• To help win that war quickly, the U.S. Army created several pieces of outstanding psychological warfare literature.• This image of Saddam Hussein was designed as a wanted poster, on light weigh paper, for airdrop distribution. What was its purpose?
created to redirect the guilt, if any,felt by Iraqi soldiers, and toencourage them to blameeverything bad on SaddamHussein since he is a criminal.Thus, they might not fight with asmuch enthusiasm ordetermination.
ACTIVITY 1• Media reporting – Read pg 275 up to the ‘pluralist view’ – Answer the following questions – Write a summary in no more than 100 words
1. What effect did WW2 have on 2. What was the perceived risk of 3. Identify 3 ways in which the way media reporting ? the media reporting on a General televised reporting of politics has Election? changed ? 4. What is the role of a ‘spin 5. Why is the news of particular 6. How did the general public doctor’ ? interest to sociologists? learn about political parties before WW2?
ACTIVITY 2• The pluralist view – Read pg 275 –277 up to the mass-manipulative view – TRUE OR FALSE – Summarise the pluralist view in no more than 100 words
ACTIVITY 3• Marxist view – Read pg 277 up to the Hegemonic view – Answer questions
ACTIVITY 4• Neo Marxist view – Read pg 278 up to post-modernist – Answer questions – Summarise view in no more than 100 words
1. What were the conclusions 2. Give an example of the 3. According to Hall (80) theof GUMG study? language used that showed news is seen as closed text. bias in the dispute Explain what this means.4. In what way can the GUMG 5. How is the Hegemonic view 6. Explain how ‘good news’findings be criticised? similar to Marxism? stories from Eastern media can be viewed as propaganda
What were the Give an example of According to Hallconclusions of the language used (80) the news isGUMG study? that showed bias in seen as closed text. the dispute Explain what thisIndustrial relations favours Employers make ‘offers’ means.the employers over the and ‘pleas’ whereas Events presented areemployed strikers make ‘demands’ partial and selective and ‘threats’ revealing journalistic valuesIn what way can the How is the Explain how ‘goodGUMG findings be Hegemonic view news’ stories fromcriticised? similar to Eastern media canUnrepresentative, no Marxism? be viewed asevidence, not objective, Both see the media’s role propaganda as maintaining and Focus is on increase in reinforcing the status quo production and new public in society facilities rather than crime
ACTIVITY 5• Post Modernist view – Read pg 279 – Baudrilland maintains the Gulf War didn’t happen. – Draw a cartoon depicting what he means by this
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES A diminishing of the Audiences are better The content of The electorate gains political process as able to assess the political debate comes by being better media distort as well competence of second to its informed and more as communicate government ministers presentation – images aware of political messages dominate issues It is simply the Politicians become The media Overall there is inevitable result of more concerned with oversimplify and increased publicnew technology and is their voice and trivialise political knowledge and citizenbeneficial to audiences appearance issues participation hence greater government accountability Packaging political Parties are marketed The political message A widespread lack of debates serves to like high street becomes less powerful public interest inmanipulate the public commodities and we than the projected politics associated become disempowered image. At worst this with a cynical consumers responding could be a means of evaluation of only to the images on subverting democracy politicians in general the boxes
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER THE STATE PLURALIST VIEW THE MEDIA, THE STATE AND THE POLITICAL PROCESSMARXIST VIEW NEO MARXIST VIEW Advantages and disadvantages