SC2220: Gender StudiesLecture 5: Selling Gender Identity<br />Eric C. Thompson<br />Semester 2, 2010/2011<br />
Where We Have Been…<br />History of Gender Studies<br />Sex/Gender Distinction<br />Becoming Male or Female<br />Gender so...
Where We Are Going…<br />Gender in Popular Culture<br />Gender in Advertising<br />Popular Culture<br />Gender in Social R...
Today’s Lecture…<br />“Killing Us Softly” – Images of Women in Advertising<br />Content Analysis and Influences of Adverti...
“Killing Us Softly 3”:Gender and Advertising<br />Killing Us Softly: 1979<br />Still Killing Us Softly: 1987<br />Killing ...
Men and Women in Advertising<br />Content Analysis of Advertising general shows the following:<br />Men as “expert” voiceo...
Content Analysis of Advertising (Continued…)<br />Men less often in family role; if dads then less often with daughters or...
“Real Beauty”<br />Dove “Real Beauty” Campaign<br />Revolutionary?<br />Shock/Difference = Attention = Interest = Sales = ...
Shaping Possibilities<br />Brittney Spears Pepsi Ad Campaign<br />Influence on Clothing Styles<br />In mass market, clothi...
Masculinity and Advertising<br />“Instruction Manual” & “Structure of appropriate behavior”<br />Advertising exaggerates m...
“Killing Us Softly”:Gender and Advertising<br />Version 4: 2010<br />
Cultural Differences in Images of Beauty<br />Some aspects of beauty are consistent across cultures:<br />Symmetry<br />Wa...
Mauritania Fat-Farms: Force Fed Beauty<br />
Radically Different Images of Beauty:But Equally Extreme<br />Obesity = Beauty<br />Correlation between Body Image and Sta...
Skin Deep Beauty<br />Agricultural societies:<br />Dark skin = Working Outdoors = Low Social Status<br />Light skin = Stay...
Influence of Mass Popular Culture<br />Mass popular culture = greater body image pressure.<br />Introduction of television...
Men Don’t Seem to Need a“Real Beauty” Campaign<br />
Objectification of Women<br />Why are women’s bodies objectified and not men’s? (or women’s bodies more so than men’s)<br ...
Cultural, Social, Biological<br />Popular Culture: Images teach us how to be men, women, gendered beings<br />Social Organ...
Summary Points<br />Advertising plays a powerful role in gender beliefs.<br />Advertising reinforces stereotypes and gende...
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Sc2220 lecture 5 2011

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Lecture 5: Selling Gender Identity

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Sc2220 lecture 5 2011

  1. 1. SC2220: Gender StudiesLecture 5: Selling Gender Identity<br />Eric C. Thompson<br />Semester 2, 2010/2011<br />
  2. 2. Where We Have Been…<br />History of Gender Studies<br />Sex/Gender Distinction<br />Becoming Male or Female<br />Gender socialization; paths to learning gender.<br />Gender Systems<br />Masculinity/Femininity<br />Gender as systems of beliefs and behaviors<br />
  3. 3. Where We Are Going…<br />Gender in Popular Culture<br />Gender in Advertising<br />Popular Culture<br />Gender in Social Relations<br />Gender and Power<br />Gender and Work<br />Gender, Here and Now<br />Gender in Singapore<br />
  4. 4. Today’s Lecture…<br />“Killing Us Softly” – Images of Women in Advertising<br />Content Analysis and Influences of Advertising<br />Cultural Differences in Beauty<br />Why do advertising and popular culture seem to objectify women and not men?<br />
  5. 5. “Killing Us Softly 3”:Gender and Advertising<br />Killing Us Softly: 1979<br />Still Killing Us Softly: 1987<br />Killing Us Softly 3: 2000<br />
  6. 6. Men and Women in Advertising<br />Content Analysis of Advertising general shows the following:<br />Men as “expert” voiceover announcer on all types of products<br />Men overrepresented numerically<br />Women younger, shorter, more likely secondary role<br />Women more often a smaller % of the image<br />
  7. 7. Content Analysis of Advertising (Continued…)<br />Men less often in family role; if dads then less often with daughters or infants<br />Women more likely appear unemployed or in “pink collar” job; men are shown in all jobs (especially occupations with authority).<br />Men more often give advice, women receive advice<br />Ads selling to women more often focus on appearance; those selling to men focus on status.<br />
  8. 8. “Real Beauty”<br />Dove “Real Beauty” Campaign<br />Revolutionary?<br />Shock/Difference = Attention = Interest = Sales = $$$$<br />And still . . . “Advertising involves selling us things we did not know we needed to solve problems we did not know we had.”<br />
  9. 9. Shaping Possibilities<br />Brittney Spears Pepsi Ad Campaign<br />Influence on Clothing Styles<br />In mass market, clothing choices are determined by producers as much as by consumers.<br />Low-cut jeans become the norm (and the only thing available in stores).<br />How many people choose to wear clothes other than those available in shops?<br />
  10. 10. Masculinity and Advertising<br />“Instruction Manual” & “Structure of appropriate behavior”<br />Advertising exaggerates male status-seeking (as ‘what women want’) and female beauty & sexuality (as ‘what men want’)<br />Findings from Psychology:<br />Men who view beautiful models are less satisfied and less committed to current partner.*<br />Women who listen to stories about successful men are less satisfied with current partner.<br />See: David Buss, Evolutionary Psychology<br />
  11. 11. “Killing Us Softly”:Gender and Advertising<br />Version 4: 2010<br />
  12. 12. Cultural Differences in Images of Beauty<br />Some aspects of beauty are consistent across cultures:<br />Symmetry<br />Waist-to-Hip Ratio (.70)<br />Indicate Health, Fertility<br />Many others are not.<br />Why do standards of beauty vary widely in different societies and cultures?<br />Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640): Set the standard of “Rubenesque” beauty.<br />
  13. 13. Mauritania Fat-Farms: Force Fed Beauty<br />
  14. 14. Radically Different Images of Beauty:But Equally Extreme<br />Obesity = Beauty<br />Correlation between Body Image and Status<br />If little food is available, fatness is a display of wealth and high social status.<br />If food is abundant, thinness is a display of discipline and leisure time to exercise and high social status.<br />Anorexia = Beauty<br />
  15. 15. Skin Deep Beauty<br />Agricultural societies:<br />Dark skin = Working Outdoors = Low Social Status<br />Light skin = Staying Indoors = High Social Status<br />Industrial societies:<br />Dark skin = Leisure Outdoors = High Social Status<br />Light skin = Working Indoors (factory/office) = Low Social Status<br />Racism: White = European = Wealth = High Social Status<br />Skin Whitening Products<br />Skin Tanning Products<br />
  16. 16. Influence of Mass Popular Culture<br />Mass popular culture = greater body image pressure.<br />Introduction of television correlated with increased emphasis on body image cross-culturally.<br />Societies without mass media are much less obsessed with body image. (e.g. Shostak 1981, Nisa)<br />
  17. 17. Men Don’t Seem to Need a“Real Beauty” Campaign<br />
  18. 18. Objectification of Women<br />Why are women’s bodies objectified and not men’s? (or women’s bodies more so than men’s)<br />Thesis 1: Men control advertising firms; they choose to display women as sex objects (for their gratification and to perpetuate male power over women).<br />Thesis 2: Heterosexual dynamics are such that women are a sexual commodity in ways that men are not (there is a “market” for women’s sexuality; but not much of one for men’s).<br />The two theses are not mutually exclusion; evidence exists to support both.<br />
  19. 19. Cultural, Social, Biological<br />Popular Culture: Images teach us how to be men, women, gendered beings<br />Social Organization: Different social-economic organization (agricultural, industrial; scarcity, abundance) influences cultural representations of high and low status<br />Heterosexual Chemistry/Dynamics: Inclines women to be Sex Objects more so than men.<br />There is no single explanation for gender. Gender systems are “overdetermined.” (see Ridgeway and Correll, p. 512)<br />
  20. 20. Summary Points<br />Advertising plays a powerful role in gender beliefs.<br />Advertising reinforces stereotypes and gender polarization; playing on evolved psychology:<br />Women appear as “sex objects”<br />Men appear as “success objects”<br />Beauty has both culturally consistent and culturally consistent elements<br />Gender systems are “overdetermined” – by culture, social relations and biology; they cannot be reduced to single causes.<br />

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