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Decoding Open Data: 2011 Indian Census

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Mining, cleaning and sorting through open data is difficult. That's why we've done the work for you. Here are our insights and analyses on one of the world's largest data collection efforts – the 2011 Indian Census.

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Decoding Open Data: 2011 Indian Census

  1. 1. SocialCops Series DECODING OPEN DATA Population Census, India
  2. 2. We have mined and scraped thousands of open data sets on These data sets can be very difficult to understand and process. After we process open data, we share some of our findings with you, so you don’t have to go through the same hassle. This data series brings you our insights and analysis on India’s biggest open data archives. Health Education Income and more…
  3. 3. What is the Population Census?
  4. 4. URBANIZATION ECONOMIC ACTIVITY HOUSING & HOUSEHOLD AMENITIES The biggest source of primary data on… LITERACY & EDUCATION DEMOGRAPHY FERTILITY & MORTALITY LANGUAGE SCHEDULED CASTES & TRIBES RELIGION MIGRATION
  5. 5. 2011 1991 1981 1971 2001 1961 1951 1941 1881 1931 1921 1911 1901 1891 1871 The census has been conducted every 10 years since 1871 The most recent census happened in 2011
  6. 6. How many people were involved? 25,42,934 total people 21 lakh enumerators 4 lakh supervisors & master trainers 23,800 charge officers 1,500 district charge officers 1,065 upper division clerks6,905 lower division clerks664 others
  7. 7. The Census used…
  8. 8. 7,336 x 109 tons of paper
  9. 9. comprised of 7,336 x 109 tons of paper 3,400 lakh questionnaires 54 lakh manuals and
  10. 10. printed in 18 languages 7,336 x 109 tons of paper
  11. 11. The entire exercise cost ₹2,200 crore. That’s only ₹18.33 per capita.
  12. 12. The entire exercise cost ₹2,200 crore. That’s only ₹18.33 per capita.
  13. 13. How does the Census actually happen ?
  14. 14. First, census officials distribute the blank census forms…
  15. 15. The questionnaires and other materials are given to charge officers in over 1200 locations. 1
  16. 16. The charge officers distribute the blank materials to census supervisors. 2
  17. 17. The census supervisors give the blank forms to enumerators. 3
  18. 18. Enumerators travel across the country to collect data through house- to-house canvassing. 4
  19. 19. Then census officials collect the completed census forms…
  20. 20. Enumerators give the filled forms back to census supervisors. 5
  21. 21. The census supervisors give the forms back to charge officers. 6
  22. 22. Charge officers send the filled forms to one of 17 processing centers. 7
  23. 23. At the processing centers, 5 things happen: 8 1. Scanning 2. Image-based recognition 3. Image validation 4. Completion of unknown characters 5. Tabulation
  24. 24. What data does the Census collect from households?
  25. 25. The Census collects data using 2 different schedules: 30 questions Houselisting Schedule 28 questions Population Enumeration Schedule
  26. 26. Houselisting Schedule data Building number Census house number Major house material Use of house Condition of house Household number Total persons Head of household Sex of head Caste Ownership status Number of rooms Number of married couples Source of drinking water Availability of drinking water Source of lighting Latrine within premise Type of latrine facility Waste water outlet connection Kitchen availability Fuel used for cooking Bathing facility Television Radio Computer or laptop Telephone or mobile Bicycle Scooter, motorcycle or moped Car, jeep or van Available banking services
  27. 27. Population Enumeration Schedule data Relationship to head Sex Date of birth and age Marital status Age at marriage Religion Caste Disability Mother tongue Other languages known Literacy status Status of educ. attendance Highest education level Working during last year Category of economic activity Occupation nature Trade or service Class of worker Non- economic activity Seeking or available for work Travel to place of work Birthplace Place of last residence Reason for migration Duration of stay in last place Children surviving Children ever born No. of children born alive last year
  28. 28. What did we learn ?from the Census
  29. 29. Between 2001 and 2011, India increased its population by 181.5 million people.
  30. 30. That’s almost equivalent to the entire population of Brazil
  31. 31. More than 50% of India’s population lives in just six states 16.5%Uttar Pradesh 9.28%Maharashtra 8.6%Bihar 7.54%West Bengal 6.99%Andhra Pradesh 6.0%Madhya Pradesh
  32. 32. Villages by population 3.1% 5000-9999 16.1% 2000-4999 23.3% 1000-1999 13.7% < 200 200-499 500-999 19.2% 23.7% ≥ 10,000 0.8% There are 635,407 villages and 7,948 towns in India.
  33. 33. 69% of India’s population lives in rural areas. Only Puducherry, Chandigarh and Delhi have less than 50% of their population in rural areas. Percentage of population in rural areas 0-15% 15-30% 30-45% 45-60% 60-75% 75-90% NA
  34. 34. %ofallfemales 10 20 30 40 50 < 18 18-21 22-25 > 25 2001 2011 Age of marriage (female) The average age of marriage has risen from 17.7 to 18.7 years for females
  35. 35. %ofallmales 10 20 30 40 50 < 18 18-21 22-25 > 25 2001 2011 Age of marriage (male) The average age of marriage has risen from 22.4 to 23.2 years for males
  36. 36. Male-led 87% Female-led 13% Divorced or separated 3% Widowed 69% Currently married 24% Never married 4% Never married Currently married Widowed Divorced or separated 4% 3% Female-led households A quarter of female-led households are led by a married woman
  37. 37. 1.0% Education level32.7% Illiterate 4.0% Literate without education 6.7% Below primary 14.0% Primary 11.7% Middle 10.5% Secondary 10.2% Higher secondary Diploma, certificate 8.9% Graduate
  38. 38. 60-66% 66-72% 72-78% 78-84% 84-90% 90-96% NA The average literacy rate is 73%. For women, this drops to 65.5%. That’s 17.1 points lower than the male literacy rate (82.1%). Literacy rate by state
  39. 39. In rural areas, the literacy rate is 68.9% In urban areas, the literacy rate is 84.9%
  40. 40. In urban areas, the female literacy rate is 79.9% In rural areas, the female literacy rate is 58.8%
  41. 41. -400 -350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 Only 2 states have more women than men. The remaining 33 states and UTs are missing an average of 76 women per 1000 men. Daman & Diu 618 women : 1000 men Dadra & Nagar Haveli 774 Chandigarh 818 Delhi 868 Kerala 1084 women : 1000 men Puducherry 1037 All India 943
  42. 42. For more insights, dig into the data and let us know what you find!
  43. 43. In case you get stuck, here’s some Census jargon
  44. 44. CensusAbbreviations Rural Urban All areas that are not urban. Basic unit is the revenue village. Areas that are classified as STs, CTs, and UAs Census Town (CT) A place with: (a) minimum population of 5000, (b) at least 75% of the main male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits, (c) population density of at least 400 people per square km. Out Growth (OG) A viable unit such as a village or part of a village contiguous to a statutory town Statutory Town (ST) All places with a municipal council, municipal corporation, cantonment board, or notified area committee, etc. Urban Agglomeration (UA) A continuous urban spread constituting either: (a) a town and its adjoining OGs, (b) two or more physically contiguous towns with or without OGs
  45. 45. Send us a tweet with your findings or questions! @social_cops

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