Monitoring of Social Media for Politics and Elections


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Monitoring of Social Media for Politics and Elections, whitepaper by Social Figure.s

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  • This is a great white paper for anyone looking to understand the application of social media in politics. We did work closely with India's largest Media house - The Economic Times - to analyze and report the implications of social media in India's assembly elections and found very compelling insights. You have rightly pointed out the metrics and parameters to look at. The other addition I would like to make is in finding the importance of major topics driving the elections. In India, it was economics and development, followed by corruption.
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Monitoring of Social Media for Politics and Elections

  1. 1. MONITORING OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR POLITICS AND ELECTIONS History, Applications and Step-by-Step Guide
  2. 2. SUMMARY Social Media and Elections: a partnership with history 3 The Brazil of Protest: electoral year and digital media 5 Applications of Social Media Monitoring in Political and Electoral Marketing 7 Step-by-Step of the Monitoring of the Social Media for Elections 9
  3. 3. SOCIAL MEDIA AND ELECTIONS: A PARTNERSHIP WITH HISTORY The importance of the internet and social media in particular is an uncontested truth in the electoral and political campaigns of recent times. Despite the significance afford to social media, many doubts still persist regarding the true uses and possibilities it affords. A brief re-cap of the history of digital electoral campaigns1 provides a useful starting point for exploring the role that social media will play for electoral communication professionals in 2014. Political use of the internet in electoral campaigns started in 1992, with the Clinton administration employing the use of bulletin board systems in the Democratic campaign against George Bush. In 1996, with the world wide web protocol disseminated, electoral campaigners from both sides of the political spectrum began using websites as places to distribute information for the benefit of the electorate. This was the beginning of the understanding of the internet as an alternative means of access to the voting population and the possibility of making information widely available with relatively negligible costs and minimal overheads when compared with more traditional methods of communication and canvassing. From the year 2000 onwards, the increasing prevalence of the internet was the catalyst for a new level of electoral tactics in social media. With millions of internet users around the world, various countries with a more connected population started to consider the use of social media much more prominently in their communication strategies. Blogs played a particularly important role in the elections of the Labor Government in Britain in 20012 . In 2004 Howard Dean, a primary candidate for the US Democrats, used various digital resources such as the social media site Meetup to enable supporters to make contact with one and share ideas. Alongside the use of e-mail address lists and donations via the web, the United States 2004 elections used data mining techniques to identify areas of support and generate more mentions via social media sites. Similarly, in Europe the use of the social media site Hyves in the Dutch elections allowed the electorate to enter into direct contact with candidates running for office. 2008 was a significant turning point for social media and politics and election strategies employed around the world showed that the use of social media in digital campaigns was here to stay. campaign for the United States presidency marked a significant shift in the importance of social media in electoral campaigns. From the primaries onwards, the then Senator Obama was earmarked as a politician who made use of the diverse digital technologies available to engage in dialogue with US citizens and voters. In a socio-economic and technological context in which digital media already played a part in the everyday life, the emergence of a democratic candidate who captured the spirit of the nation with a desire for political change, coupled with an increasingly young, technologically savvy electorate proved to be a winning combination for the Democrats. The possibilities of social networks was fully embraced and realized by the Democrats, with a range of customized and segmented social media strategies for targeted voter groups. Niche media organizations directed at a range of voter groups such as BlackPlanet (African-Americans) MiGente (Hispanics), FaithBase (Catholics), Glee (GLBT) and AsianAve (Asians) gathered carefully selected images, conversations and messages . Social media sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter were at the centre of a huge investment in a digital strategy that included a social media campaign called MyBarackObama. All of this resulted in the most talked about campaign of the last two years, resulting in a decisive election win and record donations of more than US$500 million, much of it generated via a number of social media platforms. Since 2008, various cases of social media and election have been well documented in Brazil3 . During these years, various customized communities for the political debate were launched in the Ning platform. The use of geolocalisation, through customized maps with the past events or future promises of accomplishments from politicians were also a highlight. Political blogs were already a feature of many candidate campaigns as they sought to express a more personal display of their political philosophy and opinions on current affairs.
  4. 4. In 2010 a monitoring boom of social media began on the back of evidence from political and communication strategies around the world that showed the contribution that social media could add to campaigns. The industry recognized that political strategies could be more versatile and responsive to the general population through monitoring fluctuations in the opinions of the electorate, militancy and detractors. In the 2012 elections, social media professionals generated even more buzz for the municipal executive positions. A survey4 launched in July 2012 showed that 75% of federal deputies and 84% of senators were represented on the internet and social media. This trend gets stronger every year, with politicians keener than ever to generate visibility, display political opinions, proposals, projects and maintain open channels of communication with individuals and communities that they serve. A great deal has changed from the era of the Clinton administration in 1992 to the present day. In Brazil there is a much greater diversity of digital environments, with greater access to technologies for citizens, greater consumption of media product by politicians, a greater array of possibilities embraced by electoral legislations and electronic governing and digital democracy initiatives which offer a continuous relationship between citizens and public institutions. The successful history of digital campaigns in recent years, as well as the intense use of social media by Brazilians, has ensured that the marketing and digital electoral communication professional workforce remains strong. This year has the potential to leave another significant mark on this history of elections and social media. The collective intelligence routinely expressed in social media is available for individuals and businesses that are willing to monitor, analyze and apply their expertise on social media. This whitepaper offers a step- by-step guide to give an initial kick to the 2014 electoral campaigns.
  5. 5. THE BRAZIL OF PROTEST: ELECTORAL YEAR AND DIGITAL MEDIA In June 2013, Brazilian politics and politicians finally began to pay due attention to the force that social media possessed in harnessing the emergence of mass social movements. Until then, such social networks were neglected by politicians in favour of traditional print media. The status quo did not acknowledge the power of mobilising large masses and failed to capitalise on the benefits of a new age of widespread information sharing and consumption. Social media outlets are often used to covering developing political events and movements in color, in real time, by people on the ground. Traditional media methods of television news, often shot from a safe distance, cannot compete with individuals armed with mobile phones who are ready to take photos or make videos that have the potential to flood social media, rendering traditional print methods obsolete or unable to keep pace with changing trends. What becomes clear is that the power of the media had been underestimated. Research is now looking to develop a greater understanding what was happening and what is happening in the sea of information that is generated day by day. During the month of June the daily volume of mentions in social media broke the half a million message mark. The demonstrations in Brazil had always occurred but never in this manner and with such intensity. The two other large demonstrations in our recent history were articulated through the voice of parties and party leaders. 2013 started with emerging activist movements against the rise of public transport fares and a mass movement emerged that felt unrepresented and repressed by political leaders. We must attempt to understand what is happening in democratic countries when populations no longer believe in politics and do not feel represented by political figures. Some years ago society was more solid and today it is liquid. The polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman defines these two types of society: The solid society, which was the motor of the modern world, revolved around classic capitalism and walked through territories that could not be foreseen. State-Nations created categories and a control system, eliminating the ambivalence and allowing occurrences to be known. Therefore, they sowed a social, economic and political system which could be understood and controlled in a more solid way. In the liquid post-modern society, capitalist relations stop being local and start to become global. Business mergers are done, international agreements with countries are carried out in the global arena, mega- companies make political maneuvers and corporations are made up of a number of different investors who often resemble has been consolidating itself as the most commonly used method of communication, creating a virtual society of relationships and constructing an unstable and dynamic liquid society, running water through the fingers of the hand5 . We can therefore say that there is no way of predicting where society is going, or which actions it will take. In 2013 social media was the river where the population ran, not emitting any type of signal of where it was going. It was just a sea of people and messages, leaving specialists adrift in a mass of unstructured information.
  6. 6. understanding what happens in social media amongst the endless amount of data, opinions and comments. In order to feel the pulse of this movement, the monitoring of social media is required to measure the volume and rapidity of these movements.
  7. 7. APPLICATIONS OF SOCIAL MEDIA MONITORING IN POLITICAL AND ELECTORAL MARKETING The monitoring of social media is something that is almost self-explanatory: It involves scavenging social media in search of relevant messages for an organization or public figure. It is possible to monitor an enormous list of social media sites such as: Facebook, Twitter, Orkut, LinkedIn, individual blogs, portals, news sites and specific web addresses. The technology exists and it is quite developed, but the big challenge for the political communication teams is to transform the data and information into relevant applications. Some of these are outlined below. Analysis of Image and Reputation The first application of the monitoring of social media for political and electoral ends is to analyze the image and reputation of a candidate or possible candidate. Image and reputation are words seen frequently as synonyms, used in an interchangeable way. However, as contemporary authors of Public Relations have observed 6 , they are best understood as different dimensions. The image is the principal result of the communication; it alters constantly; it possesses a conjectural character and constructs itself outside of the organization. Reputation is a more stable value which combines various image components through time. It has a structural character; and it is the acknowledgement of the behavior of an organization or person. This way, we can see two great possibilities of monitoring social media in order to better understand the perceived image and reputation of a politician. The first possibility is the periodic accompaniment of the day to day reality for voters, militants and the press. The production of reports with short periodicity (daily or weekly) can bring large amounts of information for communication, political marketing and strategist teams. In accordance with the image of the politician in the public opinion as measured through spontaneous mentions in social media, the strategists can put into practice varied tactics to reach the maximum audience. Analysing and measuring reputation should be longitudinal, with the greater quantity of possible data analysis, result of a large collection and processing of information. The ideal practice is that the monitoring of social media is a constant activity for any figure or politician. This way, in the pre-election period, there will be months or years of data to be compiled in the reputation report, which helps the political strategists during campaign planning. The fluctuating image of a politician will be decisive at the time of deciding the vote. We have already seen numerous cases of spectacular electoral turnarounds in the final days of elections, due to a positive or negative event which was marked in the mind of the voter due to the freshness of the event and at the expense of the Crisis alerts A serious accusation, be it truthful or not, can generate irreparable losses for a political figure. Identifying in real time an accusation or rumour in an immediate manner is essential in order to carry out reactive actions. The circulation of an accusation, be it truthful or false can devastate the image of a politician in a matter of The analysis of sentiment, accompanies the classification and the interpretation of the messages, allows the mediation of an image of a politician.
  8. 8. hours. Alerts of possible crises can be configured from a list of words and when the name of a candidate is associated to one of these keywords social media monitoring tools can send an immediate alert if configured correctly. Monitoring also provides an opportunity to discover who is speaking about which topics. To discover these people, with a critical and analytical eye, also allows social media strategists to combat rumours and conjecture concerning competing candidates. Identifying profiles created exclusively for the dissemination of political messages, without a link to real people, can then be constructed or identified.Here the periodicity of the reports of electoral monitoring differs quite a lot from that which is carried out by the figures. In the case of politics and especially elections, reports need a much quicker periodicity. Alerts and rules of automation help to focus attention on messages that require immediate action. Perception of Strengths and Weaknesses of the Competition In the electoral context the perceived strengths and weaknesses of competing candidates, especially in elections for the Executive, is one of the principal considerations in deciding the choice of candidate. Image and reputation reports, tracking the real and potential crises involving electoral competitors, allow the expansion of electoral intelligence in a relational way. A candidate can be known for being efficient, honest and charismatic to their own voters but they will not win an election and assume executive power if the other candidate is perceived in a similar way by a greater number of voters. Accompanying of Militancy Digital militancy exercises an important role in the digital elections. In a spontaneous and incentivised way, voters can involve themselves actively in campaigns, presenting their reasons for voting for a certain politically on certain laws and projects. One of the biggest triumphs of the internet for political campaigns is the possibility of offering large quantities of information and materials such as images, posters, stamps, adhesives and suchlike at a relatively low cost. A campaign manages to provide its civil supporters with a baseline of information data and political arguments through sites, blogs and social media. The opinions and expressions of militants can significantly affect an election outcome, representing a Therefore, monitoring the movements of the militancy is essential in order to find out if they are offering correct information or carrying out harmful practices that may be perceived as damaging the image of the politician or candidate. Mapping of Critical Topics What truly concerns the population of a city? Which political topics generate the most conversation? Besides monitoring keywords relating to candidates, politicians, supporters and detractors, through collective intelligence in social media the political communication team has the option to create public opinion panels and reports about relevant topics. In social media it is possible to extract data on public opinion on important topics for electoral debate such as health, the football World Cup, national infrastructure, the decriminalization of abortion and international loans. BrandCare allows the addition of hundreds or thousands of Twitter profiles, blogs, forums or sites for the constant monitoring of content.
  9. 9. STEP-BY-STEP OF THE MONITORING OF THE SOCIAL MEDIA FOR ELECTIONS Once the objective, strategy and tactics are defined it is time to turn all of this into an effective operational monitoring plan of social media. Definition of Keywords It is necessary to define the keywords which will be monitored at the very beginning. As a starting point, using the name of the candidate is essential: this way it will be possible to know everything that is being said about their name in social media, news and open blogs. However, the complete name is not enough. It is also necessary to take into account alternative ways of writing, be it due to error, meaning or detraction. Imagine that your candidate has a name such as José Stravinsky. Many people will make an error when writing this and during electoral running there will also often be a combination of both offensive and salutary names and monikers that will be widely circulated and must be mapped. Tags are like labels, marking a type of message or content, clearly defining the topic which it is referring to. Hash-tags work in a similar way, being keywords that are used as a marking and expression of opinion, preceded generally by a sustained hash. They became popular in 2006 on Twitter and today are used commonly across other forms of principle social media such as Facebook. Common hash-tags such as #mayorcandidate, #Isupportcandidate or #candidateout can be seen during times of election. Everything mentioned above must be multiplied in relation to competitors. Results and perceptions of an entity can only be correctly dimensioned when compared with similar entities as competitors. For example, the volume of negative mentions associated with a politician to negative values such as corruption must be dimensioned and understood in the context of the wider political environment, especially in such a politically sceptical society as Brazil. Definition of Media Defining which specific social media sites will be monitored is the next step. It is possible to monitor the principal public dialogue and message exchange channels on the internet today in regards to social media, blogs, content platforms, forums, searches and news channels, but to give them all the same weight or importance would be an error and not the best use of resources. For different projects and objectives, it can be sufficient to monitor just several different platforms. For example, a press consulting agency is perhaps only interested in measuring the repercussion of the notes sent to the journalists of online vehicles. Another team can be solely interested in measuring how digital militancy is influencing conversations on Facebook and Twitter. The blogs can already receive more attention for being in the majority of the cases more textual and opinionated than traditional print media outlets.
  10. 10. Generally, the recommendation for an electoral communication team is to monitor all the available social media, but to undertake projects and specific deliveries of information that are pertinent to their own particular needs. Definition of Channels Here we discuss specific channels such as fan pages, a Twitter profile or a blog. Besides monitoring based on keywords the monitoring of channels looks to collect everything that is being published or debated in specific area, independently of whether or not it contains keywords. Monitoring the official channels of the politician and the party alone is insufficient. The most relevant conversations often occur in other places, many times and without obvious relation. Some of the important channels being monitored in a complete way include:  comments on Facebook pages, mentions on Twitter and responses in blogs  Competitor s Channels: comments on Facebook pages, mentions on Twitter and responses in blogs  Opinion influencers and bloggers, fan pages and Twitter profiles that closely follow the topics that interest the population such as health, security, economy and employment. Constructing a customised monitoring tool to collect all the content on who influences the electorate can be a tactic in order to better understand the information being made available and to capture the public mood  Journalists and Journalist Portals: following everything that journalists and portals are scheduling in the public conversation about politics and relevant topics at the time of the vote helps to orient how different candidates must position themselves  Activist and Civil Association Blogs: Politicians engaged with specific causes such as animal rights must be aware of what the most involved citizens and leaders have to say. These are only some of the possible examples of specific channel monitoring. To organize the information made available by relevant sections of society means to give due attention to the multiplicity of interests that make up an electorate. Plan of Sentiment and Classification The key to generating intelligence in social media monitoring is to plan and execute a solid codification that meets the information demands of the political client. Considering that the work must be carried out many times by various digital information analysts standardising the process is essential to carrying out a consistent and professional operation. Plan of Attribution of Sentiment A Plan of Attribution of Sentiment serves as a reference point for all classifiers and analysts to understand clearly what is considered Positive, Neutral or Negative during monitoring. It is a very simple document when it comes to listing the possible types of mention that a candidate receives. Below is a simple example of a Plan of Attribution of Sentiment model, offering a general idea of how it should be done:
  11. 11. PLAN OF ATTRIBUTION OF SENTIMENTEXAMPLE) POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE  Spoken in a positive way about the candidate  Mentioned in a praising way something done publicly by executive or politician of the candidate  Cited a good performance of the candidate in electoral surveys  Praised the performance of the candidate in the electoral debate.  Neutral journalistic news about the agenda of the candidates  General news about the elections, without attribution of value or judgment  Dissemination of agenda of the candidates  Joke or pun about the name of the candidate or caption, which doesn't attribute values.  Associated negative values to the candidate, such as incompetency, vulgarity, lack of articulation etc  Accused or linked the candidate to topics of corruption  Attributed relationships of the candidate to negative figures for the electorate. In a real plan the list of possibilities is much wider, as well as there also being a list of favourable or unfavourable terms relating to the candidate. The Plan of Classification, also known as a Plan of Tags, is a list of tags that can be applied to mentions so that they can be measured in values, topics, events and other attributes that can act as positive or negative forces regarding the image of the candidate. In order to plan which tags are used, three basic tactics can be employed: 1) Decompose the elements of what is being monitored. When we talk of the electoral political decision, what are the elements taken into account? What is a candidate es? There are aspects related to political values such as conservatism and liberalism and those related to character and competence, experience, charisma and the strength of their alliances. List the values and components that can demonstrate the suitability of the candidate for office and use this as a baseline for creating tags. 2) Transform the demand of information into tags. The second tactic consists of transforming a demand of information (something that the team, strategist or candidate wishes to know) into tags. For example, a campaign strategist may express doubt regarding the perception of the candidate in the public domain regarding their position on the decriminalization of abortion. 3) Discover hypotheses and information from the conversations. Even with a very clear definition in mind regarding the construction of c image, conversation in social media outlets can also be a potential source of new tags. For example, by starting the monitoring the team can discover that part of the public links the candidate to a controversial politician with which he/she does not have any real link. Measuring how this association increase or dissipates with the electoral communication can be done with tags specifically concerning political relations. The specific words used at tags are less important than what they represent for the teams that are being analysed. Since there is a well-structured classification plan, the whole team will be on the same page, speaking the same language, and looking to generate operational information that can be used to benefit their clients. Some examples of items than can be measured in a monitoring of social media, through the classification of the referred messages are listed below:
  12. 12.  Value o Competence/Incompetence o Political Articulation o Honesty/Dishonesty o Charisma o Conservatism/Liberalism  Topics: o Public Safety o Health and Hospitals o Infrastructure o World Cup o Urbanism  Events: o o Scandal A o Electoral Debate A/ Electoral Debate B o Declaration of Support of Artists o Etc  Relations: o Parties o Associated with an unfavourable image o Associated with an unfavourable image o etc  Vote o Expression of Vote o Indecision The list above is just an example of organisation of tags for the efficient classification of the monitored messages. In the crossing of meaning and tags it will be possible to measure the opinion of the different public for each item that is being measured. Definition of Stakeholders A stakeholder is any type of individual or organizational actor that influences the business of a company. In politics in particular, the interests of different stakeholders related to a company are both considerable and variable: understanding this network of influences is crucial in being able to communicate with them in a direct way. Each stakeholder is going to be interpreted in a different way by the electorate, in accordance with
  13. 13. the obvious or non-obvious interests of each one of them. For example, it is a fairly likely conclusion that an allied politician or militant will speak well about its own candidate. Conversely, the opposite happens in regards to the opposition. The way in which the electorate perceives each person is different and, in the same way, the differences of the public can also be considered for further analysis:  Electorate: Citizens with electoral title in the political sphere. They share opinions with great visibility in social media which can be decisive in the final vote.  Political Allies: other politicians and citizens that affiliate themselves to the candidate.  Political Opposition: other politicians and citizens that, by affiliating themselves to the candidate or coalition, will not share positive messages about opposition candidates.  Journalists: press professionals who through their means of communication or in their personal profiles are influencers of public opinion.  Favorable Militants of the Competition: militants involved in the cause and election of the candidate. General Public: citizens that can influence others with their messages, but do not play a part of the electorate (for example: citizens of other States). In the time of global social media, the conversations online gain a national dimension. Specification of Regulations and Alerts Through regulation it example: o Send an alert if an important political columnist mentioned the candidate; o Mark as sensitive; o Send by email all the gathered mentions that follow an established criteria; o Classify with a tag the comments that have a certain key-word. There are two main applications of automated regulations:  To carry out the operational part of the analysis, to mark sentiment, to classify in tags and to group the mentions in topics of interests. In this case the regulations need to be continuously revised and perfected, as the language is quite complex, but some tasks can be expedited.  Alert the communications team when any mention occurs that calls for a response or immediate analysis. This can be a mention with particular words- or projects and specialties that directly relate to the candidate. BrandCare, social media monitoring tool of Social Figures, possesses advanced resources of geo-localization on Twitter.
  14. 14. Analysis of Mentions The analysis should be done in the quickest way possible. Depending on the volume of the mentions, an important stage can be the establishment of choice criteria for which messages will be analyzed. The most common method in order get an accurate representation of conversations is to use probabilistic sampling. In other words, above a considerable volume of mentions a broad range of responses is agreed upon following a statistical formula that measures a key sample of the demographic whilst taking into account a statistical margin of error. A deep knowledge of the local and national political landscape is essential at each of the levels of professionals involved in the monitoring. The scheme below is just a simplification of many schemes but it can be useful to give an idea of the necessary specializations that are required: Production of Reports As discussed earlier it is always important to remember that a political campaign can succeed or fail in a number deliverables that play a part in creating opportunity for candidates, as well as for evading negative publicity or providing a greater understanding of a crisis or the thoughts of the electorate. The format of these deliverables varies quite a lot. The three principal ones are as follows:  Alerts: sending messages that demonstrate a crisis or an opportunity that can be operationalise in an immediate manner. The sending of these alerts can contain just the message or, preferentially, a quick analytic description of what is happening.  Daily Summaries: working as a summary of the topics, events and digital debates happening in the period of 24 hours, with graphic visualisations of the analytical information and comments.  Periodic Reports: The ideal situation is that the monitoring of social media is an activity that regulates politicians during their whole practice. However, in the period of such electoral campaign, which lasts around three months in Brazil, the information needs to circulate in an agile way. Therefore, besides the alerts and daily summaries, the deeper periodic reports generally cover weekly periodicity. In these reports it is possible to demonstrate in a more panoramic way the timely evolution of the topics, events, matters Political Strategist Political marketing strategist of candidate Responsible for transforming the information and analysis into palpable actions together with the political marketing team. Digital public communication analyst More senior specialists that combine knowledge of political and digital communication. Responsible for generating the analyses. Monitoring analysts Professional specialists in social media and communication. Responsible for classifying the information and carrying out the initial part of the analysis
  15. 15. and impacts of the actions, campaigns and rallies carried out. The production or monitoring reports must always meet the objectives of communication and marketing. This must be the real focus and not just and obsession with the numbers of social media. It is imperative to reduce uncertainties, offering data, information and operational analyses. It is important to remember that social media outlets are only a part of the enormity of tasks that political marketing teams, militants and parties need to carry out on a daily basis. In summary, the monitoring of social media in the electoral communication today is one of the most basic necessities of digital campaigns. Taking advantage of the insights that millions of connected Brazilians produce every minute is to inform with more confidence the campaign strategies and tactics based on real data and information.
  16. 16. GET TO KNOW BrandCare is an online social media monitoring software which uses keyword data to collect relevant messages for analysis. We attend to agencies, companies, politicians and consultancy firms that wish to explore the force of social media for communications with consumers and voters, the avoidance and the effective management of crises and developing a deeper understanding of the public through studies, benchmarks and surveys. The software offers the following tools:  Monitoring of Social Media and sources of data: Blogs, Facebook (Mentions), Facebook Pages, Forums, Google+, Instagram, News, Orkut, Twitter, Videos and Yahoo;  Tools for analysis and categorisation of collected mentions;  Communication and interactions with users on Facebook and Twitter;  Keyword alerts for the prevention of crises and the development of new opportunities;  Advanced and interactive geo-localisation resources in countries, states and cities;  Intelligent organisation of searches and results in searches, keywords and topic matters:  Differentials in cost-benefit in order to monitor feeds, Twitter profiles, fan pages and blogs for surveys and advanced studies;  Top Profiles resource which allows, with a growing database of millions of profiles, to research the most influential Twitter users of each Country, State or City;  Automatic generation of reports in diverse formats (PDF, Word, Excel) with the data and analysis carried out. 1 The ebook Do clique à urna: internet,redes sociais e eleiçõesno Brasil combines chapters with histories of digital electoral campaigns and is one of the sources of this section of the whitepaper. 2 On-line and on message? Candidate websites in the 2001 General Election, by Stephen Ward e Rachel Gibson 3 The book Eleições 2008. O Brasile o efeito Obama, por Gustavo Fleury, it is a good source of case of this election. 4 Data taken from the survey Politico 2.0, carried out by Medialogue . 5 ProtestaBrasil: Das RedesSociais às Manifestações deRua, book by Ricardo Freitas and Edson Fernandes, p. 27, 2013 6 Questões teórico-metodológicassobremétricasereputaçãocorporativa article from Cíntia Carvalho and Sandra Montardo. RCheck out more content and our social media through the blog Social Figures. qTo get in direct contact with us, just call 02 8034 9087 www Get to know more about Brand Care on our website.