SC2218: Anthropology and the Human Condition Lecture 8: Ethnicity, Race, Nation, and other Imagined Communities Eric C. Th...
Where Are We Going? <ul><li>Part 1: Anthropological Frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strangers abroad; Genetic inheritance...
Lecture Outline <ul><li>What is are “Communities”? </li></ul><ul><li>Race, Ethnicity, Nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types o...
Community : Dictionary Definitions <ul><li>People with  common interests ,  living in a particular area . </li></ul><ul><l...
Community: Co-location, Commonality <ul><li>Co-location (people living in one area) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although “commun...
Community versus Network <ul><li>A Social Network is  defined by  exchange and relationship between persons. </li></ul><ul...
Unbounded Communities <ul><li>A community of academics, scholars </li></ul><ul><li>NUSS = the NUS alumni community </li></...
Community… Commonality? <ul><li>Markers of  commonality  are arbitrary. </li></ul><ul><li>They are socially and culturally...
Culture is… <ul><li>A system of shared meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>A system for signaling and reproducing those shared mea...
Racial, Ethnic, National Communities <ul><li>Markers of commonality are arbitrary… </li></ul><ul><li>Race = use of biologi...
Race, Ethnicity and Nation Historical Perspective <ul><li>From the 19 th  to 20 th  centuries, race was replaced (displace...
The shift from RACE to ETHNICITY
Race <ul><li>Idea of Race is based on coherence of traits (esp. biological). </li></ul><ul><li>Traits do not cohere. </li>...
What about CULTURAL variation?
Shift from Race to Ethnicity <ul><li>18 th  - 19 th  Century: “Race” = groups who share physical traits, customs, habits a...
Ethnicity: Two Views <ul><li>Primordialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence (“Sharing”) of Cultural Traits </li></ul></ul><...
Ethnic Groups and Boundaries <ul><li>Ethnicity is based on a sense of difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols & practices ar...
What is a “Nation”? <ul><li>A European (Primordialist) Theory </li></ul><ul><li>One “people” living on one territory gover...
Shifting meaning of “Nationality” <ul><li>19 th  and 20 th  Century: A “nation” is a “people” (defined in terms of a blurr...
Imagined Communities (Benedict Anderson… and beyond) <ul><li>All communities – Racial, Ethnic, National, etc. – are produc...
Census, Map, Museum <ul><li>Cultural Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Governmentality </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity & Nationalism...
None of the Above <ul><li>What are the effects of racial categorization for the people interviewed in the film? </li></ul>...
Census <ul><li>Singapore Census 1871 to 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting categories, shifting relationships between categor...
Census Categories: Straits Settlements 1871 <ul><li>Europeans and Americans </li></ul><ul><li>(18 subcategories) </li></ul...
Census Categories: Straits Settlements 1901 <ul><li>I. Europeans and Americans (23 subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>II. Eu...
Census Categories: British Malaya 1921 <ul><li>The European Pop. by Race </li></ul><ul><li>(20 subcategories) </li></ul><u...
Census Categories: Malaya 1957 <ul><li>Malaysians </li></ul><ul><li>Malays </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian </li></ul><ul><li>...
Census Categories: Singapore 2000 <ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>“ Persons of Chinese origin” </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkien...
Census <ul><li>Singapore Census 1871 to 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting categories, shifting relationships between categor...
Map <ul><li>Do maps  show  nations or  create  nations? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between maps and nation...
Siam Mapped (Thongchai Winichakul, 1994)
Thai Buddhist Pilgrimage Map
“ History of Thailand’s Boundary”
“ Wake Up, Thai People”
The “Geo-body” of the Nation: Culturally Produced through Maps
Yao, Mien and Others <ul><li>Hjorleifur (“Leif”) Jonsson (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the “Yao” or “Mien”? </li></ul><...
Mapping other Identities
Museum <ul><li>Sites for interpreting and reinterpreting the past </li></ul><ul><li>National and other frameworks </li></ul>
Imagining Community <ul><li>Census, Map, Museum are Cultural and Practical means for Imagining Community. </li></ul><ul><l...
Beyond Census, Map, Museum <ul><li>Census, Map, and Museum are just three practices, symbols and institutions that  enable...
Dilemmas of Race, Ethnicity, Nation <ul><li>Why do Race, Ethnicity & Nation seem so  real  in peoples lives, yet so  arbit...
Communities / Identities <ul><li>Identity = Personal relationship to a community. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond Race, Ethnicity...
Questions: Is there an ASEAN community? Are you a citizen of ASEAN? The ASEAN Flag The Geo-body of a Region? Is ASEAN an E...
Findings:  Attitudes  toward ASEAN  <ul><li>ASEAN citizenship.  Over 75%  agreed: </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly  90%  felt that...
Nation-States as a Semantic Domain: Conceptualizing Relationships among Countries <ul><li>“ Countries” is a wide spread cu...
PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS
PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS
PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS
PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS
Is Singapore part of Southeast Asia?
PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS CHINA TAIWAN JAPAN SOUTH KOREA NORT...
PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS CHINA TAIWAN JAPAN SOUTH KOREA NORT...
Is Singapore part of Southeast Asia? <ul><li>Singapore is  in  Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Is Singapore  of  Southeas...
Final Thoughts… <ul><li>Community is created through … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practi...
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Sc2218 Lecture 8 (2008a)

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Lecture 8: Race, Ethnicity, Nation and other Imagined Communities

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  • Sc2218 Lecture 8 (2008a)

    1. 1. SC2218: Anthropology and the Human Condition Lecture 8: Ethnicity, Race, Nation, and other Imagined Communities Eric C. Thompson Semester 1, 2008/2009
    2. 2. Where Are We Going? <ul><li>Part 1: Anthropological Frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strangers abroad; Genetic inheritance; The concept of Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part 2: Social-Cultural Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship, Gender, Economy, Community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part 3: Building on the Frameworks & Moving into the Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem of Representation, History and Change, the Poetry of Culture, Anthropology in the 21 st Century </li></ul></ul>YOU ARE HERE
    3. 3. Lecture Outline <ul><li>What is are “Communities”? </li></ul><ul><li>Race, Ethnicity, Nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Census, Map, Museum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies of Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beyond Census, Map, Museum… </li></ul>
    4. 4. Community : Dictionary Definitions <ul><li>People with common interests , living in a particular area . </li></ul><ul><li>A group of people with common characteristics living together within a larger society. </li></ul><ul><li>A body of persons having a common history or common social , economic and political interests. </li></ul><ul><li>A body of persons of common interests scattered through a larger society . </li></ul>
    5. 5. Community: Co-location, Commonality <ul><li>Co-location (people living in one area) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although “community” is still often used in this sense; this is increasingly seen as irrelevant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and cultural processes not bound by co-location (esp. with tele communication). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People standing at a bus-stop are not a “community” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is this determined? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Will come back to this) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Community versus Network <ul><li>A Social Network is defined by exchange and relationship between persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange takes place on the basis of difference not similarity (though can create relationship and a sense of ‘commonality’) </li></ul><ul><li>A network is not necessarily a “community”. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Unbounded Communities <ul><li>A community of academics, scholars </li></ul><ul><li>NUSS = the NUS alumni community </li></ul><ul><li>The “Malay community” (or any other “ethnic community”) </li></ul><ul><li>A national community (do you cease to be Singaporean if you take a trip to Australia?) </li></ul><ul><li>The “YouTube” community. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities are based in senses of belonging and identity. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Community… Commonality? <ul><li>Markers of commonality are arbitrary. </li></ul><ul><li>They are socially and culturally agreed upon. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities exist because people imagine them to exist. (They are fundamentally cultural – shared belief, ideas, feelings). </li></ul><ul><li>Communities are not “fictional”… They are social and cultural realities . </li></ul>
    9. 9. Culture is… <ul><li>A system of shared meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>A system for signaling and reproducing those shared meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>How is community culturally produced? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we signal and represent commonality among a group of people? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Racial, Ethnic, National Communities <ul><li>Markers of commonality are arbitrary… </li></ul><ul><li>Race = use of biological, physiological characteristics as markers of similarity and difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity = use of culturally expressed characteristics as markers of similarity and difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationality = ??? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Race, Ethnicity and Nation Historical Perspective <ul><li>From the 19 th to 20 th centuries, race was replaced (displaced) by ethnicity. </li></ul><ul><li>From the 19 th century onward, “nationality” has straddled an unclear conceptual area between ethnicity (a ‘culturally similar’ group of people) and affiliation with a territorial-state (citizenship). </li></ul>
    12. 12. The shift from RACE to ETHNICITY
    13. 13. Race <ul><li>Idea of Race is based on coherence of traits (esp. biological). </li></ul><ul><li>Traits do not cohere. </li></ul><ul><li>95% of biological/ genetic variation occurs within human populations </li></ul><ul><li>5% occurs between populations </li></ul><ul><li>Race remains a popular idea but scientifically useless and socially divisive </li></ul>
    14. 14. What about CULTURAL variation?
    15. 15. Shift from Race to Ethnicity <ul><li>18 th - 19 th Century: “Race” = groups who share physical traits, customs, habits and other characteristics. (Biology AND Culture) </li></ul><ul><li>20 th Century: Ethnicity = groups who share customs, language, social views. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity = Race minus Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity became a more acceptable way of categorizing similarity and difference </li></ul>
    16. 16. Ethnicity: Two Views <ul><li>Primordialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence (“Sharing”) of Cultural Traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumed Blood Ties, Race, Language, Region, Religion, Custom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circumstantialism (Situationalism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity depends on circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual circumstantialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social, historical circumstantialism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence supports Circumstantialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peoples’ feelings support Primordialism </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries <ul><li>Ethnicity is based on a sense of difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols & practices are not ‘ethnic’ until they become signifiers of difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese Shinto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malay Adat </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. What is a “Nation”? <ul><li>A European (Primordialist) Theory </li></ul><ul><li>One “people” living on one territory governed by one state (French people, German people, Chinese people) </li></ul><ul><li>A Nation = An Ethnic Group with a State. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. People move around! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Culture (the marker of ethnicity) changes over time and space (without clear ‘boundaries’ between groups) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Shifting meaning of “Nationality” <ul><li>19 th and 20 th Century: A “nation” is a “people” (defined in terms of a blurred combination of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’) </li></ul><ul><li>20 th to 21 st Century: Nationality is defined by a person’s association with a territorial-state (what passport do you hold?) </li></ul><ul><li>States create “nations” (more than “nations” being a justification for states) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Peasants in to Frenchmen” (Eugen Weber) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore, Indonesia and other post-colonial ‘nation-states’ </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Imagined Communities (Benedict Anderson… and beyond) <ul><li>All communities – Racial, Ethnic, National, etc. – are products of cultural processes, symbols, and practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities exist because people imagine them to exist. </li></ul><ul><li>We can study distinct processes and practices that enable such imagining. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Census, Map, Museum <ul><li>Cultural Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Governmentality </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity & Nationalism </li></ul>
    22. 22. None of the Above <ul><li>What are the effects of racial categorization for the people interviewed in the film? </li></ul><ul><li>What purpose does racial categorization serve? </li></ul><ul><li>How would these people identify (or be identified) if they lived in Singapore? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Census <ul><li>Singapore Census 1871 to 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting categories, shifting relationships between categories. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European? African? Chinese? Malay? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eurasian? Bugis? Hindoo? Tamil? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In each census, how would you categorize yourself? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Census Categories: Straits Settlements 1871 <ul><li>Europeans and Americans </li></ul><ul><li>(18 subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>Armenians </li></ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Eurasians </li></ul><ul><li>Abyssinians </li></ul><ul><li>Achinese </li></ul><ul><li>Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Andamanese </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Bengalees & other Natives of India </li></ul><ul><li>Boyanese </li></ul><ul><li>Bugis </li></ul><ul><li>Burmese </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Cochin-Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Dyaks </li></ul><ul><li>Hindoos </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Javanese </li></ul><ul><li>Jaweepekans </li></ul><ul><li>Malays </li></ul><ul><li>Manilamen </li></ul><ul><li>Mantras </li></ul><ul><li>Parsees </li></ul><ul><li>Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Siamese </li></ul><ul><li>Singhalese </li></ul>
    25. 25. Census Categories: Straits Settlements 1901 <ul><li>I. Europeans and Americans (23 subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>II. Eurasians </li></ul><ul><li>III. Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Cantonese </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkien </li></ul><ul><li>Kheh </li></ul><ul><li>Straits-born </li></ul><ul><li>Teo-Chew </li></ul><ul><li>Tribe Not Stated </li></ul><ul><li>(2 other categories) </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Malays & Other Natives of the Archipelago </li></ul><ul><li>Aborigines </li></ul><ul><li>Achinese </li></ul><ul><li>Bugis </li></ul><ul><li>Javanese </li></ul><ul><li>Malays </li></ul><ul><li>(4 other subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>V. Tamils & Other Natives of India </li></ul><ul><li>Bengalis </li></ul><ul><li>Burmese </li></ul><ul><li>Parsees </li></ul><ul><li>Tamils </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Other Nationalities </li></ul><ul><li>Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Annamese </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Armenians </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Siamese </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese </li></ul><ul><li>Not Stated </li></ul>
    26. 26. Census Categories: British Malaya 1921 <ul><li>The European Pop. by Race </li></ul><ul><li>(20 subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>Eurasians </li></ul><ul><li>The Malay Pop. by Race </li></ul><ul><li>Malays </li></ul><ul><li>Javanese </li></ul><ul><li>Boyanese </li></ul><ul><li>Bugis </li></ul><ul><li>Achinese </li></ul><ul><li>Sakai </li></ul><ul><li>(5 other subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese Pop. by Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkien </li></ul><ul><li>Cantonese </li></ul><ul><li>Tie Chiu </li></ul><ul><li>Kheh </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Provinces </li></ul><ul><li>(6 other subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian Pop. by Race </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil </li></ul><ul><li>Telugu </li></ul><ul><li>Bengali </li></ul><ul><li>Hindustani </li></ul><ul><li>Burmese </li></ul><ul><li>Gurkha </li></ul><ul><li>(6 other subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>The “Other” Pop. By Race </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Armenians </li></ul><ul><li>Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Negros </li></ul><ul><li>Siamese </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese </li></ul><ul><li>Turks (Asiatic) </li></ul><ul><li>(4 other subcategories) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Census Categories: Malaya 1957 <ul><li>Malaysians </li></ul><ul><li>Malays </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesian </li></ul><ul><li>All Aborigines </li></ul><ul><li>Negrito </li></ul><ul><li>Semai </li></ul><ul><li>(4 other subcategories) </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkien </li></ul><ul><li>Tiechiu </li></ul><ul><li>Khek (Hakka) </li></ul><ul><li>Cantonese </li></ul><ul><li>Hainanese </li></ul><ul><li>Hokchia </li></ul><ul><li>Hokchiu </li></ul><ul><li>Kwongsai </li></ul><ul><li>Henghwa </li></ul><ul><li>Other Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Tamil </li></ul><ul><li>Telegu </li></ul><ul><li>Malayali </li></ul><ul><li>Other Indian </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>Eurasian </li></ul><ul><li>Ceylon Tamil </li></ul><ul><li>Other Ceylonese </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistani </li></ul><ul><li>Thai (Siamese) </li></ul><ul><li>Other Asian </li></ul><ul><li>British </li></ul><ul><li>Other European </li></ul><ul><li>Others (not European or Asian) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Census Categories: Singapore 2000 <ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>“ Persons of Chinese origin” </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkien </li></ul><ul><li>Teochew </li></ul><ul><li>Cantonese </li></ul><ul><li>Hakka </li></ul><ul><li>Hainanese </li></ul><ul><li>Hockchia </li></ul><ul><li>Foochow </li></ul><ul><li>Henghua </li></ul><ul><li>Shanghainese </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Malay </li></ul><ul><li>“ Persons of Malay or Indonesian origin” </li></ul><ul><li>Javanese </li></ul><ul><li>Boyanese </li></ul><ul><li>Bugis </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian </li></ul><ul><li>“ Persons of Indian, Pakistani, Bangledeshi and Sri Lankan origin” </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil </li></ul><ul><li>Malayali </li></ul><ul><li>Punjabi </li></ul><ul><li>Bengali </li></ul><ul><li>Singhalese </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Ethnic Group </li></ul><ul><li>“ All persons other than Chinese, Malays and Indians” </li></ul><ul><li>Eurasians </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Census <ul><li>Singapore Census 1871 to 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting categories, shifting relationships between categories. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European? African? Chinese? Malay? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eurasian? Bugis? Hindoo? Tamil? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In each census, how would you categorize yourself? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Map <ul><li>Do maps show nations or create nations? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between maps and national identity? </li></ul>
    31. 31. Siam Mapped (Thongchai Winichakul, 1994)
    32. 32. Thai Buddhist Pilgrimage Map
    33. 33. “ History of Thailand’s Boundary”
    34. 34. “ Wake Up, Thai People”
    35. 35. The “Geo-body” of the Nation: Culturally Produced through Maps
    36. 36. Yao, Mien and Others <ul><li>Hjorleifur (“Leif”) Jonsson (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the “Yao” or “Mien”? </li></ul><ul><li>An ethno-linguistic group? </li></ul><ul><li>People within a feudal class hierarchy? </li></ul><ul><li>An ethnic group? </li></ul><ul><li>If their identity is defined in relationship to nation-states (Thailand, China, Laos, Vietnam), are they subjects of the state or not? </li></ul><ul><li>Jonsson’s point: Identities are relational not “indigenous” or “primordial” </li></ul>
    37. 37. Mapping other Identities
    38. 38. Museum <ul><li>Sites for interpreting and reinterpreting the past </li></ul><ul><li>National and other frameworks </li></ul>
    39. 39. Imagining Community <ul><li>Census, Map, Museum are Cultural and Practical means for Imagining Community. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagined Communities are not fictions . They are social and cultural realities. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Beyond Census, Map, Museum <ul><li>Census, Map, and Museum are just three practices, symbols and institutions that enable imagined communities. </li></ul><ul><li>What other practices, symbols or institutions that enable imagined communities? </li></ul><ul><li>How do these practices, symbols, institutions… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make us feel we are part of a community? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal to others that we are part of a community? </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Dilemmas of Race, Ethnicity, Nation <ul><li>Why do Race, Ethnicity & Nation seem so real in peoples lives, yet so arbitrary when we look at their history, politics and cultural construction? </li></ul>Race & Ethnicity Race/Ethnicity/ National Identity
    42. 42. Communities / Identities <ul><li>Identity = Personal relationship to a community. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond Race, Ethnicity, Race: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender, Sexuality, Kinship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class, Professional, Hobbies, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the point of reference ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different points of reference have different implications. . Racial, Ethnic, Gender, Professional Communities operate differently </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Questions: Is there an ASEAN community? Are you a citizen of ASEAN? The ASEAN Flag The Geo-body of a Region? Is ASEAN an Emergent Community?
    44. 44. Findings: Attitudes toward ASEAN <ul><li>ASEAN citizenship. Over 75% agreed: </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 90% felt that membership in ASEAN is beneficial to their nation and nearly 70 % felt it was beneficial to them personally </li></ul>“ I feel I am a citizen of ASEAN” Singapore Myanmar Least Agreement Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam Strongest Agreement
    45. 45. Nation-States as a Semantic Domain: Conceptualizing Relationships among Countries <ul><li>“ Countries” is a wide spread cultural concept (since the 19 th century). </li></ul><ul><li>In the contemporary world, people largely share this domain. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, people view the domain differently from different national (and other) perspectives. </li></ul>
    46. 46. PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS
    47. 47. PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS
    48. 48. PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS
    49. 49. PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS
    50. 50. Is Singapore part of Southeast Asia?
    51. 51. PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS CHINA TAIWAN JAPAN SOUTH KOREA NORTH KOREA
    52. 52. PHILIPPINES INDONESIA MALAYSIA THAILAND SINGAPORE BRUNEI VIETNAM MYANMAR CAMBODIA LAOS CHINA TAIWAN JAPAN SOUTH KOREA NORTH KOREA
    53. 53. Is Singapore part of Southeast Asia? <ul><li>Singapore is in Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Is Singapore of Southeast Asia? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for regional identity? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for international relations? </li></ul>
    54. 54. Final Thoughts… <ul><li>Community is created through … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We make our communities through imaginative practices and practical imagination. </li></ul>

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