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What's Next: Fake News 2.0

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In the last year, so-called 'Fake News' has moved into the mainstream and brands are struggling to respond. But in a world where facts are disputed, how do corporations respond to deliberate attack? And how can we all play a part in containing the spread of these new online threats?

We will look at why many governments are panicking about the threat of disinformation, what the digital platforms are doing to respond and how communications specialists can use technology and behavioural science to fight back.

Published in: Marketing
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What's Next: Fake News 2.0

  1. 1. Powered by What’s Next: Fake News 2.0
  2. 2. Welcome Dayoán Daumont Consulting Partner, Customer Experience & Innovation, Ogilvy Consulting Iain Bundred Managing Director, PR & Influence, Ogilvy EMEA UK Executive Director, WPP Government & Public Sector Practice
  3. 3. Tell us where you are dialing in from! What’s the weather like in your city?
  4. 4. Do you want this deck? It will be available for download shortly after the webinar on: slideshare.net/socialogilvy And the recording up on facebook.com/OgilvyConsulting
  5. 5. THE RISE OF DISINFORMATION And how to tackle it on social Iain Bundred Managing Director, PR & Influence, Ogilvy EMEA UK Executive Director, WPP Government & Public Sector Practice Thursday 21st March 2019
  6. 6. Today’s discussion What you must do to respond when you come under attack Why everyone is rattled by disinformation Why fact-checking doesn’t solve the problem How platforms are reacting
  7. 7. Governments and institutions may face completely false campaigns mounted against them in high volume and rapid frequency, starting with 2019 elections
  8. 8. But it’s not just governments that need to be afraid
  9. 9. But social media is still in its teenage yearsThe term ‘fake news’ is bandied around with no clear idea of what it means, or agreed definition. The term has taken on a variety of meanings, including a description of any statement that is not liked or agreed with by the reader. We recommend that the Government rejects the term ‘fake news’, and instead puts forward an agreed definition of the words ‘misinformation’ and ‘disinformation’ UK DCMS Select Committee on Fake News Orchestrated campaigns are spreading untruths - disinformation, mal-information and misinformation - that are often unwittingly shared on social media: • Disinformation: Information that is false and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organisation or country • Misinformation: Information that is false but not created with the intention of causing harm • Mal-information: Information that is based on reality, used to inflict harm on a person, social group, organisation or country. UNESCO Handbook of Journalism Training on Disinformation We define it as false, inaccurate, or misleading information designed, presented and promoted to intentionally cause public harm or for profit. EU High Level Working Group on Fake News What are we talking about?
  10. 10. STATE SPONSORED MIS- & MALINFORMATION DISINFORMATION CLICKBAIT PROPAGANDA GENUINE MISUNDERSTANDING DELIBERATE REALISTIC
  11. 11. In a world where facts are disputed… WHAT IS FAKE?
  12. 12. Harper’s Magazine | Fake News And The Public 1925 “Once the news faker obtains access to the press wires all the hoest editors alive will not be able to repair the mischef he can do. An editor receiving a news item over the wire has no opportunity to test its authenticity as he would in the case of a local report.” Mark Twain | "A lie can travel half way around the world while the truth is putting on its shoes." Of course this isn’t new James II's 1688 proclamation "to restrain the spreading of false news"
  13. 13. 15
  14. 14. We shouldn’t laugh
  15. 15. Social media is still in its teenage years A new era of intimacy is not yet reflected in social behaviours Rapid spread of unverified information, with little to no regulation Algorithms drive confirmation bias, especially in ‘vulnerable communities’ In this situation, disinformation campaigns can thrive and cause policy pressure
  16. 16. With more to come
  17. 17. At the same time, social media increasingly becomes the go-to source for news
  18. 18. Facing real questions of trust Fake News and Disinformation Online | European Commission February 2018
  19. 19. Especially at this time Fake News and Disinformation Online | European Commission February 2018
  20. 20. Yet awareness of “fake news” is not impacting usage
  21. 21. In a world where facts are disputed… WHO CAN RESPOND?
  22. 22. Constant monitoring of effective responses Framework for enhanced transparency Media literacy initiatives whilst protecting free speech Regulatory options
  23. 23. With the threat of more tax
  24. 24. Social media platforms are reacting
  25. 25. Remove accounts and content that violate Community Standards or ad policies Reduce the distribution of false news and inauthentic content like clickbait Inform people by giving them more context on the posts they see REMOVE REDUCE INFORM https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2018/05/hard-questions-false-news/ Example of Facebook
  26. 26. "Inauthentic activity has no place on our platform. That's why we devote significant resources to detecting and stopping this behavior, including disabling millions of fake accounts every day.” Paul Grewal, Facebook's deputy general counsel of litigation, Removing the accounts and content that violate Community Standards or ad policies
  27. 27. Domestic & individual Cross- border & individual Domestic & State-like actors Cross- border & State-like actors “If you look at volume, the majority of the information operations we see are domestic actors” Nathaniel Gleicher, Facebook’s head of security
  28. 28. Facebook started penalizing clickbait, links shared more frequently by spammers, and links to low-quality web pages, also known as “ad farms.” Organic Reach Clickbait headlines intentionally omit crucial information or exaggerate the details of a story to make it seem like a bigger deal than it really is. This gets attention and lures visitors into clicking on a link, but they then quickly return to News Feed. Reducing the spread of fake news and inauthentic content
  29. 29. Helping people better assess the stories They see in News Feed with the context button. Related Articles from third-party fact-checkers immediately below a story on the same topic. Information about how many times the article has been shared on Facebook and where it is has been shared. Informing community with additional context
  30. 30. Researchers found interactions with 570 suspicious sites on both Facebook and Twitter rose steadily through the end of 2016. Interactions then fell sharply on Facebook while they continued to rise on Twitter, with the ratio of Facebook engagements to Twitter shares falling by approximately 60 percent. https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2018/10/inside-feed-michigan-lemonde/ With some targeted success
  31. 31. But recent events show how hard it is to respond at scale “The team worked through the night, trying to identify and remove tens of thousands of videos — many repackaged or recut versions of the original footage that showed the horrific murders. As soon as the group took down one, another would appear, as quickly as one per second in the hours after the shooting”
  32. 32. In a world where facts are disputed… HOW DO WE GET THE TRUTH OUT?
  33. 33. RUSSIAN BOTS? ACTIVISTS? CITIZEN JOURNALISTS? Responsible for sharing ‘fake news’?
  34. 34. Fake News has permeated our worlds in areas of discord With many sources seeking to disrupt Climate Change Public Health Police Brutality Alleged images on ‘Yellow Vests’ violence in Paris actually from 2012 protest in Madrid Censorship Alleged censorship against ‘Yellow Vests’ while photo was available on Le Monde
  35. 35. Adults’ Media Use and Attitudes Report | Ofcom report May 2018 Can users tell the difference?
  36. 36. “Contrary to conventional wisdom, robots accelerated the spread of true and false news at the same rate, implying that false news spreads more than the truth because humans, not robots, are more likely to spread it.” WE are responsible Vosoughi, Roy and Aral paper in Science Magazine March 2018
  37. 37. Distribution of total and fake news shares on Facebook Guess, Nagler and Tucker, in Science Magazine January 2019 The vast majority do not share fake news at all
  38. 38. Bot versus public post comparison, Blue State Digital, April 2018 Automated accounts often lead the debate Weaponized Health Communication: Twitter Bots and Russian Trolls Amplify the Vaccine Debate, Broniatowski et al, American Journal of Public Health September 2018
  39. 39. But humans respond consistent with natural biases
  40. 40. Average number of fake news shares using the list of domains derived from (a) Party Indentification (b) Age group (c) Ideology (d) Overall number of Facebook wall posts Guess, Nagler and Tucker, in Science Magazine January 2019 And those that share are not the same we tend to target with social-first campaigns
  41. 41. “We find that providing counter information is generally ineffective at remedying misperceptions and can, depending on the source, increase endorsements of misperceptions among Republicans” "The public’s engagement with fake news is not credulous; it is motivated… ‘Fact checking' and like means of correcting false belief are unlikely to be effective and could in fact backfire.” Dan Kahan, Cultural Cognition Project, June 2018 They See Dead People (Voting). Mirya R. Holman &J. Celeste Lay, Tulane University, July 2018 Where fact-checking can actually back-fire, depending on your worldview
  42. 42. In a world where facts are disputed… HOW SHOULD YOU REACT?
  43. 43. Don’t overreact Stick to the strategy Clarify, don’t amplify Never mislead
  44. 44. A tried and tested behavioural science driven approach
  45. 45. Detect Volume Signals Remove the Noise Generate Actionable Insights Find & Assess
  46. 46. Some tools may help you detect volume. 1. Find 2. 3. 4.
  47. 47. A new era of intimacy is not yet reflected in social behaviours. Younger and older audiences are especially vulnerable. Policymakers too! OfCom | Children’s Media Lives 2019 Science Advance | Less than you think: Prevalence and predictors of fake news dissemination on Facebook 2. Assess 3. 4.1.
  48. 48. Tell a Counter Narrative Analyse Daily Coordinate Across Departments 3. Create 4.1. 2.
  49. 49. Create appropriate (mobile-first) content with the aim of rebalancing the narrative. This may be a press office line, a social media post, or the creation of a new asset. 1,7s Time spent with content on mobile 3. Create 4.1. 2. 87% OF FACEBOOK IMPRESSIONS HAPPEN ON A MOBILE DEVICE WITHIN THEIR OWN CONTEXT
  50. 50. Facebook Carousel Scroll right and left to discover all the cards of the carousel Facebook Canvas When clicked, the user enters an immersive mobile-only experience. Instagram Stories Immersive full-screen ad in either picture of video format. Create social friendly content to change the conversation
  51. 51. Paid campaigns can help you achieve greater results
  52. 52. Build Campaigning Mentality Methodically Reach and Target Optimise and Evolve 4. Target3.1. 2.
  53. 53. Most platforms allow you to target users based on locations, behaviours, interests, demographics, or connections. Locations Behaviours Interests Demographics Connections 4. Target3.1. 2.
  54. 54. Dashboard Monitoring* 1. Find 2. Assess Optimise & evolve3. Create 4. Target Volumes around a topic in market(s) increases above usual threshold triggering an alert Organisation assesses ‘opportunity’ alert with relevant team Brand evaluate whether alert requires further exploration If yes, a short memo is shared detailing conversation, themes & authors Context setting campaigns commissioned to respond to potential attacks Brand decide where best real time content & campaign opportunities lie Brand spins up landing page to drive real time responses Volume Relevance/Impact Learnings and insights fuel any changes to operational model *in place following alignment of initial data requirements Ogilvy can help you with the set up of the ‘Find’ and ‘Assess’ steps Ogilvy can assist you on a daily basis with the ‘Create’ and ‘Target’ steps Building a long term resilience
  55. 55. In a world where facts are disputed… CAN YOU CHANGE THE CONVERSATION?
  56. 56. Questions? Dayoán Daumont Consulting Partner, Customer Experience & Innovation, Ogilvy Consulting dayoan.daumont@ogilvy.com Iain Bundred Managing Director, PR & Influence, Ogilvy EMEA iain.bundred@ogilvy.com
  57. 57. Thank you.

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