Lsn 20 Greece And Alexander


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Lsn 20 Greece And Alexander

  1. 1. Persian Wars <ul><li>Greek colonization brought the city states in conflict with the Persian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Result was the Persian Wars (500-479 B.C.) </li></ul>
  2. 4. Ionian Rebellion <ul><li>As Persian emperors Cyrus and Darius tightened their grip on Anatolia, the Greek cities on the Ionian coast became increasingly restless </li></ul><ul><li>In 500 B.C., they revolted and expelled the Achaemenid administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Athens sent a fleet in support of their fellow Greeks and commercial partners </li></ul><ul><li>In 493, Darius repressed the rebellion </li></ul>Cyclades Islands
  3. 5. Persian Wars <ul><li>To punish the Athenians and discourage future interference, Darius attacked Athens in 490 </li></ul><ul><li>The Athenians repelled the invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marathon </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Battle of Marathon <ul><li>The Persians landed at the Plains of Marathon on September 9, 490 </li></ul><ul><li>For eight days, the two armies faced each other </li></ul><ul><li>On the ninth day, the Persians started to advance, forcing Miltiades, the commander in chief of the Athenian army, to deploy his army of 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plataeans for battle </li></ul>
  5. 7. Battle of Marathon <ul><li>The Athenians surrounded the Persians in a double envelopment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the Athenians were outnumbered, their spears were superior to the Persians’ bows and short lances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Persians fled to their ships </li></ul><ul><li>Persians lost 6,400 men and seven ships </li></ul><ul><li>Athenians lost 192 </li></ul>
  6. 8. Battle of Marathon <ul><li>However, Miltiades realized that the Persian fleet could sail and attack the undefended city of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>According to legend, he called upon Phidippides to run to Athens to tell them of the victory and warn them of the approaching Persian ships </li></ul><ul><li>Phidippides ran the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens in about three hours, successfully warning the Athenians who repelled the Persian invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Phidippides was exhausted from the fight at Marathon and the 26 mile run and died upon announcing the warning </li></ul>Miltiades
  7. 9. Olympic Marathons <ul><li>The marathon was part of the 1896 Olympics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The course was from Marathon to Athens (24.85 miles or 40 km) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the London Olympics in 1908, the Olympic marathon course was set at 26 miles, 385 yards (42.195 km) to accommodate the Royal Family’s viewing </li></ul><ul><li>In 1921 the International Amateur Athletic Foundation made 42.195 km the official distance of a marathon </li></ul>
  8. 10. Xerxes <ul><li>Darius’s successor Xerxes tried to avenge the Persian losses by launching another attack in 480 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermopylae </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Thermopylae <ul><li>The Greeks sent an allied army under the Spartan king Leonidas to Thermopylae, a narrow mountain pass in northeastern Greece  </li></ul><ul><li>The point was to stall the Persians long enough that the city states could prepare for later major battles after the Persians broke through </li></ul>Persians attempting to force the pass at Thermopylae
  10. 12. Thermopylae <ul><li>Twice the Greeks repelled the Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Then Ephialtes, a local farmer, traitorously led a force of Persian infantry through a mountain passage and the next morning they appeared behind the Greek lines </li></ul><ul><li>Leonidas ordered the rest of the army to withdraw and held the passage with just 300 Spartans </li></ul><ul><li>As true Spartans, they chose death over retreat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember Lesson 17 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All died but they did hold off the Persians long enough to ensure the safe withdrawal of the rest of the Greek army. </li></ul>Leonidas
  11. 13. Thermopylae <ul><li>“ Stranger, go tell the Spartans that we lie here in obedience to their laws.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Inscription carved on the tomb of Leonidas’s Three Hundred) </li></ul></ul>Leonidas at Thermopylae by David
  12. 14. After Thermopylae <ul><li>The Persians captured and burned Athens but were defeated by the Athenian navy at Salamis </li></ul><ul><li>In 479 the Persians were defeated at Plataea and forced back to Anatolia </li></ul>
  13. 15. Delian League <ul><li>After the Persian threat subsided, the Greek poleis had conflicts among themselves </li></ul><ul><li>The poleis formed an alliance called the Delian League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Athens supplied most of the military force and the other poleis provided financial support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparta did not join the league </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the absence of the Persian threat, eventually the other poleis came to resent financing Athens’s bureaucracy and construction projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The resulting tensions led to the Peloponnesian War (431-404) in which the poleis divided up into two sides led by Athens and Sparta </li></ul>
  14. 16. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) <ul><li>The war went back and forth until 404 when the Spartans and their allies forced Athens to surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts continued however and the world of the poleis steadily lost power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great is going to step into this power vacuum (next lesson) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. “ Failure of the Nerve” <ul><li>Xenophon lamented that up to this point, “the City-state, the Polis, had concentrated upon itself all the loyalty and the aspiration of the Greek mind. It gave security to life. It gave meaning to religion.” </li></ul><ul><li>Then, however, “it was not now ruled by the best citizens. The best had turned away from politics.” </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual and imaginative life of 4 th Century Greece gave way to an atmosphere of defeat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gilbert Murray explains it as “a failure of nerve” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Philip II <ul><li>Ruled Macedonia from 359-336 B.C. and transformed it into a powerful military machine </li></ul>
  17. 19. Macedonia
  18. 20. Alexander the Great
  19. 21. Alexander the Great <ul><li>Philip intended to use Greece as a launching pad to invade Persia, but he was assassinated before he could begin his plan </li></ul><ul><li>Instead the invasion of Persia would be left for Philip’s son Alexander who was just 20 when Philip was assassinated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Alexander inherited from his father the most perfectly organized, trained, and equipped army of ancient times.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J.F.C. Fuller , The Generalship of Alexander the Great </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Conquests of Alexander <ul><li>Ionia and Anatolia 333 </li></ul><ul><li>Syria, Palestine, Egypt 332 </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia 331 </li></ul><ul><li>Persepolis 331 </li></ul><ul><li>King of Persia 330 </li></ul><ul><li>India 327 </li></ul><ul><li>Returns to Susa 324 </li></ul><ul><li>Dies (age 33) 323 </li></ul>
  21. 23. Warfare in the Age of Alexander <ul><li>Phalanx: A formation of infantry carrying long spears, developed by Philip II and used by Alexander the Great </li></ul>
  22. 24. Warfare in the Age of Alexander <ul><li>Hoplite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main warrior of the Macedonian army. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly in the phalanx formation, creating impregnable lines that often left the enemy demoralized. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Hoplites in Action
  24. 26. Warfare in the Age of Alexander <ul><li>A variety of weapons were built to hurl projectiles over city walls, scale or batter the walls, and transport soldiers over them. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Tyre <ul><li>Old city on the mainland was abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>New city built on an island two miles long and separated from the coast by a half mile channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls were 150 feet high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Had two harbors (Sidonian and Egyptian) </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander originally had no ships so he built a mole across the channel </li></ul>
  26. 29. Tyre <ul><li>Alexander collected a fleet of over 200 ships and maneuvered them into moorings off the Sidonian and Egyptian harbors </li></ul><ul><li>Blockaded the Tyrian fleet in its harbors and now was at liberty to use his siege engines to reduce the city’s walls </li></ul>Composition of Alexander’s Fleet No. of ships Origin 80 Sidon, Aradus, and Byblus 10 Rhodes 3 Soli and Mallus 10 Lycia 1 Macedon 120 Cyprus
  27. 30. Tyre <ul><li>Finally the engines penetrated the wall on the side toward Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>The fleet had captured the north and south fronts of the city </li></ul>5 th Century Greek Battering Ram
  28. 31. Tyre <ul><li>After a seven month siege, Tyre fell </li></ul><ul><li>8,000 Tyrians were killed in the fighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 more were hung afterwards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>400 Macedonians were killed in the siege and just 20 in the assault </li></ul>
  29. 32. The End of the Empire <ul><li>Alexander </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Married Roxanna and had his men also intermarry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted Eastern dress and habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicly insisted upon his descent from the gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began giving key positions to Persians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Macedonians were tired of campaigning and resented the changes in Alexander’s behavior and become mutinous </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander died in June 323, perhaps as a result of poisoning </li></ul>&quot;The Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxanna&quot; by Ishmail Parbury
  30. 34. After Alexander <ul><li>After Alexander died, his generals jockeyed for power and by 275 they had divided up his kingdom into three large states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigonus took Greece and Macedon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ptolemy took Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seleuces took the former Achaemenid empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The period of Alexander and his successors is called the Hellenistic period to reflect the broad influence of Greek culture beyond Greece’s borders </li></ul>