SC2220: Gender StudiesLecture 3: Becoming Male or Female<br />Eric C. Thompson<br />Semester 2, 2010/2011<br />
Enculturation & Socialization<br /><ul><li>Enculturation: The process of learning a culture (system of beliefs and associa...
Socialization: Learning group norms and values from others.
Often used interchangably.
Enculturation emphasizes the influence of a general cultural system of beliefs.
Socialization emphasizes the sources of information (parents, peers, media, etc.).</li></li></ul><li>Gender Socialization:...
Gender Socialization<br />Model 3 (Maccoby):<br />Peer-to-Peer Socialization<br />Children learn gender roles & behavior f...
Gender Socialization<br />Up to age 2<br />Equal Same-Sex, Cross-Sex Interaction<br />18 Interactions<br />9 Same Sex<br /...
Gender Socialization<br />Age 3 to 6<br />Same-Sex 66%, Cross-Sex 33%<br />18 Interactions<br />12 Same Sex<br />6 Cross S...
Gender Socialization<br />Age 6 to 10<br />Same-Sex 75%, Cross-Sex 25%*<br />18 Interactions<br />14 Same Sex<br />4 Cross...
From the perspective of an individual (child), we see how children’s worlds become segregated as they grow up.Increasingly...
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Two<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Four<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Six<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Eight<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Ten<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
Children Reinforce Segregation, Stereotypes and Styles of Play between each other<br />I’m so glad Barbie™ finally dumped ...
Becoming Male or Female*<br />Children are active agents<br />Social positioning<br />Striving to “get gender right”<br />...
Socialization Involves Multiple,Complex Influences (Four Sources)<br />TV<br />DIRECT TEACHING<br />GENERAL<br />CULTURAL<...
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Sc2220 lecture 3 2011

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Lecture 3: Becoming Male or Female

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Sc2220 lecture 3 2011

  1. 1. SC2220: Gender StudiesLecture 3: Becoming Male or Female<br />Eric C. Thompson<br />Semester 2, 2010/2011<br />
  2. 2. Enculturation & Socialization<br /><ul><li>Enculturation: The process of learning a culture (system of beliefs and associated practices).
  3. 3. Socialization: Learning group norms and values from others.
  4. 4. Often used interchangably.
  5. 5. Enculturation emphasizes the influence of a general cultural system of beliefs.
  6. 6. Socialization emphasizes the sources of information (parents, peers, media, etc.).</li></li></ul><li>Gender Socialization: 3 Models<br />Model 1:<br />Direct Teaching/<br />Rewards & Punishment<br />Model 2:<br />Indirect Teaching/<br />Identification & Modeling Behavior<br />Children identify with adults/parents of same sex and imitate their behavior<br />Adults set the agenda, provide rewards or punishment<br />
  7. 7. Gender Socialization<br />Model 3 (Maccoby):<br />Peer-to-Peer Socialization<br />Children learn gender roles & behavior from each other<br />
  8. 8. Gender Socialization<br />Up to age 2<br />Equal Same-Sex, Cross-Sex Interaction<br />18 Interactions<br />9 Same Sex<br />9 Cross Sex<br />
  9. 9. Gender Socialization<br />Age 3 to 6<br />Same-Sex 66%, Cross-Sex 33%<br />18 Interactions<br />12 Same Sex<br />6 Cross Sex<br />
  10. 10. Gender Socialization<br />Age 6 to 10<br />Same-Sex 75%, Cross-Sex 25%*<br />18 Interactions<br />14 Same Sex<br />4 Cross Sex<br />*These are all rough estimates, based on the research cited in Maccoby, pp.15-29<br />
  11. 11. From the perspective of an individual (child), we see how children’s worlds become segregated as they grow up.Increasingly, they are learning, playing, growing in “male” and “female” cultures.<br />
  12. 12. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Two<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
  13. 13. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Four<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
  14. 14. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Six<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
  15. 15. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Eight<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
  16. 16. Children’s Worlds become Gender Segregated<br />Age<br />Ten<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />
  17. 17. Children Reinforce Segregation, Stereotypes and Styles of Play between each other<br />I’m so glad Barbie™ finally dumped Ken™!<br />Let’s go play football<br />Look at my new Power Rangers™ toy!<br />Poor Ken<br />Only sissy’s play with dolls.<br />Let’s go play football<br />Ewwww… boys are yucky!<br />Boys are so mean!<br />Don’t sit with the girls!<br />That dress is so cute, can I borrow it?<br />Boy’s World<br />Girl’s World<br />“Distinctions between males and females are of the group contextual kind.” Maccoby, p.12<br />In other words, children grow up in different gendered cultures.<br />
  18. 18. Becoming Male or Female*<br />Children are active agents<br />Social positioning<br />Striving to “get gender right”<br />Discursive positioning – asserting feminine/masculine identities (e.g. through clothing)<br />Social conditioning<br />Social sanctioning; approval or disapproval<br />Fixing categories<br />*Based on Browwyn Davies, 2002 (1989) <br />
  19. 19. Socialization Involves Multiple,Complex Influences (Four Sources)<br />TV<br />DIRECT TEACHING<br />GENERAL<br />CULTURAL<br />INFLUENCES<br />MODELING BEHAVIOR<br />PEER SOCIALIZATION<br />
  20. 20. Socialization of Difference (Points to Remember)<br />Gender/Sex segregation is almost never absolute (for example, in the studies cited by Maccoby, a significant minority of interactions are still cross-gender).<br />Within a culture or society, a range of socialization and identities are always available to different individuals.<br />In the peer-to-peer socialization model (and all three models), messages, attitudes, status relations, etc. from the culture/society in general play an extremely important role. They provide the content of socialization.<br />
  21. 21. Falling Back on Biology<br />Davies mentions how parents and others revert to biology (“it must be genetics”), when girls act like girls and boys act like boys<br />Hormones may have some role in sex segregation and in preference for play-styles.<br />But, socialization is far more influential and complex.<br />Explaining through biology (“it must be genetics”) is a cultural simplification – “fixing” categories and behavior by reference to simple binaries.<br />
  22. 22. A Final Thought:“Partitioning genes from environment, nature from nurture, is a scientific dead end, a bad way of thinking about human development”(Fausto-Sterling pg.235).Bye-bye . . .See you next week<br />

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