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Instructional Design


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Lecture on Technology Enhanced Learning at Graz University of Technology, 2013

Published in: Education, Technology
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Instructional Design

  1. 1. Instructional Design
  2. 2. Instructional TechnologyThe use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, modem, satellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning
  3. 3. Instructional designThe process by which instruction is improvedthrough the analysis of learning needs andsystematic development of learning materials
  4. 4. Instructional designerInstructional designers often use Instructionaldesign as a method to create instructionalmaterial
  5. 5. Instructional Design modelA systematic guidelines instructional designers follow in order to create a workshop, a course, a curriculum, an instructional program, or a training session (McGriff, 2001)
  6. 6. Instructional Design Models
  7. 7. Dick and Cary Instructional Design Model (1978)
  8. 8. Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction (1992)
  9. 9. Smith and Ragan Model (1993)
  10. 10. kemp, Morrison, and Ross (1994)
  11. 11. ASSURE ModelHeinch, Molenda, Russell, Smaldino (1996)
  12. 12. The five stagesof instructionalDesign
  13. 13. A Analysis D DesignADDIE D Develop I Implement E Evaluate
  14. 14. The ADDIE model The ADDIE model provides instructional designers with aframework in order to make sure that their instructionalproducts are effective . ADDIE stands for the steps of themodel.
  15. 15. Analysis Pre-planning; thinking about the projectSteps of Analysis stageq  Analysis on the studentsq  Analysis on the learning environmentq  Analysis on the Teaching content
  16. 16. Analysisq  Analysis on the studentsØ Students’ particulars such as characters, age, gender, and level in learning.Ø previous knowledge that the students have.Ø students’ learning style. ( There are some who find it easy to understand a new concept if given visual aids, some who like working in groups and some who like working individually)
  17. 17. Analysisq  Analysis on the learning environment Resources that are available in school or some organization such as: tools, cost, timeline, place of learning, will determine the method of presentationq Analysis on the Teaching content In this stage the designer organize the content , and divide it into units , and each unit into tasks and learning activities
  18. 18. Designing Design your project on paperSteps of Designing stageq Designing learning objectivesq Choosing teaching strategiesq Designing user interfaceq Designing the storyboard
  19. 19. Designingq  Design learning objectivesØ  Writing good, sound learning objectives that answer the question “What will the learner be able to DO once they complete this training”Ø  Learning Objectives are usually set for three domains: Cognitive: Creating new knowledge Affective: Developing feelings and emotions Psychomotor :Enhancing physical and manual skills
  20. 20. Cognitive Learning Objectivesq Are designed to increase individual knowledge .Cognitive objectives relate to understanding, comprehension, and critical thinking on a particular topicq Examples:Ø Define the instructional technologyØ Describe the meaning of instructional designØ Recall the different models of instructional design
  21. 21. Designing•  Understanding the various levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy can help you answer this question. The six levels of the Bloom’s Taxonomy are: 1- Knowledge 2- comprehension 3- Application 4- Analysis 5- Synthesis 6- Evaluation
  22. 22. Affective Objectivesq Are designed to describe the way people react emotionally / it describes the growth in (attitudes- emotions- feeling)q ExamplesØ Listen to others with respectØ Recognize the need for balance between freedom and responsible behaviorsØ Show self reliance when working independently
  23. 23. Psychomotor Objectivesq Are designed to describe the ability to physical manipulate a tool or instrument like hand or a hammerq ExamplesØ Make a design for an instructional materialØ Drive a carØ Use personal computer
  24. 24. DesigningØ  Choosing teaching strategies There are various teaching strategies that are commonly used in systematic teaching based on situation and learners. (Some of them are : drilling, tutorial, games and simulation)
  25. 25. DesigningØ  Design the storyboard It is one of the most important steps of designing phase, Storyboard is a graphic organize in the form of illustrations or iamges displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre- visualizing a motion picture, animation, or interactive media sequence. instructional designer is the one that creates the storyboard to guide the programming team who design the project. It allows them to see what the instructional designer wants to create . The first step in creating a storyboard is to draw a series of squares on a piece of paper . Think of these squares as the video frame. In each square a different shot or scene will take place.
  26. 26. Designing•  You can sketch the scenes by hand or create them on a computer or even. Make sure to leave space to write notes and lines from the script beneath or next to each frame.
  27. 27. Designingq  Design the User InterfaceØ  The goal of user interface design is to make the users interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals.Ø  Below are a number of principles and ideas for designing a great user interface.•  Consistency is Vital•  Your Users Will Make Mistakes•  Offer Personalization Options•  Use Tabbed Navigation and Buttons for Actions•  Keep Things Simple•  Display help messages that attract the eye•  Design feedback messages carefully•  Short sign-up forms•  Enable Keyboard Shortcuts Steve Jobs once said, “design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works
  28. 28. •  How to Design a Great User Interface How to Design a Great User Interface
  29. 29. Development Develop course materials and assemble the courseØ The development phase is the process of authoring and producing the course.Ø It is the actual creation of the content and learning materials based on the design phase.
  30. 30. ImplementingThe content is put into action with real students within the learning Environmentq  Now, its time to put the course in front of the learners and measure how they interact with the materials.q  During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed.Ø  The facilitators training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures.Ø  Preparation of the learners include training them on new tools (software or hardware), student registration. and field testing the learning environment for completeness, user-friendliness, and quality
  31. 31. Evaluation Look at the course outcomes with a critical eyeq Two Types of EvaluationØ  Formative evaluation Information for this type of evaluation is collected while going through each of the stages to further improve the teaching and learning process. In order to avoid from having a big problem that can only be detected after a program had been developed.Ø  Summative Evaluation This type of evaluation is done towards the end of the teaching and learning process to evaluate and make any necessary changes for the next session of teaching and learning.
  32. 32. An example for an instructional material (amoral story for kids) Designing an instructional material Type of instructional material Title of the instructional material q Learning Objectives After studying this instructional material , students have to: Ø memorize the number of kitchen items Ø  Identify the function of each kitchen item Ø Know the real meaning of co-operation Ø Stop proud of ourselves q Choosing teaching strategy The instructor selected the storytelling as a teaching strategy to teach his students the real meaning of co-operation ,and to tell his students not to proud of themselves because every one has his own talents
  33. 33. q Design the storyboard Screen shot Video Audio Far shoot for a There was a house, move to a beautiful house close one Zoom in for aside of It has an attractive kitchen kitchen
  34. 34. Design the User Interface A funny Kitchen play When you click on play , the story begins
  35. 35. q ReferencesØØ and-why-do-you-need-one/ØØØØ IDC_instructionaldesignmodels.htm#dickcareyØØØØØ techniques-for-good-user-interface-design-in-web-applicationsØ great-user-interface/ Instructional Design for E-Learning