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Pedestrian Safety on the Arabian Peninsula

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In partnership with Fehr+Peers, we worked in the United Arab Emirates to develop pedestrian safety changes to help a rapidly growing country deal with a constant issue of pedestrian injuries and fatalities

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Pedestrian Safety on the Arabian Peninsula

  1. 1. Pedestrian Safety in the United Arab Emirates Charlie Alexander, PE Paul Supawanich, LEEP AP Fehr & Peers NelsonNygaard Roseville, CA San Francisco, CA
  2. 2. Presentation Summary • Background • Pedestrian safety process • Nuances of working abroad • Questions
  3. 3. Quick Poll • Who has worked internationally? • Who has worked in the UAE?
  4. 4. BackgroundWhere is Al Ain? 121.5° W 56° E 177.5° Half way around the world (almost)
  5. 5. BackgroundWhere is Al Ain?
  6. 6. BackgroundWhere is Al Ain?
  7. 7. Pedestrian Safety ProcessFlowchart Define problem Identify priority locations Develop targeted improvements
  8. 8. Pedestrian Safety ProcessFlowchart Define problem Identify priority locations Develop targeted improvements
  9. 9. BackgroundHistory Abu Dhabi, 1962 Dubai, 2010 Boston, MA San Francisco, CA 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Settlement Timeline St. Augustine, FL Sacramento, CA New York, NY
  10. 10. BackgroundCommon Ingredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Low density land use pattern • Large roadways • Lack of safe crossings • High vehicle speeds • Dangerous driver behavior • Ineffective pedestrian safety treatments
  11. 11. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Low density land use pattern  National housing policy  Low gas prices School $1.46 Mosque per gallon School 1.2 units/acre Source: www.maps.google.com
  12. 12. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Large, high-speed roadways Multiple-threat collision Source: http://guide.saferoutesinfo.org
  13. 13. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Large roadways with long blocks 1 mile Source: www.maps.google.com
  14. 14. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Large roadways 60 km/hr = 50 mi/hr
  15. 15. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Large roadways
  16. 16. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Lack of safe crossings
  17. 17. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • High vehicle speeds Free right-turn at signalized intersection
  18. 18. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • High vehicle speeds Source: Dangerous by Design 2011 60 km/hr = 37 mi/hr Transportation for America
  19. 19. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Dangerous driver behavior  Politics of driving What speed bump?
  20. 20. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment • Ineffective pedestrian safety treatments  Full-time flashing beacon (Belisha Beacon) Observed yield compliance: 0%
  21. 21. BackgroundPedestrian Safety: USA vs. UAE • Dangerous by Design 2011 • Ranks metro areas by Pedestrian Danger Index  Pedestrian deaths per 100,000 people  Walk mode share Source: Dangerous by Design 2011 Transportation for America
  22. 22. BackgroundPedestrian Safety: USA vs. UAE Source: Dangerous by Design 2011 Transportation for America
  23. 23. BackgroundPedestrian Safety: USA vs. UAE • Al Ain  2009 Population = 374,000  2008 Pedestrian fatalities = 28  Avg. annual pedestrian deaths per 100,000 = 7.5 Source: Dangerous by Design 2011 Transportation for America
  24. 24. BackgroundIngredients of a Dangerous Pedestrian Environment Low density land use Large roadways Lack of safe crossings Dangerous driver behavior
  25. 25. BackgroundImprovement of Pedestrian Safety and Movement in Al Ain and Suburbs • Summer 2010 – Al Ain Municipality hires project team  Background: where is walking occurring, where have collisions occurred • November/December 2010 –team visits Al Ain for two weeks  Stakeholder meetings  Site visits • January 2011 – July 2011 –team develops recommendations • August 2011 – team submits draft report
  26. 26. Pedestrian Safety ProcessFlowchart Define problem Identify priority locations Develop targeted improvements
  27. 27. Site SelectionWhere to Focus Planning Efforts Approx 200 sq. miles
  28. 28. Site Selection: US ExampleWalkFirst Project | San Francisco
  29. 29. Site Selection: US ExamplePedestrian Activity The WalkFirst Program takes into account seven different factors to serve as indicators for pedestrian activity  Access / need to walk (transit and walking mode share)  Transit ridership (daily transit boardings)  Population density (residential and job density)  Pedestrian generators (schools, medical facilities, retail, senior centers, etc)  Vulnerable populations  Income  Street slope
  30. 30. Site Selection: US ExamplePedestrian Activity
  31. 31. Site Selection: US ExamplePedestrian Safety
  32. 32. Replicating this methodology in the UAE“Same but Different” While the basic approach is the same, the level of data available and other cultural norms require a slightly different approach; our team used five input categories throughout our process. 1. Pedestrian generators 2. Pedestrian crashes and collisions 3. Estimated and observed pedestrian volumes 4. Level of potential improvement 5. Local stakeholder priority
  33. 33. Replicating this methodology in the UAEDesired Deliverables The desired goal was to have a prioritized list of 46 sites. The following process was used to come up with this list.Step #1- Develop Step #2-Prioritize Sites: Step #3-Re-evaluate:Preliminary Site List: Using all five factors, Using this methodology,Using maps of pedestrian each with their own the sites list was thengenerators, crashes, and individual weightings, reviewed to ensure thatstakeholder nominated score each site to the outputs maintainedsites, identify determine relative priority consistency with projectapproximately top 50 goals.locations appropriate forpedestrian improvements
  34. 34. Step #1
  35. 35. Locating Mosques
  36. 36. Step #1
  37. 37. Step #1
  38. 38. Step #2Factors for Site Prioritization Factor Description Range Weighted Factor Close proximity (300m) toNearby pedestrian generators pedestrian generators such as 1-4 20% schools, mosques, etc. Number of pedestrian crashesNearby pedestrian crashes 1-4 25% near or within site areaEstimated/Observed Pedestrian Nearby pedestrian generators and 1-5 15%Volumes observed pedestrian activity Qualitative score developed fromLevel of potential improvement site visits reflecting the potential 1-5 30% ability to improve a site Variable to reflect communityStakeholder Priority stakeholder needs and desires for 1-3 10% site priority 100%
  39. 39. Step #3Evaluation of Final List of Sites Site Number Site Name Site Selection Source Category Summary 1 Khaled Bin Sultan Street at Mutawaa/Sanaiya DOT PSAP Midblock Crossing 2 Al Safia Hypermarket Al Ain Police Roundabout 3 Area around new football stadium Al Ain Police Midblock Crossing 4 Diwan Roundabout Al Ain Police Roundabout 6 Al Ain Bus Station Al Ain Police Midblock Crossing 7 Lulu Hypermarket Al Ain Police Midblock Crossing 13a Green Mubazzarah #1 Al Ain Police Other 13b Green Mubazzarah #2 Al Ain Police Other 14 School Area Parking Lot School Safety Study Midblock Crossing / Parking Lot 15 Al Foaa Area Infrastructure Development Al Ain Municipality Midblock Crossing 17 UAE University Phase 3 Al Ain Municipality New Development 18 School Area #3 - Khaled Bin Sultan Site Selection Analysis Midblock Crossing / Parking Lot 19 Bani Yas and 16th Street Site Selection Analysis Midblock Crossing 20 School Area Parking Lot #2 Site Selection Analysis Parking Lot 22 Balidiya Park North Site Selection Analysis Other 23 Balidiya Park South Site Selection Analysis Other 24 68th Street - Al Salamat Site Selection Analysis Neighborhood Traffic Calming 25 48th Street - Al Salamat Site Selection Analysis Neighborhood Traffic Calming 26 116 St - Central District Site Selection Analysis Midblock Crossing 27 4th St and 2nd St - Central District Site Selection Analysis Neighborhood Traffic Calming 29 Khalifa Bin Zayed at Palace* Site Selection Analysis Midblock Crossing 31 Al Ain St - Mutawaa Site Selection Analysis Midblock Crossing / Parking Lot 32 Sultan Bin Zayed Al Awwal at Al Jahili Fort Site Selection Analysis Junction 33 2nd Street - Al Sarooj Site Selection Analysis Neighborhood Traffic Calming 36 Mohammed Bin Khalifa at Al Noor Markets Site Selection Analysis Midblock Crossing 37 Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Awwal - Al Jimi Site Selection Analysis Midblock Crossing 38 Hili Industrial Area Site Selection Analysis Neighborhood Traffic Calming 39 50th Street - Al Jimi Site Selection Analysis Neighborhood Traffic Calming 40 Khalifa Bin Zayed near Jebel R/A Site Selection Analysis Other 41 16th Street - Kindergarten Site Selection Analysis Neighborhood Traffic Calming Neighborhood Traffic Calming / Sidewalks and 42 Street #3 - Al Muwaiji Site Selection Analysis Walkways 43 Hamdan Ibn Zayed Al Awwal Al Towayya Site Selection Analysis Roundabout 44 Zayed Bin Sultan and Road 1 Site Selection Analysis Midblock Crossing 45 Al Ain Street near Palace Site Selection Analysis Parking Lot 46 Al Krhair Site Selection Analysis Sidewalks and Walkways 47a Hamdan Bin Mohammed - Al Khabisi Workshop #1 Midblock Crossing 47b Hamdan Bin Mohammed R/A - Al Khabisi Workshop #1 Roundabout 53a Al Ain Mall #1 Workshop #1 Midblock Crossing 53b Al Ain Mall #2 Workshop #1 Neighborhood Traffic Calming 53c Al Ain Mall #3 Workshop #1 Midblock Crossing 51 Bani Yas - Hili Workshop #1 Midblock Crossing 52 Khaled Bin Sultan at Omar Bin Al Khattab Workshop #1 Midblock Crossing 54 Sanaiya Junction Al Ain Police Neighborhood Traffic Calming 55 Sanaiya Al Ain Police Neighborhood Traffic Calming 56 Al Dhaher Neighborhood Workshop #1 Midblock Crossing 57 Mezyad Workshop #1 Midblock Crossing
  40. 40. Pedestrian Safety ProcessFlowchart Define problem Identify priority locations Develop targeted improvements
  41. 41. ImprovementsCommon Themes • Midblock crossings • Neighborhood traffic calming • Junctions • Roundabouts
  42. 42. ImprovementsSite Visits Mean Everything • See through the “eyes of a pedestrian” • Document everything • Use aerial maps • Take photos of everything
  43. 43. Crosswalks: US ExampleCrosswalk Research • Herms, Bruce. (1972) Pedestrian crosswalk study: accidents in painted and unpainted crosswalks. Transportation Research Record, 406.  “The San Diego study”  Marked crosswalks vs. unmarked crossways  Increased incidence of pedestrian collisions in marked crosswalks  Did not differentiate between: o Number of lanes o Traffic volume o Speed limit
  44. 44. Crosswalks: US ExampleCrosswalk Research • 2002  “The Zegeer study”  Marked vs. unmarked  Two-lane roads o No difference in pedestrian crash rate  Multilane roads o Marked crosswalk alone associated with higher crash rate
  45. 45. Crosswalks: US ExampleCrosswalk Research • “The Zegeer study” Key: C = Candidate sites for marked crosswalks; P = Possible increase in pedestrian crashes may occur if crosswalks are marked without other pedestrian enhancements; N = Marked crosswalks alone are insufficient.
  46. 46. Crosswalks: US ExampleCrosswalk Research • “The Zegeer study” • LOS A-C • LOS D-E • LOS F
  47. 47. Crosswalks: US ExampleCrosswalk Research • 2006  “NCHRP 562”  Researches effectiveness of different crosswalk treatments o Red beacon displays o Flashing beacons o In-roadway lights o Warning signs / markings o Crosswalk markings  Measured yield compliance
  48. 48. Crosswalks: Replicating this research in the UAEApplying USA Research to the UAE • What treatments will generate yield compliance?  Roadway characteristics  Driver characteristics • Environmental factors • Crossings not crosswalks
  49. 49. CrosswalksRecommendations • 2-lane roadway: marked crosswalk • 4-lane roadway:  Raised crosswalk  Rapid Rectangular Flashing Beacon (RRFB) • 6-lane roadway:  Pedestrian signal  HAWK beacon (High-intensity Activated crossWalK beacon)
  50. 50. CrosswalksRecommendations • 4-lane roadway:  Raised crosswalk  Rapid Rectangular Flashing Beacon (RRFB) RRFB Source: www.spotdevices.com Raised crosswalk: before and after
  51. 51. CrosswalksRecommendations • 4-lane roadway
  52. 52. CrosswalksRecommendations • 6-lane roadway:  Pedestrian signal  HAWK beacon (High-intensity Activated crossWalK beacon) HAWK Beacon Source: www.roswellgov.com
  53. 53. CrosswalksRecommendations • 6-lane roadway
  54. 54. Improvements• Neighborhood traffic calming• Junctions• Roundabouts• Principles:  Speed kills o Narrow lanes o Reduce turn radii o Traffic calming  Limit exposure: o Reduce crossing distances o Safe crossings at a reasonable distance o Channelize if necessary
  55. 55. Neighborhood Traffic CalmingRecommendations
  56. 56. Neighborhood Traffic CalmingRecommendations
  57. 57. Junctions (Intersections)Recommendations
  58. 58. RoundaboutsRecommendations
  59. 59. Presentation Summary • Background • Pedestrian safety process • Nuances of working abroad
  60. 60. A Global Project Team
  61. 61. Cultural norms working with stakeholders
  62. 62. Understanding everyday life
  63. 63. Expectations of the automobile
  64. 64. Questions Charlie Alexander, PE Paul Supawanich, LEEP AP Fehr & Peers NelsonNygaard Roseville, CA San Francisco, CAC.Alexander@fehrandpeers.com PSupawanich@nelsonnygaard.com

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