Monitoring of Social Media for Politics and Elections
MONITORING OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR
POLITICS AND ELECTIONS
History, Applications and Step-by-Step Guide
Social Media and Elections: a partnership with history 3
The Brazil of Protest: electoral year and digital media 5
Applications of Social Media Monitoring in Political and Electoral Marketing 7
Step-by-Step of the Monitoring of the Social Media for Elections 9
SOCIAL MEDIA AND ELECTIONS:
A PARTNERSHIP WITH HISTORY
The importance of the internet and social media in particular is an uncontested truth in the electoral and
political campaigns of recent times. Despite the significance afford to social media, many doubts still
persist regarding the true uses and possibilities it affords. A brief re-cap of the history of digital electoral
provides a useful starting point for exploring the role that social media will play for electoral
communication professionals in 2014.
Political use of the internet in electoral campaigns started in 1992, with the Clinton administration
employing the use of bulletin board systems in the Democratic campaign against George Bush. In 1996,
with the world wide web protocol disseminated, electoral campaigners from both sides of the political
spectrum began using websites as places to distribute information for the benefit of the electorate. This
was the beginning of the understanding of the internet as an alternative means of access to the voting
population and the possibility of making information widely available with relatively negligible costs and
minimal overheads when compared with more traditional methods of communication and canvassing.
From the year 2000 onwards, the increasing prevalence of the internet was the catalyst
for a new level of electoral tactics in social media. With millions of internet users around the world, various
countries with a more connected population started to consider the use of social media much more
prominently in their communication strategies. Blogs played a particularly important role in the elections
of the Labor Government in Britain in 20012
. In 2004 Howard Dean, a primary candidate for the US
Democrats, used various digital resources such as the social media site Meetup to enable supporters to
make contact with one and share ideas. Alongside the use of e-mail address lists and donations via the
web, the United States 2004 elections used data mining techniques to identify areas of support and
generate more mentions via social media sites. Similarly, in Europe the use of the social media site Hyves in
the Dutch elections allowed the electorate to enter into direct contact with candidates running for office.
2008 was a significant turning point for social media and politics and election strategies employed around
the world showed that the use of social media in digital campaigns was here to stay.
campaign for the United States presidency marked a significant shift in the importance of
social media in electoral campaigns. From the primaries onwards, the then Senator Obama was earmarked
as a politician who made use of the diverse digital technologies available to engage in dialogue with US
citizens and voters. In a socio-economic and technological context in which digital media already played a
part in the everyday life, the emergence of a democratic candidate who captured the spirit of the nation
with a desire for political change, coupled with an increasingly young, technologically savvy electorate
proved to be a winning combination for the Democrats. The possibilities of social networks was fully
embraced and realized by the Democrats, with a range of customized and segmented social media
strategies for targeted voter groups. Niche media organizations directed at a range of voter groups such as
BlackPlanet (African-Americans) MiGente (Hispanics), FaithBase (Catholics), Glee (GLBT) and AsianAve
(Asians) gathered carefully selected images, conversations and messages . Social
media sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter were at the centre of a huge investment in a digital
strategy that included a social media campaign called MyBarackObama. All of this resulted in the most
talked about campaign of the last two years, resulting in a decisive election win and record donations of
more than US$500 million, much of it generated via a number of social media platforms.
Since 2008, various cases of social media and election have been well documented in Brazil3
. During these
years, various customized communities for the political debate were launched in the Ning platform. The
use of geolocalisation, through customized maps with the past events or future promises of
accomplishments from politicians were also a highlight. Political blogs were already a feature of many
candidate campaigns as they sought to express a more personal display of their political philosophy and
opinions on current affairs.
In 2010 a monitoring boom of social media began on the back of evidence from political and
communication strategies around the world that showed the contribution that social media could add to
campaigns. The industry recognized that political strategies could be more versatile and responsive to the
general population through monitoring fluctuations in the opinions of the electorate, militancy and
detractors. In the 2012 elections, social media professionals generated even more buzz for the municipal
executive positions. A survey4
launched in July 2012 showed that 75% of federal deputies and 84% of
senators were represented on the internet and social media. This trend gets stronger every year, with
politicians keener than ever to generate visibility, display political opinions, proposals, projects and
maintain open channels of communication with individuals and communities that they serve.
A great deal has changed from the era of the Clinton administration in 1992 to the present day. In Brazil
there is a much greater diversity of digital environments, with greater access to technologies for citizens,
greater consumption of media product by politicians, a greater array of possibilities embraced by electoral
legislations and electronic governing and digital democracy initiatives which offer a continuous
relationship between citizens and public institutions. The successful history of digital campaigns in recent
years, as well as the intense use of social media by Brazilians, has ensured that the marketing and digital
electoral communication professional workforce remains strong.
This year has the potential to leave another significant mark on this history of elections and social media.
The collective intelligence routinely expressed in social media is available for individuals and businesses
that are willing to monitor, analyze and apply their expertise on social media. This whitepaper offers a step-
by-step guide to give an initial kick to the 2014 electoral campaigns.
THE BRAZIL OF PROTEST:
ELECTORAL YEAR AND DIGITAL MEDIA
In June 2013, Brazilian politics and politicians finally began to pay due attention to the force that social
media possessed in harnessing the emergence of mass social movements. Until then, such social networks
were neglected by politicians in favour of traditional print media. The status quo did not acknowledge the
power of mobilising large masses and failed to capitalise on the benefits of a new age of widespread
information sharing and consumption. Social media outlets are often used to covering developing political
events and movements in color, in real time, by people on the ground. Traditional media methods of
television news, often shot from a safe distance, cannot compete with individuals armed with mobile
phones who are ready to take photos or make videos that have the potential to flood social media,
rendering traditional print methods obsolete or unable to keep pace with changing trends. What becomes
clear is that the power of the media had been underestimated. Research is now looking to develop a
greater understanding what was happening and what is happening in the sea of information that is
generated day by day. During the month of June the daily volume of mentions in social media broke the
half a million message mark.
The demonstrations in Brazil had always occurred but never in this manner and with such intensity. The two
other large demonstrations in our recent history were articulated through the voice of parties and party
leaders. 2013 started with emerging activist movements against the rise of public transport fares and a
mass movement emerged that felt unrepresented and repressed by political leaders. We must attempt to
understand what is happening in democratic countries when populations no longer believe in politics and
do not feel represented by political figures.
Some years ago society was more solid and today it is liquid. The polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman
defines these two types of society:
The solid society, which was the motor of the modern world, revolved around classic capitalism and walked
through territories that could not be foreseen. State-Nations created categories and a control system,
eliminating the ambivalence and allowing occurrences to be known. Therefore, they sowed a social,
economic and political system which could be understood and controlled in a more solid way.
In the liquid post-modern society, capitalist relations stop being local and start to become global. Business
mergers are done, international agreements with countries are carried out in the global arena, mega-
companies make political maneuvers and corporations are made up of a number of different investors
who often resemble has been consolidating itself as the
most commonly used method of communication, creating a virtual society of relationships and
constructing an unstable and dynamic liquid society, running water through the fingers of the hand5
We can therefore say that there is no way of predicting where society is going, or which actions it will take.
In 2013 social media was the river where the population ran, not emitting any type of signal of where it
was going. It was just a sea of people and messages, leaving specialists adrift in a mass of unstructured
understanding what happens in social media amongst the endless amount of data, opinions and
comments. In order to feel the pulse of this movement, the monitoring of social media is required to
measure the volume and rapidity of these movements.
APPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL MEDIA
MONITORING IN POLITICAL AND ELECTORAL MARKETING
The monitoring of social media is something that is almost self-explanatory: It involves scavenging social
media in search of relevant messages for an organization or public figure. It is possible to monitor an
enormous list of social media sites such as: Facebook, Twitter, Orkut, LinkedIn, individual blogs, portals,
news sites and specific web addresses. The technology exists and it is quite developed, but the big
challenge for the political communication teams is to transform the data and information into relevant
applications. Some of these are outlined below.
Analysis of Image and Reputation
The first application of the monitoring of social media for political and electoral ends is to analyze the
image and reputation of a candidate or possible candidate.
Image and reputation are words seen frequently as synonyms, used in an interchangeable way. However, as
contemporary authors of Public Relations have observed
, they are best understood as different dimensions. The image is the principal result of the communication;
it alters constantly; it possesses a conjectural character and constructs itself outside of the organization.
Reputation is a more stable value which combines various image components through time. It has a
structural character; and it is the acknowledgement of the behavior of an organization or person. This way,
we can see two great possibilities of monitoring social media in order to better understand the perceived
image and reputation of a politician.
The first possibility is the periodic accompaniment of the day to
day reality for voters, militants and the press. The production of
reports with short periodicity (daily or weekly) can bring large
amounts of information for communication, political marketing
and strategist teams.
In accordance with the image of the politician in the public
opinion as measured through spontaneous mentions in social
media, the strategists can put into practice varied tactics to
reach the maximum audience.
Analysing and measuring reputation should be longitudinal,
with the greater quantity of possible data analysis, result of a
large collection and processing of information. The ideal practice is that the monitoring of social media is a
constant activity for any figure or politician. This way, in the pre-election period, there will be months or
years of data to be compiled in the reputation report, which helps the political strategists during campaign
The fluctuating image of a politician will be decisive at the time of deciding the vote. We have already seen
numerous cases of spectacular electoral turnarounds in the final days of elections, due to a positive or
negative event which was marked in the mind of the voter due to the freshness of the event and at the
expense of the
A serious accusation, be it truthful or not, can generate irreparable losses for a political figure. Identifying in
real time an accusation or rumour in an immediate manner is essential in order to carry out reactive actions.
The circulation of an accusation, be it truthful or false can devastate the image of a politician in a matter of
The analysis of sentiment, accompanies the
classification and the interpretation of the
messages, allows the mediation of an image of
hours. Alerts of possible crises can be configured from a list of words and when the name of a candidate is
associated to one of these keywords social media monitoring tools can send an immediate alert if
Monitoring also provides an opportunity to discover who is speaking about which topics. To
discover these people, with a critical and analytical eye, also allows social media strategists to combat
rumours and conjecture concerning competing candidates. Identifying profiles created exclusively for the
dissemination of political messages, without a link to real people, can then be constructed or
identified.Here the periodicity of the reports of electoral monitoring differs quite a lot from that which is
carried out by the figures. In the case of politics and especially elections, reports need a much quicker
periodicity. Alerts and rules of automation help to focus attention on messages that require immediate
Perception of Strengths and Weaknesses of the Competition
In the electoral context the perceived strengths and weaknesses of competing candidates, especially in
elections for the Executive, is one of the principal considerations in deciding the choice of candidate.
Image and reputation reports, tracking the real and potential crises involving electoral competitors, allow
the expansion of electoral intelligence in a relational way. A candidate can be known for being efficient,
honest and charismatic to their own voters but they will not win an election and assume executive power if
the other candidate is perceived in a similar way by a greater number of voters.
Accompanying of Militancy
Digital militancy exercises an important role in the digital elections. In a spontaneous and incentivised way,
voters can involve themselves actively in campaigns, presenting their reasons for voting for a certain
politically on certain laws and
One of the biggest triumphs of the internet for political campaigns is the possibility of offering large
quantities of information and materials such as images, posters, stamps, adhesives and suchlike at a
relatively low cost. A campaign manages to provide its civil supporters with a baseline of information data
and political arguments through sites, blogs and social media.
The opinions and expressions of militants can significantly affect an election outcome, representing a
the movements of the militancy is essential in order to find out if they are offering correct information or
carrying out harmful practices that may be perceived as damaging the image of the politician or candidate.
Mapping of Critical Topics
What truly concerns the population of a city? Which political
topics generate the most conversation?
Besides monitoring keywords relating to candidates, politicians,
supporters and detractors, through collective intelligence in
social media the political communication team has the option to
create public opinion panels and reports about relevant topics.
In social media it is possible to extract data on public opinion on
important topics for electoral debate such as health, the football
World Cup, national infrastructure, the decriminalization of
abortion and international loans.
BrandCare allows the addition of hundreds or
thousands of Twitter profiles, blogs, forums or
sites for the constant monitoring of content.
STEP-BY-STEP OF THE MONITORING
OF THE SOCIAL MEDIA FOR ELECTIONS
Once the objective, strategy and tactics are defined it is time to turn all of this into an effective operational
monitoring plan of social media.
Definition of Keywords
It is necessary to define the keywords which will be monitored at the very beginning. As a starting point,
using the name of the candidate is essential: this way it will be possible to know everything that is being
said about their name in social media, news and open blogs. However, the complete name is not enough. It
is also necessary to take into account alternative ways of writing, be it due to error, meaning or detraction.
Imagine that your candidate has a name such as José Stravinsky. Many people will make an error when
writing this and during electoral running there will also often be a combination of both offensive and
salutary names and monikers that will be widely circulated and must be mapped.
Tags are like labels, marking a type of message or content, clearly defining the topic which it is referring to.
Hash-tags work in a similar way, being keywords that are used as a marking and expression of opinion,
preceded generally by a sustained hash. They became popular in 2006 on Twitter and today are used
commonly across other forms of principle social media such as Facebook. Common hash-tags such as
#mayorcandidate, #Isupportcandidate or #candidateout can be seen during times of election.
Everything mentioned above must be multiplied in relation to competitors. Results and perceptions of an
entity can only be correctly dimensioned when compared with similar entities as competitors. For
example, the volume of negative mentions associated with a politician to negative values such as
corruption must be dimensioned and understood in the context of the wider political environment,
especially in such a politically sceptical society as Brazil.
Definition of Media
Defining which specific social media sites will be monitored is the next step. It is possible to monitor the
principal public dialogue and message exchange channels on the internet today in regards to social
media, blogs, content platforms, forums, searches and news channels, but to give them all the same
weight or importance would be an error and not the best use of resources.
For different projects and objectives, it can be sufficient to monitor just several different platforms. For
example, a press consulting agency is perhaps only interested in measuring the repercussion of the notes
sent to the journalists of online vehicles. Another team can be solely interested in measuring how digital
militancy is influencing conversations on Facebook and Twitter. The blogs can already receive more
attention for being in the majority of the cases more textual and opinionated than traditional print media
Generally, the recommendation for an electoral communication team is to monitor all the available social
media, but to undertake projects and specific deliveries of information that are pertinent to their own
Definition of Channels
Here we discuss specific channels such as fan pages, a Twitter profile or a blog. Besides monitoring based
on keywords the monitoring of channels looks to collect everything that is being published or debated in
specific area, independently of whether or not it contains keywords. Monitoring the official channels of the
politician and the party alone is insufficient. The most relevant conversations often occur in other places,
many times and without obvious relation.
Some of the important channels being monitored in a complete way include:
comments on Facebook pages, mentions on Twitter and responses in blogs
Competitor s Channels: comments on Facebook pages, mentions on Twitter and responses in blogs
Opinion influencers and bloggers, fan pages and Twitter profiles that closely follow the topics that
interest the population such as health, security, economy and employment. Constructing a
customised monitoring tool to collect all the content on who influences the electorate can be a
tactic in order to better understand the information being made available and to capture the public
Journalists and Journalist Portals: following everything that journalists and portals are scheduling in
the public conversation about politics and relevant topics at the time of the vote helps to orient
how different candidates must position themselves
Activist and Civil Association Blogs: Politicians engaged with specific causes such as animal rights
must be aware of what the most involved citizens and leaders have to say.
These are only some of the possible examples of specific channel monitoring. To organize the information
made available by relevant sections of society means to give due attention to the multiplicity of interests
that make up an electorate.
Plan of Sentiment and Classification
The key to generating intelligence in social media monitoring is to plan and execute a solid codification
that meets the information demands of the political client. Considering that the work must be carried out
many times by various digital information analysts standardising the process is essential to carrying out a
consistent and professional operation.
Plan of Attribution of Sentiment
A Plan of Attribution of Sentiment serves as a reference point for all classifiers and analysts to understand
clearly what is considered Positive, Neutral or Negative during monitoring. It is a very simple document
when it comes to listing the possible types of mention that a candidate receives.
Below is a simple example of a Plan of Attribution of Sentiment model, offering a general idea of how it
should be done:
PLAN OF ATTRIBUTION OF SENTIMENTEXAMPLE)
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
Spoken in a positive way about the
Mentioned in a praising way
something done publicly by
executive or politician of the
Cited a good performance of the
candidate in electoral surveys
Praised the performance of the
candidate in the electoral debate.
Neutral journalistic news about
the agenda of the candidates
General news about the
elections, without attribution of
value or judgment
Dissemination of agenda of the
Joke or pun about the name of
the candidate or caption, which
doesn't attribute values.
Associated negative values to the
candidate, such as incompetency,
vulgarity, lack of articulation etc
Accused or linked the candidate to
topics of corruption
Attributed relationships of the
candidate to negative figures for the
In a real plan the list of possibilities is much wider, as well as there also being a list of favourable or
unfavourable terms relating to the candidate.
The Plan of Classification, also known as a Plan of Tags, is a list of tags that can be applied to mentions so
that they can be measured in values, topics, events and other attributes that can act as positive or negative
forces regarding the image of the candidate.
In order to plan which tags are used, three basic tactics can be employed:
1) Decompose the elements of what is being monitored. When we talk of the electoral political
decision, what are the elements taken into account? What is a candidate es? There
are aspects related to political values such as conservatism and liberalism and those related to
character and competence, experience, charisma and the strength of their alliances. List the values
and components that can demonstrate the suitability of the candidate for office and use this as a
baseline for creating tags.
2) Transform the demand of information into tags. The second tactic consists of transforming a
demand of information (something that the team, strategist or candidate wishes to know) into
tags. For example, a campaign strategist may express doubt regarding the perception of the
candidate in the public domain regarding their position on the decriminalization of abortion.
3) Discover hypotheses and information from the conversations. Even with a very clear definition
in mind regarding the construction of c image, conversation in social media outlets can
also be a potential source of new tags. For example, by starting the monitoring the team can
discover that part of the public links the candidate to a controversial politician with which he/she
does not have any real link. Measuring how this association increase or dissipates with the electoral
communication can be done with tags specifically concerning political relations.
The specific words used at tags are less important than what they represent for the teams that are being
analysed. Since there is a well-structured classification plan, the whole team will be on the same page,
speaking the same language, and looking to generate operational information that can be used to benefit
Some examples of items than can be measured in a monitoring of social media, through the classification
of the referred messages are listed below:
o Political Articulation
o Public Safety
o Health and
o World Cup
o Scandal A
o Electoral Debate A/ Electoral Debate B
o Declaration of Support of Artists
o Associated with an unfavourable
o Associated with an unfavourable
o Expression of Vote
The list above is just an example of organisation of tags for the efficient classification of the monitored
messages. In the crossing of meaning and tags it will be possible to measure the opinion of the different
public for each item that is being measured.
Definition of Stakeholders
A stakeholder is any type of individual or organizational actor that influences the business of a company. In
politics in particular, the interests of different stakeholders related to a company are both considerable and
variable: understanding this network of influences is crucial in being able to communicate with them in a
Each stakeholder is going to be interpreted in a different way by the electorate, in accordance with
the obvious or non-obvious interests of each one of them. For example, it is a fairly likely conclusion that an
allied politician or militant will speak well about its own candidate. Conversely, the opposite happens in
regards to the opposition. The way in which the electorate perceives each person is different and, in the
same way, the differences of the public can also be considered for further analysis:
Electorate: Citizens with electoral title in the political
sphere. They share opinions with great visibility in social
media which can be decisive in the final vote.
Political Allies: other politicians and citizens that affiliate
themselves to the candidate.
Political Opposition: other politicians and citizens that, by
affiliating themselves to the candidate or coalition, will not
share positive messages about opposition candidates.
Journalists: press professionals who through their means
of communication or in their personal profiles are
Favorable Militants of the Competition: militants involved in the cause and election of the candidate.
General Public: citizens that can influence others with their messages, but do not play a part of the
electorate (for example: citizens of other States). In the time of global social media, the conversations
online gain a national dimension.
Specification of Regulations and Alerts
Through regulation it
o Send an alert if an important political columnist mentioned the candidate;
o Mark as sensitive;
o Send by email all the gathered mentions that follow an established criteria;
o Classify with a tag the comments that have a certain key-word.
There are two main applications of automated regulations:
To carry out the operational part of the analysis, to mark sentiment, to classify in tags and
to group the mentions in topics of interests. In this case the regulations need to be
continuously revised and perfected, as the language is quite complex, but some tasks can
Alert the communications team when any mention occurs that calls for a response or
immediate analysis. This can be a mention with particular words- or projects and
specialties that directly relate to the candidate.
BrandCare, social media monitoring tool of
Social Figures, possesses advanced resources
of geo-localization on Twitter.
Analysis of Mentions
The analysis should be done in the quickest way possible. Depending on the volume of the mentions, an
important stage can be the establishment of choice criteria for which messages will be analyzed. The most
common method in order get an accurate representation of conversations is to use probabilistic sampling.
In other words, above a considerable volume of mentions a broad range of responses is agreed upon
following a statistical formula that measures a key sample of the demographic whilst taking into account a
statistical margin of error.
A deep knowledge of the local and national political landscape is essential at each of the levels of
professionals involved in the monitoring. The scheme below is just a simplification of many schemes but it
can be useful to give an idea of the necessary specializations that are required:
Production of Reports
As discussed earlier it is always important to remember that a political campaign can succeed or fail in a
deliverables that play a part in creating opportunity for candidates, as well as for evading negative publicity
or providing a greater understanding of a crisis or the thoughts of the electorate. The format of these
deliverables varies quite a lot. The three principal ones are as follows:
Alerts: sending messages that demonstrate a crisis or an opportunity that can be
operationalise in an immediate manner. The sending of these alerts can contain just the
message or, preferentially, a quick analytic description of what is happening.
Daily Summaries: working as a summary of the topics, events and digital debates
happening in the period of 24 hours, with graphic visualisations of the analytical
information and comments.
Periodic Reports: The ideal situation is that the monitoring of social media is an
activity that regulates politicians during their whole practice. However, in the period
of such electoral campaign, which lasts around three months in Brazil, the information
needs to circulate in an agile way. Therefore, besides the alerts and daily summaries, the
deeper periodic reports generally cover weekly periodicity. In these reports it is possible to
demonstrate in a more panoramic way the timely evolution of the topics, events, matters
strategist of candidate
information and analysis
into palpable actions
together with the political
of political and digital
Professional specialists in
social media and
Responsible for classifying
the information and
carrying out the initial
part of the analysis
and impacts of the actions, campaigns and rallies carried out.
The production or monitoring reports must always meet the objectives of communication and marketing.
This must be the real focus and not just and obsession with the numbers of social media. It is imperative to
reduce uncertainties, offering data, information and operational analyses. It is important to remember
that social media outlets are only a part of the enormity of tasks that political marketing teams, militants and
parties need to carry out on a daily basis.
In summary, the monitoring of social media in the electoral communication today is one of the most basic
necessities of digital campaigns. Taking advantage of the insights that millions of connected Brazilians
produce every minute is to inform with more confidence the campaign strategies and tactics based on real
data and information.
GET TO KNOW
BrandCare is an online social media monitoring software which uses keyword data to collect relevant
messages for analysis. We attend to agencies, companies, politicians and consultancy firms that wish to
explore the force of social media for communications with consumers and voters, the avoidance and the
effective management of crises and developing a deeper understanding of the public through studies,
benchmarks and surveys.
The software offers the following tools:
Monitoring of Social Media and sources of data: Blogs,
Facebook (Mentions), Facebook Pages, Forums, Google+,
Instagram, News, Orkut, Twitter, Videos and Yahoo;
Tools for analysis and categorisation of collected mentions;
Communication and interactions with users on Facebook and
Keyword alerts for the prevention of crises and the
development of new opportunities;
Advanced and interactive geo-localisation resources in
countries, states and cities;
Intelligent organisation of searches and results in searches,
keywords and topic matters:
Differentials in cost-benefit in order to monitor feeds, Twitter profiles, fan pages and blogs for
surveys and advanced studies;
Top Profiles resource which allows, with a growing database of millions of profiles, to research
the most influential Twitter users of each Country, State or City;
Automatic generation of reports in diverse formats (PDF, Word, Excel) with the data and analysis
The ebook Do clique à urna: internet,redes sociais e eleiçõesno Brasil combines chapters with histories of digital electoral campaigns and is one of the
sources of this section of the whitepaper.
On-line and on message? Candidate websites in the 2001 General Election, by Stephen Ward e Rachel Gibson
The book Eleições 2008. O Brasile o efeito Obama, por Gustavo Fleury, it is a good source of case of this election.
Data taken from the survey Politico 2.0, carried out by Medialogue .
ProtestaBrasil: Das RedesSociais às Manifestações deRua, book by Ricardo Freitas and Edson Fernandes, p. 27, 2013
Questões teórico-metodológicassobremétricasereputaçãocorporativa article from Cíntia Carvalho and Sandra Montardo.
RCheck out more content and our social media
through the blog Social Figures.
qTo get in direct contact with us, just call
02 8034 9087
Get to know more about Brand Care on