• Biological difference between men and women • Reproductive function of men and women• Socially or culturally constructed• How a society defines masculinity and femininity
In early childhood we learn the norms and values of our societyAnne Oakley – RadicalFeminist Sociologist. Children imitate theirFamily teaches gender parentsnorms and values. Manipulation Rewards for acceptable behaviour Canalisation Verbal appellation Punishment for socially Different activities unacceptable behaviour
How can we explain the gender gap in educational achievement? How can explain the differences between female and male subject choices at GCSE, A level and beyond? Why do more boys study computing and more girls study Drama?Why are females achieving highergrades than males at every level ofeducation?
National Curriculum 1988Made many subjectscompulsory to 16.Increased opportunities forgirls in subjects such asScience. Stables and Wilkeley 1996 Where there was a choice of subjects girls and boys choose differently. Technology…..girls tend to choose food technology whilst boys opted for graphics or resistant materials.
Students have greater freedom and gendered subject choices becomemuch more noticeable.
These figures are from the 2007 examinations entries data.More girls choose Sociology making it more femaledominated than English, Drama, French and Biology.These gender differences continue at university levelshowing a clear gender preference for certain subjects.
Fiona Norman1988From an early age girls andboys are dresseddifferently, given different toysand are encouraged to takepart in different activities.Parents tend to reward boysfor being active and girls forbeing passive. Murphy and Elwood 1998 This can lead to different subject choices – boys reading non-fiction and girls reading fiction – this helps to explain why girls prefer english and boys prefer science.
Brown and Ross1991Children are shapes by theirearly experiences. Whatchildren see as male or femaleterritory will influence howthey respond to an activity. Children are more confident when performing tasks within their gender domain. Given the same activity it could be interpreted differently by girls and boys.
Kelly Science seen as a boys Some subjects project a subject male or female image. • Science teachers are more likely to be men • Examples found in text books draw more from male interests and experiences • In science lessons boys tend toColley 1998 dominate apparatusComputer Studies seen as male Leonard 2006because: These stereotypes are seen less in single sexInvolves working with machines schools where they see girls making lesswhich is part of the male gender traditional choices in subjects , girls moredomain likely to study male-dominated subjects,Girls find the tasks and teaching attend university and earn higher salaries!styles off-putting
Friendship groups or other males orPaetcher 1998 females may apply pressure to anPupils see sport as within individual if they disapprove of theirthe male domain, girls who choice.are interested in sport haveto cope with an image that Dewar 1990contradicts conventional Male students branding a girl asfemale stereotypes. “lesbian” or “butch” if she was more interested in sport than the boys. But…..in single sex schools girls are more likely to choose traditional boys’ subjects – the absence of boys means that there is less pressure to conform to restrictive stereotypes of what a girl can or can not study.
Employment highly gendered Female jobs are seen as those that link to the duties that a woman would traditionally perform within the home.This gendered approach leads to Over half of all female employment fallsdifferent subject choices as boys into these categories….clerical, secretarial,get the message that a role as a caring and cleaning. Only a sixth of allnursery nurse in unacceptable males work in these areas.then this will affect their subjectchoices. Vocational courses are more highly gendered than any other area of education – childcare, engineering, beauty therapy all being key examples.
Thank you……come to coachingto find out more!!!!!Mrs G