Nexsan Auto Maid Marketing Report

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A storage array consists of a large number of disk drives together with a storage controller. Many servers can be connected to a storage array, which allows any of the disk drives to be used by any server. Data is read from the disk and written to the disk with a read/write heads (Figure 1). The disk spins at between 7,200rpm and 15,000rpm. The heads are moved across the recording surface of the disk to different tracks where the data is stored.

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Nexsan Auto Maid Marketing Report

  1. 1. Wikibon Green Validation Report Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Energy Efficient AutoMAID Technology September 2009Wikibon.org
  2. 2. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyContents • 1.0 Introduction • 2.0 Executive Summary • 3.0 Technical Overview • 4.0 Measurement Methodology for power. • 5.0 Drive & Controller Measurement Results • 6.0 AutoMAID Effectiveness in the Real World • 7.0 Appendix I – Benchmark I/O Definition • 8.0 Appendix II Detailed Measurements (VA) • 9.0 Appendix III – Description of Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator for AutoMAID • 10.0 Appendix IV Description of Nexsan AutoMAID1.0 IntroductionWikibon Energy Lab Validation Reports are designed to assist customers inunderstanding the degree to which a product contributes to energy efficiency. The fourmain goals of these studies are to: 1. Validate the hardware energy efficiency of a particular technology as compared to an established baseline. 2. Asses the potential contribution of software technologies to power savings, and validate the actual contribution in real world installations. 3. Quantify the contribution of the hardware and software technologies to a green data center. 4. Educate business, technology, and utility industry professionals on the impact of technologies on reducing energy consumption.Our objective is to identify not only the hardware energy consumption but also the oftenoverlooked and hard-to-quantify green software aspects of technologies. Wikibon EnergyLab Validation Reports are submitted to utilities such as Pacific Gas & Electric Companyas part of an energy incentive qualification process.Wikibon Energy Lab defines and validates the hardware testing procedures to determinethe energy consumed by specific products in various configurations. As well, Wikibonreviews actual customer results achieved in the field to validate the effectiveness of these Page 2 of 30
  3. 3. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technologytechnologies based on real-world field-data analysis. These proof points are mandatoryfor the utility company to qualify a specific vendors technology for energy incentives.Wikibon Energy Lab Reports are not sponsored. Rather they are deliverables required byPG&E and other utilities as part of an incentive qualification process. As part of itsConserve IT Program, Wikibon is paid by the vendor to perform services associated withsecuring incentive rebates from utilities for end customers that acquire the vendorstechnologies. To ensure this process is completely independent, Wikibon lab and fieldresults are sometimes vetted by a third party engineering firm hired by PG&E or otherutilities.Wikibon only produces Lab Validation Reports for technologies that have been qualifiedfor rebate incentives by PG&E or other utilities and have passed strict utility companyguidelines. By adhering to this criterion, Wikibon assures its community of theindependence of these results.DisclaimerThis report was prepared by Wikibon. Reproduction or distribution of the whole, or any part, ofthe contents of this document without written permission of Wikibon is prohibited. NeitherWikibon nor any of its employees make any warranty or representations, expressed or implied, orassume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of anydata, information, method product or process disclosed in this document, or represents that its usewill not infringe any privately-owned rights, including, but not limited to, patents, trademarks, orcopyrights. Page 3 of 30
  4. 4. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyThis report uses preliminary information from vendor data and technical references. The report,by itself, is not intended as a basis for the engineering required to adopt any of therecommendations. Its intent is to inform the customer of the potential cost savings. The purposeof the recommendations and calculations is to determine whether measures warrant furtherinvestment of time and/or resources.2.0 Executive SummaryA storage array consists of a large number of disk drives together with a storagecontroller. Many servers can be connected to a storage array, which allows any of thedisk drives to be used by any server. Data is read from the disk and written to the diskwith a read/write heads (see figure 1 below). The disk spins at between 7,200rpm and15,000rpm. The heads are moved across the recording surface of the disk to differenttracks where the data is stored. Disk Arm Read/write Head Disk Platter (1 of 3)Figure 1 - Components of Disk DriveIn traditional storage arrays all the disks are spinning all the time, even when they werenot reading or writing data (not doing any IO, in computer parlance). About 80% of theenergy consumed by a storage array goes to spinning the disks and moving the read/writeheads.Nexsan has developed software and hardware features called AutoMAID, a sophisticatedtechnology to turn off individual drives in an array when they are not being used. Thereare 3 levels of AutoMAID. Each level saves more power. When a disk drive goes intoidle state (i.e., no data is being read or written, no IO activity) for 10 minutes, the drivegoes into AutoMAID level 1. After 10 more minutes with no IO activity, it goes intoAutoMAID level 2, and after 10 more minutes into level 3. The delay is added to avoid“hunting” between AutoMAID levels, which would increase power momentarily whenthe disk became active. Page 4 of 30
  5. 5. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyFigure 2 below shows power required for idle disks and for each level of AutoMAID.These figures were determined at Nexsan’s laboratory on Nexsan equipment under theguidance and supervision of Wikibon Energy Labs. Wikibon certifies the accuracy of thedata. Average Power Required for Different Levels of AutoMAID 14.0 13.0 Power for Hitachi 1 Terayte Disk Drive (Watts) 12.0 11.5 10.0 9.2 8.0 6.0 5.6 4.0 3.4 2.0 - Drive Active Idle Disk Drive AutoMAID Level AutoMAID Level AutoMAID Level (No IO Activity) 1 (15% to 20% 2 (35% to 45% 3 (60% to 70% power savings) power savings) savings) Level of AutoMAIDFigure 2 - Power Required for Hitachi 1 Terabyte Disk Drive with Different Levels of AutoMAIDThe time that AutoMAID is invoked can be determined by running a standard report fromeach Nexsan array that itemizes the percentage of time each level of AutoMAID is used,as illustrated in Figure 3 below. Page 5 of 30
  6. 6. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyFigure 3 - Report on AutoMAID Performance from a SATABeast Array (Source: Nexsan, 2008)Wikibon has developed a Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator for AutoMAID todetermine the power savings and the rebates. If the data from figure 3 is entered into thecalculator, the savings are shown in Table 1 below. In this example, the savings would by19,764kWh/year (39%). Page 6 of 30
  7. 7. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology3.0 Technical OverviewMAID technology was introduced first by Copan. In the Copan MAID storagetechnology the maximum number of drives that could be running (spinning) at any giventime was 25% and 75% of all the drives were turned off. This technology is suitable forworkloads that use the drives in the same manner as tape drives such as in backup andarchiving applications. With these applications almost all the I/O activity is sequential;although there is significant delays for data on an idle disk that is randomly accessed (adrive has to be powered down and another powered up), the number of these dataaccesses are few and the delay can be tolerated by the application and users. Howevermany if not most applications require the ability to make random access to all data on alldisks, and the COPAN implementation of MAID cannot be applied generally.Drive manufacturers such as Hitachi have recently introduced multiple powered downstates. This was first introduced for laptops, and has now been extended into enterpriseSATA drives that are used in enterprise storage arrays. For example, Hitachi allows adrive to be in one of four power states: Level 0: o Normal operation at 7,200 rpm with heads loaded (un-parked) MAID level 1: o Heads Unloaded (parked, reduces wind resistance on heads) o 15% to 20% power savings o Sub-second recovery time MAID level 2: o Heads Unloaded, o Slows to 4000 rpm o 35% to 45% power savings o 15 second recovery time MAID level 3: o Stops spinning (sleep mode; powered on) o 60% to 70% savings o 30 to 45 second recovery timeSeagate has a SATA drive that allows the drive just to be powered off (MAID level 3),and Western Digital has a SATA drive so-called “Green Drive” that revolves slower(5,400rpm) and can also park the heads (MAID level 1). Nexsan currently deploy Hitachiand Seagate drives in their SATA storage arrays, and may introduce other diskmanufactures later.Nexsan has developed software and hardware features called AutoMAID that allowscontrol of when these levels are evoked and how quickly, which level of MAID isinvoked, and reports to the user of the amount of time that each of the drives is in eachMAID state. Page 7 of 30
  8. 8. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyWikibon defined and reviewed the power measurements on the drives available onNexsan’s SATABeast & SATABoy storage arrays, with and without the use ofAutoMAID. Wikibon found that the key variables that determined the power usage werethe type of controller (SATABeast or SATABoy), the number of controllers (dual orsingle) and the level of AutoMAID engaged. Table 2 below gives the savings per drivefrom AutoMAID, which were derived from the detailed component measurements taken.The section below called “Power Measurement Methodology” gives additional detail.Wikibon and Nexsan conducted a rigorous analysis of the benefits that Nexsan customershad achieved with the use of AutoMAID. The analysis showed that when AutoMAID isinstalled in a suitable environment, the disks will be stopped on average over 50% of thetime. Full details are given in the section “AutoMAID Effectiveness in the Real World”below. These savings can be verified with a report from each array that itemizes thesavings, as illustrated in Figure 4.Used in combination, these results represent a complete and accurate reflection of theactual power that would be consumed by Nexsan’s storage array products in a data center Page 8 of 30
  9. 9. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technologyenvironment with and without AutoMAID, and the likely power efficiency savings thatAutoMAID will achieve.Figure 4 - Report on AutoMAID Power Efficiency from SATABeast/SATABoy Arrays (Source:Nexsan, 2008)Wikibon Energy Labs developed the Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator forAutoMAID. The methodology used was based on PG&E methodology for calculatingincentives. The data in this report is used in the calculator. The detailed inputs andoutputs are shown in Appendix III. Page 9 of 30
  10. 10. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology4.0 Measurement Methodology for PowerThe Nexsan SATABeast and SATABoy storage arrays are built from standardcomponents, and enable the power of different configurations to be calculated. Themeasurements were made at the component level; measurements were taken of the arraycontroller (either single or dual) and the drives. Included in the measurements was theperformance of the drives when idle and under a benchmark load, and when differentlevels of AutoMAID were invoked. Table 2 above gives the impact of the measurements.Table 3 below gives power consumption of the key components in the SATABeast andSATABoy configurations.The measurements on the array controllers were for AutoMAID level zero (i.e., normaloperation) were made with a mixed workload of sequential reads, random reads,sequential writes, random writes and idle state (no data being transferred). All themeasurements for AutoMAID levels one through three were made with the system in idlestate.The results of the three workloads were averaged to produce an overall figure of powerconsumption for each of the components of the Nexsan arrays. Wikibon believes that thebenchmarks used and the power measurements made were done professionally and ingood faith. In the opinion of Wikibon, this measurement represents a good andreasonable estimate of the power consumed in the real world applications across anumber of drives for “typical” combinations of applications found in a data center.4.1 Equipment MeasuredThe Nexsan storage array and components measured were: o SATABeast Dual Controller - GN60 o Controllers - 000402FC400D / 000402FC312B o Chasis - 01754065 o 512MB cache per controller o 42 x Drives o 4 x 10 disk RAID 5 sets o 1 volume per RAID set o 2 x Hot spares o DCNR - one Volume per port or Single controller 2 volumes per portThe load testing host equipment was: o Dell 1850, Dual 3Ghz Xeon CPU o 2 x Q-Logic 8GBp/s Dual port HBAs o 4 or 2 ports Direct Attached in dual controller or single controller respectivelyThe drives measured were: o Hitachi HUA721010KLA330 7200rpm 1TB, 750GB, 500GB SATA drives Page 10 of 30
  11. 11. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology o Seagate ST31000340NS 7200rpm 1TB, 750GB SATA drives o Western Digital WD1000FYPS 5400rpm 1TB (not included in results as not yet announced by Nexsan)4.2 Measuring Equipment UsedAmp measurements were made with a Fluke 600 A AC True-rms Clamp Meter 335, SN –95980112. Volt measurements were made with a Fluke 189 True-rms Multimeter.4.3 Location of TestingThe testing was done in Nexsan’s facility at Application Support Lab 1, NexsanTechnologies, 302 Enterprise Street, Escondido, CA 92029 USA (tel: 866.463.9726). Thetesting was overseen by Nitsan Tucker, at the above address and phone number. Page 11 of 30
  12. 12. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology5.0 Drive & Controller Measurement ResultsThe chart below summarizes the power consumption results from the drive and controllermeasurements taken by Nexsan. The detailed measurements are shown in Appendix II.The results of the analysis allow the power consumption of each of the drive components(drive chassis and each disk drive type) to be calculated. The final results are shown inTable 3. This table is used to power the incentive calculator for AutoMAID.The characteristics of thebenchmarks run to give themeasurements under load aregiven in Appendix I below.The controller and drive figuresunder load were used todetermine the powerconsumption that would havebeen required without AutoMAID, the base case. The idle drive figures were used tocalculate the reduction of power requirements as a result of AutoMAID, and calculate theoverall power consumption with AutoMAID. The difference between the two gives thedirect drive power savings. Derived from AutoMAID. Page 12 of 30
  13. 13. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology 6.0 AutoMAID Effectiveness in the Real World Nexsan did a detailed study of eight customers who were analyzing the deployment of AutoMAID across multiple SATABeast arrays. The results of the study are shown in Table 4 below. What was interesting was the high variability of when AutoMAID could be deployed. The most interesting statistic was that AutoMAID could be deployed at some level 58% of the time. The other interesting statistic was that 80% of the time that AutoMAID was deployed, it was deployed at level 3, the highest level of power saving.Nexsan Storage Use MAID LevelsUser Application Day  Evening Weekend Comments AM0 AM1 AM2 AM3 Most clients use the system during Genealogy Data 1 2 4 the evening and weekends ‐ day  48% 5% 5% 43% use is lightMedical Image Archive 4 1 2 52% 4% 4% 39%Scientific Images 1 2 2 31% 6% 6% 57%email Archive 1 2 2 31% 6% 6% 57%Medical Research Archive 2 2 3 46% 6% 6% 43%Test System for delivering rich media  2 2 3 46% 6% 6% 43%Test System for delivering scientific research data 2 2 3 46% 6% 6% 43% Part of the system is used for Storage and backup of rich media 3 2 1 backup ‐ that portion can use MAID  40% 6% 6% 48% since day use is lightHours/week 60 60 48 Average 42% 6% 6% 47% AutoMAID Profile MAID Level AM0 AM1 AM2 AM3High (AM0 14%, AM1 7%, AM2 7%, AM3 72%) 1 High 14% 7% 7% 72%Average (AM0 40%, AM1 6%, AM2 6%, AM3 48%) 2 Average 40% 6% 6% 48%Low (AM0 60%, AM1 5%, AM2 5%, AM3 30%) 3 Low 60% 5% 5% 30%None (AM0 100%, AM1 0%, AM2 0%, AM3 0%) 4 None 100% 0% 0% 0%Table 4 - Study of Nexsan SATABeast Storage Users and deployment of AutoMAID The following screen shots of the AutoMAID Utilization Tracking Log Screen were taken from eleven (11) production Nexsan SATABeasts and SATABoys with AutoMAID installed. They show the level of impact on energy efficiency that AutoMAID has had on these arrays. The results vary from very little impact to very high impact. Figure 7 shows the log from a 42TB (42 disk) SATABeast system used for running various test in a LB. The 90 day log shows high energy saving, with the disks stopped 85% of the time. Page 13 of 30
  14. 14. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyFigure 5 -SATABeast System 42TB used for running various tests in a LAB – High Energy Saving –90 day logThe array reflected in Table 5 was being used in a test environment. Over a 45 day periodthe disks in the system were stopped (AutoMAID level 3) 96% of the time. This ischaracteristic of many test environments, with long inactivity and occasional bursts ofcritical work.Table 5- SATABeast 42TB System used for running customer application simulations in a LAB –High Energy Saving – 45 day logThe report from the array in Table 6 shows a smaller high-end production environmentwith critical databases where AutoMAID was not relevant. The disks were active 93% ofthe time, and the energy savings from AutoMAID were low to negligible. Page 14 of 30
  15. 15. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyTable 6 - 4TB System used in high end production environment with critical databases – Low EnergySaving – 30 day logThe array log in Table 7 shows the power saving results from a file and image contentsystem for long-term archiving. AutoMAID is highly relevant. The disks were stopped89% of the time, and the energy savings from AutoMAID were high.Table 7 - SATABeast 42TB System used for holding file and image content for long term– HighEnergy Saving – 120 day logThe array log in Table 8 shows the power saving results from a small company mixedapplication environment with a mix of very active and non-active systems. file and imagecontent system for long-term archiving. AutoMAID is highly relevant. The disks werestopped 30% of the time, and the energy savings from AutoMAID were medium to low.Table 8 - 14TB System used in daily production environment for a small company with a mixedapplication environment - Medium to Low Energy Saving – 60 day logThe array log in Table 9 shows the power saving results from an archiving system.Again, AutoMAID is highly relevant. The disks were stopped 85% of the time, and theenergy savings from AutoMAID were very high. Page 15 of 30
  16. 16. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyTable 9 - SATABoy 14TB System used for holding archive data– High Energy Saving – 50 day logThe array log in Table 10 shows the power saving results from a backup and recoverysystem for a full production environment. This type of system is characterized by verysignificant activity for short periods of time, followed by inactivity for most of the time.This is an excellent environment for AutoMAID, and the disks were stopped 81% of thetime. The energy savings from AutoMAID were very high.Table 10 - SATABeast 42TB System used in backup environment- holding backups of productionenvironments – High Energy Saving – 65 day logThe array from the log in Table 11 shows the power saving results from a systemdesigned to test video games systems. This and other resting environments are excellentfor AutoMAID, and the disks were stopped 90% of the time. The energy savings fromAutoMAID were very high. Page 16 of 30
  17. 17. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyTable 11 - SATABoy 14TB System used for testing video systems– High Energy Saving – 75 day logThe array from the log in Table 9 shows the power saving results from a system newlyinstalled and at rest. This happens a lot, before systems are migrated over to the newsystem. This of course reduces the power consumption very considerable and is a tailor-made environments for AutoMAID with the disks stopped 99% of the time. The energysavings from AutoMAID were very high. Page 17 of 30
  18. 18. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyTable 12 - SATABoy 14TB System at rest – powered but not being used – High Energy Saving – 2week logThe array from the log in Table 13 shows the power saving results from a long-termcontent archiving system. As usual, this is a suitable environments for AutoMAID withthe disks stopped 94% of the time. The energy savings from AutoMAID were very high. Page 18 of 30
  19. 19. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyTable 13 - SATABoy 14TB System used for holding content for long term– High Energy Saving – 50day logThe array from the log in Table 14 below shows the power saving results from a testingand simulation environment. This again is a suitable environments for AutoMAID withthe disks stopped 81% of the time. The energy savings from AutoMAID were high. Page 19 of 30
  20. 20. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyTable 14 - SASBoy 4TB System used for testing and simulations– High Energy Saving – 40 day logOverall the percentage of time that AutoMAID was able to save power by stopping thedisks varied from 3% to 99%. The majority of the environments were well over 50%.In some environments there will be software constraints that will mean that AutoMAIDlevels 3 and sometimes 2 cannot be deployed. Almost all environments should be able totake advantage of AutoMAID level 1. Page 20 of 30
  21. 21. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology7.0 Appendix I – Benchmark I/O DefinitionThe definition of the I/O loads that were run against the components is given in Table 15below. The average I/O block size is 1 MB, which is a reasonable estimate of what isfound in real-world usage of Nexsan SATABeast and SATABoy storage arraydeployments. This benchmark was run against all the array components and the powermeasurement (volts and amps) were taken. All the array components were also run in idlestate, i.e., no I/O.The overall mix for components load was defined as 2/3 load benchmark (as defined inTable 15 above), and 1/3 idle measurements. Wikibon confirms that this is an accurateestimate of the power consumption that would be found in real world conditions whenunder load. Page 21 of 30
  22. 22. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology8.0 Appendix II – Detailed Measurements (VA) Page 22 of 30
  23. 23. Single  Single  Single  Single  Peak without  Idle without  Load without  Emply 2/2  Emply 2/2  Drive  Single  Single  Single Drive  Drive  Drive  Drive  MFR MFR M/N CAPACITY/RPM Test Peak Idle Load Chassis Chassis Chassis MAID Lv1 MAID Lv2 MAID Lv3 # Drives chassis  Peak chassis  Idle Peak Drive Idle Drive Load Average MAID Lv1 MAID Lv2 MAID Lv3 Hitachi  HUA721010KLA330 1000/7200 Amps 9 6.1 6.9 9 6.1 6.9 5.3 3.9 3.1 42 Hitachi  HUA721010KLA330 1000/7200 Volts 114.3 115.15 115.65 114.3 115.15 115.65 114.8 116.73 116.95 42 Hitachi  HUA721010KLA330 1000/7200 Watts 1028.7 702.415 797.985 808.68 482.395 577.965 388.42 235.227 142.525 42 220.02 220.02 19.3 11.5 13.8 13.0 9.2 5.6 3.4 Hitachi  HUA721010KLA330 1000/7200 BTU/hr Hitachi  750/7200 Amps 8.6 5.6 6.9 9 5.6 6.9 5.3 3.9 3.1 42 Hitachi  750/7200 Volts 116.9 117.3 115.65 114.3 117.3 115.65 114.8 116.73 116.95 42 Hitachi  750/7200 Watts 1005.34 656.88 797.985 808.68 436.86 577.965 388.42 235.227 142.525 42 220.02 220.02 19.3 10.4 13.8 12.6 8.4 5.1 3.1 Hitachi  750/7200 BTU/hr Wikibon Energy Lab Hitachi  500/7200 Amps 8.1 4.9 6.9 9 4.9 6.9 5.3 3.9 3.1 42 Hitachi  500/7200 Volts 116.94 117.2 115.65 114.3 117.2 115.65 114.8 116.73 116.95 42 Hitachi  500/7200 Watts 947.214 574.28 797.985 808.68 354.26 577.965 388.42 235.227 142.525 42 220.02 220.02 19.3 8.4 13.8 12.0 6.8 4.1 2.5 Hitachi  500/7200 BTU/hr Seagate ST31000340NS 1000/7200 Amps 9.7 5.5 6.7 9.7 5.5 6.7 x x 2.7 42 Seagate ST31000340NS 1000/7200 Volts 114.2 115.2 115.1 114.2 115.2 115.1 x x 116.1 42 Seagate ST31000340NS 1000/7200 Watts 1107.74 633.6 771.17 887.72 413.58 551.15 x x 93.45 42 220.02 220.02 21.1 9.8 13.1 12.0 9.8 9.8 2.2 Seagate ST31000340NS 1000/7200 BTU/hr x x Seagate 750/7200 Amps 8.8 5.3 6.7 9.7 5.3 6.7 x x 2.7 42 Seagate 750/7200 Volts 114.81 115.05 115.1 114.2 115.05 115.1 x x 116.1 42 Seagate 750/7200 Watts 1010.328 609.765 771.17 887.72 389.745 551.15 x x 93.45 42 220.02 220.02 21.1 9.3 13.1 11.8 9.3 9.3 2.2 Seagate 750/7200 BTU/hr x x Nexsan Storage Arrays withPage 23 of 30 AutoMAID Technology
  24. 24. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology9.0 Appendix III – Description of Wikibon EnergyLab Power Calculator for AutoMAIDThe information for the Nexsan customer applying for the PG&E incentive is input in theblue boxes as illustrated in Figure 8 below.Step 1 - Customer Information Company Name: Nexsan Customer Street Address: 1 Data Center Blvd., City: City State: CA Zip Code: 94000Figure 6 - Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator Input - Customer InformationThe equipment that will be installed is input in the blue boxes as illustrated in Figure 9below.Step 2 - Storage System Information Proposed Storage System - Enter the description, drive size, and number of drives for the proposed storage systems. Inputs Total Storage Description System for Nexsan SATABeast Vendor Drive Size # Disk Drives Capacity GB # TB Storage System Requirements Hitachi 500 0 0 Storage System Requirements Hitachi 750 0 0 Storage System Requirements Seagate 750 0 0 Storage System Requirements Hitachi 1000 200 200 Total Storage 200 200 SATABeast Number of SATA Beasts 5 Dual or Single Controller? Dual Total Storage Drive Size # Disk Drives Description System for Nexsan SATABoy Capacity GB # TB Storage System Requirements Hitachi 500 0 0 Storage System Requirements Hitachi 750 0 0 Storage System Requirements Seagate 750 0 0 Storage System Requirements Hitachi 1000 0 0 Total Storage 0 0 SATABoy Number of SATABoys 0 Dual or Single Controller? Single The proposed storage system with AutoMAID provides the same performance as the baseline storage system with fewer number of drives spinning and Assumptions: lower power costsFigure 7 - Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator Input - Storage System InformationThe information about UPS in the data center where the storage equipment will beinstalled is input in the blue boxes as illustrated in Figure 10 below. Page 24 of 30
  25. 25. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyStep 3 - UPS Information Units Comments UPS present in data center? Yes If yes, UPS losses included in cooling load calculations Total UPS Capacity 250,000 VA Enter total rated UPS capacity Baseline UPS Loading 100,000 VA Connected critical load using standard storage system, incl UPS type (see table below) 1 Use Type 1 if unsure UPS Efficiency Profiles Label Description Comments 1 Baseline UPS efficiency Equivalent to average double conversion performance 2 High Efficiency Double Conversion Best measured efficiency curve for double-conversion UPS. 3 High Efficiency Delta Conversion Measured efficiency for delta conversion line-interactive UPS. 4 High Efficiency Flywheel Based on 4th order polynomial best fit of flywheel data. 5 User Defined Efficiency Curve If known, enter efficiency of UPS on Calculator tabFigure 8 - Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator Input - UPS InformationThe information about the cooling in the data center where the storage equipment will beinstalled is input in the blue boxes as illustrated in Figure 11 below.Step 4- Cooling System Information Existing Cooling System Capacity 2 Enter single-digit number from Table below. Cooling System Types Worst Efficiency Individual Nominal During Compressor Annual Average System Installed Cooling Summer Baseline Cooling System Nominal Efficiency Type Capacity Peak Capacity Demand Period tons* tons kW/ton kW/ton 1 < 360 Air-cooled DX CRAC units 40 1.29 1.64 2 >= 360 Water-cooled chilled water plant, serving chilled water CRAC units <150 1.22 1.22 3 >=150 and 1.13 1.13 <300 4 >=300 1.01 1.01 5 n/a No dedicated computer cooling 0 0 0 * Not including redundancy. 1 ton of cooling is equal to 3.52 kW. For 100 kW of energy input to the storage system, 28.4 tons of cooling is required.Figure 9 - Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator Input - Cooling System InformationThe information about the AutoMAID usage on the storage equipment will be installed isinput in the blue boxes as illustrated in Figure 12 below. On initial submission, the usageis estimated using the pull-downs for daytime, evening and weekend AutoMAID usage.When the storage system is installed, the data from the AutoMAID Performance report(see Figure 3 for an example) can be input. Page 25 of 30
  26. 26. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyStep 5 - Other Customer InputsAnnual Average Electric Cost $ 0.12 per kWh Including all fees and demand charges.Cost of AutoMAID per SATABeast Controller $ 10,000Cost of AutoMAID per SATABoy Controller $ 5,000Total Cost of Storage System with AutoMAID $ 300,000 Note: The total cost includes the software costsTotal Cost of AutoMAID Features $ 50,000Total Cost of Storage System without AutoMAID $ 250,000 This is calculated by taking the total cost of the Storage system with software and subtracting the cost of the softwareType of AutoMAID Profile Daytime Low (Active 45%, AM0 11%, AM1 7%, AM2 7%, AM3 30%)Type of AutoMAID Profile Evening High (Active 5%, AM0 3%, AM1 7%, AM2 0%, AM3 85%)Type of AutoMAID Profile Weekend High (Active 5%, AM0 3%, AM1 7%, AM2 0%, AM3 85%) AutoMAID Profile Active AM0 (Idle) AM1 AM2 AM3 High (Active 5%, AM0 3%, AM1 7%, AM2 0%, AM3 85%) High 5% 3% 7% 0% 85% Average (Active 25%, AM0 15%, AM1 6%, AM2 6%, AM3 48%) Average 25% 15% 6% 6% 48% Low (Active 45%, AM0 11%, AM1 7%, AM2 7%, AM3 30%) Low 45% 11% 7% 7% 30% None (Active 65%, AM0 35%, AM1 0%, AM2 0%, AM3 0%) None 65% 35% 0% 0% 0% Calculation of Average AM0=AutoMAID level 0, Idle, no savings Index Hours/Week Active AM0 AM1 AM2 AM3 AM1=AutoMAID level 1, Heads parked 3 60 45% 11% 7% 7% 30% AM2=AutoMAID level 2, Heads parked and drive slowed 1 60 5% 3% 7% 0% 85% AM3=AutoMAID level 3, Drive in Standby 1 48 5% 3% 7% 0% 85% Total 168 19% 6% 7% 3% 65%Figure 10 - Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator Input - AutoMAID Usage InformationThe output from the Wikibon Energy Lab Power Calculator is illustrated in Figure 13below. A more complete read out is available from the Power Calculator is availablewhen calculating specific incentive amounts. Page 26 of 30
  27. 27. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology10. Appendix IV – Description of NexsanAutoMAIDIn tradition storage arrays, disk drives continue to rotate all the time, which uses powerand require cooling. High performance FC disks rotate at 10,000 or 15,000 rpm. Almostall high density disks (SATA disks) rotate at 7,200 rpm. Nexsans AutoMAID (AutomaticMassive Array of Idle Disks) energy saving technology transparently places SATA diskdrives into different idle states to reduce power and cooling costs.AutoMAID is granular to an individual drive or RAID set and offers multiple levels ofenergy savings. AutoMAID is user selectable enabling users to determine the right trade-off between response time performance and energy savings.Drive manufacturers have recently introduced multiple powered down states. This wasfirst introduced for laptops, and has now been extended into enterprise SATA drives thatare used in enterprise storage arrays. For example, Hitachi allows a drive to be in one offour power states: Level 0: o Normal operation at 7,200 rpm with heads loaded (un-parked) MAID level 1: o Heads Unloaded (parked, reduces wind resistance on heads) o 15% to 20% power savings o Sub-second recovery time MAID level 2: o Heads Unloaded, o Slows to 4000 rpm o 35% to 45% power savings o 15 second recovery time MAID level 3: o Stops spinning (sleep mode; powered on) o 60% to 70% savings o 30 to 45 second recovery timeSeagate has a SATA drive that allows the drive just to be powered off (MAID level 3),and Western Digital has a SATA drive so-called “Green Drive” that revolves slower(5,400rpm) and can also park the heads (MAID level 1). Nexsan currently deploy Hitachi500GB, 750GB and 1TB drives, together with 750GB Seagate drives in their SATAstorage arrays, and may introduce other disk manufacturers later.It is expected that drive manufactures will introduce additional levels of power savings,and much faster recovery times to access data. The faster recovery times will beparticularly useful, as it will avoid potential impacts on the application. Page 27 of 30
  28. 28. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyFigure 14 below illustrates the cycle of moving from a disk or disks in sleep mode,through a request for data and reactivation of the drives, through the cascade downthrough the MAID levels until the disk is in sleep mode again. Nexsan storage drives climb to Requests for full high speed and start data have managing data requests stopped – Nexsan * Delay times between moving to This initial start time varies. AutoMAID different AutoMAID levels and From MAID level 1 under 1 sec waits another which levels to use are fully Initial From MAID level 2 15 sec 10* minutes After 10* configurable From MAID level 3 30-45 sec to be sure minutes data there are no Nexsan request AutoMAID Note: Many applications / HBAs additional arrives parks the have a timeout of 120 sec. Some requests applications will assume that heads to 10* minutes there is a I/O problem and evoke conserve later Nexsan error recovery energy AutoMAID MAID level 1 slows the drives to conserve 10* minutes laterNexsan storage drives more energy Nexsan AutoMAID putsare at rest to save MAID level 2 the drives back to restenergy for maximum energyMAID level 3 conservation 15-20 % 35-45% MAID level 3 energy energy 60-75% energy60% energy saving saving saving savingFigure 11 - AutoMAID in Action (Source: Nexsan, modified by Wikibon)10.1 Nexsan Storage Array SpecificationsSATABeast Technical Specifications o Up to 42 SATA drives in a 4U rack configuration o Dual 4Gb Fibre Channel SFP LC host ports per controller o Dual iSCSI ports per controller o Single or Dual active/active controllers o Dual Power Supplies Page 28 of 30
  29. 29. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID TechnologyFigure 12 - Nexsan SATABeast (Source: Nexsan, http://www.nexsan.com/satabeast/tech.php,downloaded 9/28/2008)SATABoy Technical Specifications o Dual 2Gb Fibre Channel ports and dual iSCSI ports per controller or quad SCSI ports on a single controller o Single or dual active/active controllers o Up to fourteen SATA drives in a 3U rack configuration o Dual Power SuppliesFigure 13 - Nexsan SATABoy (Source: Nexsan, http://www.nexsan.com/sataboy/tech.php,downloaded 9/28/2008) Page 29 of 30
  30. 30. Wikibon Energy Lab Nexsan Storage Arrays with AutoMAID Technology Page 30 of 30

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